Method step catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons

 

The invention relates to a method of converting hydrocarbons and can be used in the chemical and petrochemical industry to produce synthesis gas and technical hydrogen. Method step catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons involves its conversion in the first stage in the presence of water vapor with subsequent conversion of the products obtained in the presence of oxygen-containing gas. On the logon ratio of steam : carbon hydrocarbon is 8-11:1, the process of catalytic conversion is carried out in adiabatic conditions in three stages and between the first two stages provide compression of intermediate products. The method allows to reduce the consumption of hydrocarbons, used as fuel, to reduce the maximum temperature conversion stage using oxygen-containing gas, to reduce the dimensions and material of the catalytic reactors. 1 Il.

The invention relates to a method of converting hydrocarbons and can be used in the chemical and petrochemical industry to produce synthesis gas and technical hydrogen.

The known method of two-stage cdow in tube furnaces with heating of the reaction tubes by heat, which is released during the combustion of fuel, such as hydrocarbon. At the second stage, carry out the conversion in the shaft reactor in the presence of oxygen-containing gas at a temperature of 1000-1300o(Production of ammonia. Edited by B. N. Semenov. - M.: Chemistry, 1985. 368 S.).

The consumption of hydrocarbons as fuel in this way is about 38% of the total consumption of hydrocarbons. The reaction tubes are made of expensive heat-resistant steel. During the reaction of steam reforming of hydrocarbons results in large temperature gradients between the gas stream and the outer surface of the reaction tube, and the catalyst layer from the inner wall of the pipe to its center, which leads to an increase in the number of tubes, length and volume of the catalyst.

The closest technical solution to the proposed method is two-stage catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons by turning it on the first stage in the presence of water vapor with subsequent transformation of the products obtained at the second stage in the presence of oxygen-containing gas, which consists in the fact that the transformation of raw material at the first stage is carried out in a tubular reactor-heat exchanger due to third raw materials, equal to 0,4-0,45:1. On the logon value pairs : the carbon raw material is 2-3:1 (USSR Author's certificate 784148; CL From 01 To 3/16, 1977).

However, the only way to 77.5-80.0% of hydrocarbon consumed as a chemical feedstock to produce hydrogen and about to 20.0-22.5 per cent is consumed as fuel in the high ratio of oxygen : carbon in the second stage of the conversion. Used a tubular reactor-heat exchanger has a bulky design with a counter-current movement of the convertible mixture through pipes and cooled products of conversion in the annular space.

The task of the invention is to reduce the consumption of hydrocarbons, used as fuel.

The problem is solved by way of step catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons, including his conversion on the first stage in the presence of water vapor with subsequent conversion of the products obtained in the presence of oxygen-containing gas, which consists in the fact that the log ratio of steam : carbon hydrocarbon is 8-11: 1, the process of catalytic conversion is carried out in adiabatic conditions in three stages and between the first two stages of the implementation of the ionic mixture, that allows the use of simpler and more compact reactors through which moves only the gas flow. The cost of work on the compression of the intermediate products of the first stage is compensated regenerative turbine, which produces the expansion of hot gases after the third stage of conversion. The main source of energy for endothermic reaction conversion is the energy difference between the flow of water vapor medium capacity exceeding the amount of hydrocarbons in the logon 8-11 times, and given up by the steam flow to the low potential. Due to this, at the stage of use of the oxygen-containing gas, the ratio of oxygen : carbon raw materials reduced to 0.075 to 0.13, which leads to the resulting decrease in the share of consumption of hydrocarbons as fuel to 7.5-13%.

The proposed method is carried out according to the scheme (drawing) in the following way. The mixture of natural gas with steam fed through the heat exchanger F in the reactor And on the first step of the conversion. This is followed by compression of the mixture in the compressor, after which it enters the reactor in the second stage. On the third level in the reactor D, serves a mixture of the second stage and the oxygen-containing gas. Obtained after three what about the ether.

The method is as follows.

Example 1. The system serves a mixture of water vapor from methane in a molar ratio of 11:1 at a temperature of 265oC and a pressure of 6.9 MPa. After the heat exchanger, the mixture is fed to the first stage catalytic conversion at a temperature of 735oC. the Degree of methane conversion (the percentage conversion of methane into hydrogen and carbon monoxide) in the first phase lead up to 59%. This is followed by compression of the mixture to a pressure of 23 MPa and temperature 785oC. At the second stage conversion lead up to 84%. On the third step serves a mixture of the second stage and the oxygen-containing gas in a ratio of molecular oxygen : carbon raw material, equal 0,26: 1. At the third stage the temperature is increased to 860oAnd the conversion is brought up to 99.6%. The consumption of methane as a fuel is 13% of total consumption.

Example 2. The system serves a mixture of water vapor from natural gas in a molar ratio of steam : carbon raw material is 10:1 at a temperature of 265oC and a pressure of 6.9 MPa. After the heat exchanger, the mixture is fed to the first stage catalytic conversion at a temperature of 735oC. methane Conversion in the first stage is brought to 55%. This is followed by compression of the mixture to a pressure of 23 MPa and temperature 785oC. the second is the rate of molecular oxygen : carbon raw material, equal 0,26:1. At the third stage the temperature is increased to 850oWith, and conversion lead to 99.4%. Consumption of natural gas as fuel consumption is 13.6% of the total consumption.

Example 3. The system serves a mixture of water vapor from natural gas in a molar ratio of steam : carbon feedstock 8:1 at a temperature of 455oC and a pressure of 12 ATM. After the heat exchanger, the mixture is fed to the first stage catalytic conversion at a temperature of 925oC. methane Conversion in the first stage lead up to 67%. This is followed by compression of the mixture to a pressure of 50 ATM and a temperature of 970oC. At the second stage conversion lead up to 91%. On the third step serves a mixture of the second stage and the oxygen-containing gas in a ratio of molecular oxygen : carbon raw material, equal to 0.15:1. At the third stage the temperature is increased to 970oAnd the conversion rate was adjusted to 99.1%. Consumption of natural gas as fuel consumption is 7.5% of the total consumption.

Advantages of the proposed method are: reduction of the consumption of hydrocarbons, used as fuel; reduction of the maximum temperature conversion stage using oxygen-containing gas; reducing the size and material of the catalytic reactors.

 

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