De-icing fluid for ground handling of aircraft

 

Use: equipment ground de / anti-icing protection of aircraft under the conditions of their ground icing. The inventive liquid contains, wt%: glycol 6-20, glycerin 1,5-3,0, corrosion inhibitor 1,3-4,1, surfactant of 0.002 to 0.04), thickener 0,40-0,85, aqueous potassium acetate solution with a density of 1.12 to 1.3 g/cm3and pH 9-11 else. Preferably as a corrosion inhibitor fluid contains salts of phosphoric acid, sodium nitrite, sodium benzoate, liquid glass, triethanolamine. The technical result - the improvement of environmental safety while increasing the efficiency of removal of ice deposits and corrosion protection. 2 C.p. f-crystals, 5 PL.

The invention relates to equipment ground de / anti-icing protection of aircraft under the conditions of their ground icing.

From prior art it is known that the icing of the plane while on the ground differs from the in-flight icing. If in-flight ice is formed, as a rule, only in the frontal parts of the aircraft, on the ground, ice typically covers a large part of its surface: the entire upper part of the wings and empennage, and fuselage surface. Notah wing and empennage of the aircraft premature (at lower angles of attack) stall phenomena, that threatens during takeoff and climb a violation of the characteristics of stability and controllability of the aircraft, and the aircraft stalling (see O. K. Trunov. Security takeoff in icing conditions. M: GRIEGER, 1995, S. 17).

The main tools used in the world practice to protect the aircraft from ground icing, are de-icing fluid (LODGES), which provide as removing ice, snow, frost, frost and the prevention of their formation on the surface of the aircraft for some time. To PLEASE must meet the following basic requirements: - high efficiency of removal of all types of ground icing: icing, the solid (crystalline) bloom, frost, ice; the ability to protect the surface of the aircraft from ice formation in conditions of freezing precipitation (freezing rain, sleet, drizzle) for some time; - ability full reset (blow-off, draining liquid from the surface of the wing during the takeoff of aircraft speeds, large 160 km/h); - low energy consumption for pumping at low temperatures; - security handling (non-toxic); - have a minimum negative impact cf the greater part of the liquid flows down to the ground during handling of the aircraft or blown away from its surface by the wind. Remaining on the surface plane of the liquid necessarily cleared for take-off and spreads along the runway and then in flight.

De-icing fluid are divided into two types: type I and type II. From ECW type I do not want long-term protection of aircraft against re-icing after drenching the plane - he has only a few minutes up in the air, and when lifting reset AFTER together with the melted ice (snow, frost, and so on) on the ground. For the LATTER type I ordinary Newtonian.

From ECW type II requires a more long-term protection of the aircraft, a long standoff supercooled rain, temperatures, etc. For this purpose use is strongly thickened compositions with exotropia properties and non-Newtonian flow.

The present invention relates to the LATTER type I.

The greatest distribution found AFTER on the basis of ethylene glycol and diethylene glycol. Glycols are used to reduce the temperature of crystallization PLEASE and represent along with the water main components in a concentration of from 40 to 95 wt.%.

In table. 1 shows modern main technical specifications PLEASE type I.

Known anti-icing fluid for ground handling saliery thickener in the following ratio of components, wt.%: glycol, for example, ethylene glycol 50-95; thickener 1-5; the rest is water.

In the patent (RU-C1-2100398, 1997) described the de-icing fluid for ground handling of the aircraft on the basis of glycol and water, which as surfactants contains bansilalpet methyldiethanolamine derivatives diethylenglycol esters of fatty acids, as well as dvuhkamernyi phosphate of an alkali metal and stearic acid.

In the patent RU-C1-2141990, 1999 described anti-icing fluid for ground handling of the aircraft on the basis of glycol and water, which does not contain a thickener. The required viscosity of the liquid parameters were achieved through use as surface-active components of one non-ionic surfactants from the group of fatty alcohols and alkoxysilanes using low-molecular alkoxide fatty alcohols and one surfactant from the group of alkylarylsulfonates alkali metals.

The disadvantages of the above anti-icing fluids for ground handling of the aircraft are high toxicity caused by the use of ethylene glycol and diethylene glycol with a high content of glycols 40-95 wt.%, as well as high price as a prototype) corrosion inhibitors do not provide the highest level of inhibition of corrosion of metals, in particular aluminum alloys.

Existing, the most used AMPS on glycol antifreeze component have and technological shortcomings. "ARCTIC" when its use is not subject to dilution water (see O. K. Trunov. Security takeoff in icing conditions, M: GRIEGER, 1995), which makes it for this reason is not cheap: it is believed that the working fluid should have a crystallization temperature only at the 10oWith lower atmospheric air. With 80% ice situations happens in the region 0oC. after the name "ACTIFLO" can be diluted with water, but distilled (Recommendations for use). The latter makes this AFTER not practically feasible due to the lack of airfields hundreds of tons of distilled water.

The present invention is directed to the solution of a technical problem which consists in providing a significant increase of ecological safety, while increasing the efficiency of removal of ice deposits on the treated surfaces and the rate of inhibition of metals (steel, aluminum alloys, cadmium, zinc), as well as the reduction of its cost, in particular, through the use of cheaper antifreeze component, which is the AC is. Its use in conjunction with potassium acetate makes AFTER completely environmentally safe. Use propylene glycol in small quantities relatively more saguday AMPS compared to ethylene glycol, but within acceptable limits: PLEASE type I should have a viscosity not much more water. However, using only propylene glycol as antifreeze component due to high viscosity and cost of propylene glycol.

The advantage of the proposed de-icing fluid for ground handling of the aircraft before known (taken as a prototype) is that through the use of an aqueous solution of potassium acetate and significant (almost an order of magnitude) reduction in the content of glycols is provided not only high environmental safety (class IV hazard according to GOST 12.1.005-88 due to a significant decrease in the content and form of the glycols) and lower corrosivity.

The task of improving environmental and cheaper AFTER I type through use of an aqueous solution of potassium acetate (50 percent aqueous solution has a temperature of crystallization -60oC) could only be solved after the found technology is olivem composition, "efflorescence" when drying, blow-off, temperature change and so on, as the presence of different texture to streamline the air the aircraft structure reduces its aerodynamic characteristics.

To solve the problem in the formulation AFTER should be introduced liquid organic components that would: 1. To have greater solubility and fully absorb (to absorb) inorganic salt content of antifreeze and inhibitor part-M; 2. Because of the low volatility to be not only non-drying, but also hygroscopic; 3. By their nature, additionally possess the structure or any abscopal properties.

In the result of the research requirements 1-3 in different least meet the following agents: glycols, glycerin, triethanolamine, which are included in the formulation AFTER.

The warranty excludes the appearance of the so-called "efflorescence", provided the following two series of experiments.

1. Tried the above liquid substances, wt.%: glycols 6-20, glycerin 1,5-3,0, triethanolamine 0,14-0,5 and without it, where (in dry form) was introduced components that could be antifreeze, inhibitors of metals existing in a dry, wt.%: potassium acetate to 50, centripetal 0,7-1,54, three of the attachment complex of dry ingredients in the above liquid composition in all cases (without water, which is usually AFTER approximately 50 wt. %) was formed liquid opaque rolling stock. When applying them on a hard surface with a thin layer they quickly increased mobility due to the absorption of water from the air due to, primarily, the hygroscopic potassium acetate, which is also a potent inhibitor of the corrosion of aluminum.

With the introduction of opaque liquid compositions containing only 10 wt.% water, which corresponds almost unreal (low) humidity (10%), liquids become transparent rolling stock, easily blown off hard surfaces.

2. De-icing fluid of the following composition, wt.%:
- glycol 6-20
- glycerol, 1,5-3,0
- SAS /neonol, shampoo, etc./ a 0.002-0.04
- corrosion inhibitors (listed above) from 1.3 to 4.1
- thickener /alfacell, acrylic resin, etc./ 0,4-0,85
aqueous potassium acetate solution with a density of 1.12 to 1.3 g/cm3and pH 9-11 - the rest,
deposited on the bottom of the Petri dish, angled 45oto the horizontal at t=20oC and -15oWith, it was blown away by air (simulating the motion of an airplane) with a speed of 60 km/h Under the influence of gravitational forces AFTER the drain, forming a height different thickness plank what anoniem thickness of the liquid film. The process of handling aircraft up to its rise in the use of AFTER type I is measured in minutes.

The experiments showed a practical solution to a technical problem - guaranteed no salt "efflorescence" PLEASE, where the main role of antifreeze plays an environmentally friendly salt composition - an aqueous solution of potassium acetate.

Potassium acetate has not (unlike nitrates) oxidizing properties, less corrosive than the solutions of chlorides, and unlike glycols are environmentally safe.

Potassium acetate has a high capacity for complete biodegradation. The period of complete decomposition in nature is 28 days. Potassium acetate has no negative effects on the biological media reservoirs due to the fact that the destruction caused acetates takes place without the formation of ammonium and, consequently, is not toxic to fish. The first de-icing reagent for runways of airfields Europe was awarded a Gold medal.

In the proposed liquid antifreeze component is (unlike the prototype) aqueous solution of potassium acetate. The presence in the proposed liquid advanced organic components (propylene glycols, and/or monoethylene glycol, and/Yarmolnik temperatures and absorbent salt components of the LATTER, allowed to obtain a technical result, which does not follow from the prior art, namely in the case of evaporation (hypothetically) of water on the treated surface does not form salt deposits ("efflorescence"), which will inevitably lead to changes in the aerodynamic parameters of the aircraft, particularly during take-off.

With regard to the proposed content in the de-icing fluid for ground handling of the aircraft glycols, surfactants, glycerin and corrosion inhibitors for ferrous and non-ferrous metals, thickener, the upper and lower limits of the content of the above components were determined on the basis of statistical processing of a large number of experimental results, achieving the desired viscosity, antifreeze and anti-corrosive properties.

The task in the field of ecology decided that de-icing fluid for ground handling of aircraft, including at least one glycol and corrosion inhibitors according to the invention further comprises an aqueous solution of potassium acetate with a density of 1.12 to 1.3 g/cm3and pH 9-11, glycerin, surfactant, thickener, as it contains glycol or propylene glycol or Meg, or diethyleneglycol corrosion 1,3-4,1, Surfactants of 0.002 to 0.04), thickener 0.4 to 0.85 are aqueous potassium acetate solution with a density of 1.12 to 1.3 g/cm3and pH 9-11 - the rest. As corrosion inhibitors anti-icing fluid contains salts of phosphoric acid: centripetal 0,69-1,5, trisodium phosphate and 0.2-0,64, sodium nitrite 0,01-0,06, sodium benzoate 0.2 to 1.0, liquid glass 0,2-0,9.

In the preferred embodiment, as corrosion inhibitors anti-icing fluid contains salts of phosphoric acid: centripetal 0,7-1,54, trisodium phosphate 0.1 to 0.4, sodium nitrite 0,01-0,06, sodium benzoate 0.25 to 0.7 and liquid glass of 0.1-0.9, triethanolamine 0,14-0,5.

Due to the presence of the proposed de-icing fluid for ground handling of the aircraft propylene glycol, and/or monoethylene glycol and/or diethylene glycol and/or triethylene glycol, glycerin, surfactant, thickener managed (if the above ratio of components) to provide such strukturirovannosti and film-forming properties of liquids, which, on the one hand, provide (in the temperature range from 0 to -10o(C) on the treated surfaces of the protective liquid film thickness from 50 to 15 μm in the range of 15-60othe angles of the workpiece surface relative to the horizontal plane, and z type I has a low viscosity (see table.3) and the usual Newtonian flow, which guarantees its deflation during takeoff. Liquid without thickener has a viscosity at 20oC only 4,8...5.1 Centistokes and does not provide the necessary film thickness of the liquid/reagent 1 m2the treated surface/ and therefore the melting of the thick layers of frost or ice. Moreover, dense reagents longer linger on inclined surfaces.

The above data on the thickness of the films AFTER different angles, made the all-Union Institute of aviation materials, indirectly confirm the assertion that the proposed solution provides protection against re-icing level (not below) the existing AMPS. The standard time data protection of structures against re-icing (for a very short time, measured in minutes) in the modern world get on a special installation, Toronto (Canada).

We stated more effective removal of loulouni is achieved due to the lower temperature of crystallization and the exothermic effect of the ice is dissolved in an aqueous solution of potassium acetate.

In table.2 shows comparative preplasma the ability is placed ice proposed structure exceeds the average of 2 times. The method of determining the melt abilities AMPS is that in 100 ml of water in the form of ice filled with 30 ml AMPS. The resulting liquid is periodically drained and the amount of melted ice /ml/. In these trials used a liquid with a density of= 1.28 g/cm3pH of 10.5, 0.4 wt.% salvatella, 0,006% of neonols, 9% of ethylene glycol, 2.5% glycerol and inhibitors on p. 3 claims.

In table.3 shows the physico-chemical properties declared the LATTER, from which it follows that its temperature and other characteristics meet all the requirements, and the main operating temperatures are within the normal dilution with fresh water 1: 1 and 1:2, as the bulk ice situations is in the region 0oC.

The use of antifreeze in part AFTER the salt composition demanded a careful selection of corrosion inhibitors, especially as inhibitors also perform other functions (absorbers, structural components and other ).

In table. 4 shows the structures adopted inhibitor compositions, providing surfactant sufficiently high anti-corrosive properties (see tab.5). Choosing inhibitor complex is dictated as cost considerations the component to the fluid for ground handling of the aircraft) are obtained according to p. 1 of the Patent of the Russian Federation 2142491 "a method of obtaining a de-icing liquid composition when the difference in the list of input in the production process of water-soluble additives.

The main component of the reagent mass content of potassium acetate is in the country has a large resource base and mastered in large-tonnage production of de-icing fluid for runways of airfields in Russia, CIS and Baltic countries on the above-mentioned patent Orlov, C. A. and license agreement with registration 11553/2000. Based on three years of experience in the production and use of liquid acetate deicing funds offered to us fluid for ground handling of the aircraft industry applicable.


Claims

1. De-icing fluid for ground handling of aircraft, including at least one kind of glycol and corrosion inhibitors, characterized in that it further comprises an aqueous solution of potassium acetate with a density of 1.12 to 1.3 g/cm3and pH 9-11, glycerin, surfactant, thickener, as it contains glycol propylene-, mono-, di-or triethylene glycol or a mixture in the following ratio, wt.%:

CH is ostial 0,40-0,85

An aqueous solution of the acetate

potassium density

1,12-1,3 g/cm3and pH 9-11 Else

2. De-icing fluid under item 1, characterized in that as corrosion inhibitors, it contains salts of phosphoric acid, sodium nitrite, sodium benzoate and liquid glass in the following ratio, wt.%:

Centripetal 0,69-1,5

Trisodium phosphate 0,20-0,64

Sodium nitrite 0,01-0,06

Sodium benzoate 0.2 to 1.0

Liquid glass 0,2-0,9

3. De-icing fluid under item 1, characterized in that as corrosion inhibitors, it contains salts of phosphoric acid, sodium nitrite, sodium benzoate, liquid glass, triethanolamine, in the following ratio, wt.%:

Centripetal 0,7-1,54

Trisodium phosphate 0,1-0,4

Sodium nitrite 0,01-0,06

Sodium benzoate 0.25 to 0.7 and

Liquid glass 0,1-0,9

Triethanolamine 0,14-0,5

 

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