Method step catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons
The invention relates to a method of converting hydrocarbons and can be used in the chemical and petrochemical industry to produce synthesis gas and technical hydrogen. Method step catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons involves its conversion in the first stage in the presence of water vapor with subsequent conversion of the products obtained in the presence of oxygen-containing gas. On the logon ratio of steam : carbon hydrocarbon is 8-11:1, the process of catalytic conversion is carried out in adiabatic conditions in three stages and between the first two stages provide compression of intermediate products. The method allows to reduce the consumption of hydrocarbons, used as fuel, to reduce the maximum temperature conversion stage using oxygen-containing gas, to reduce the dimensions and material of the catalytic reactors. 1 Il. The invention relates to a method of converting hydrocarbons and can be used in the chemical and petrochemical industry to produce synthesis gas and technical hydrogen.The known method of two-stage cdow in tube furnaces with heating of the reaction tubes by heat, which is released during the combustion of fuel, such as hydrocarbon. At the second stage, carry out the conversion in the shaft reactor in the presence of oxygen-containing gas at a temperature of 1000-1300o(Production of ammonia. Edited by B. N. Semenov. - M.: Chemistry, 1985. 368 S.).The consumption of hydrocarbons as fuel in this way is about 38% of the total consumption of hydrocarbons. The reaction tubes are made of expensive heat-resistant steel. During the reaction of steam reforming of hydrocarbons results in large temperature gradients between the gas stream and the outer surface of the reaction tube, and the catalyst layer from the inner wall of the pipe to its center, which leads to an increase in the number of tubes, length and volume of the catalyst.The closest technical solution to the proposed method is two-stage catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons by turning it on the first stage in the presence of water vapor with subsequent transformation of the products obtained at the second stage in the presence of oxygen-containing gas, which consists in the fact that the transformation of raw material at the first stage is carried out in a tubular reactor-heat exchanger due to third raw materials, equal to 0,4-0,45:1. On the logon value pairs : the carbon raw material is 2-3:1 (USSR Author's certificate 784148; CL From 01 To 3/16, 1977).However, the only way to 77.5-80.0% of hydrocarbon consumed as a chemical feedstock to produce hydrogen and about to 20.0-22.5 per cent is consumed as fuel in the high ratio of oxygen : carbon in the second stage of the conversion. Used a tubular reactor-heat exchanger has a bulky design with a counter-current movement of the convertible mixture through pipes and cooled products of conversion in the annular space.The task of the invention is to reduce the consumption of hydrocarbons, used as fuel.The problem is solved by way of step catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons, including his conversion on the first stage in the presence of water vapor with subsequent conversion of the products obtained in the presence of oxygen-containing gas, which consists in the fact that the log ratio of steam : carbon hydrocarbon is 8-11: 1, the process of catalytic conversion is carried out in adiabatic conditions in three stages and between the first two stages of the implementation of the ionic mixture, that allows the use of simpler and more compact reactors through which moves only the gas flow. The cost of work on the compression of the intermediate products of the first stage is compensated regenerative turbine, which produces the expansion of hot gases after the third stage of conversion. The main source of energy for endothermic reaction conversion is the energy difference between the flow of water vapor medium capacity exceeding the amount of hydrocarbons in the logon 8-11 times, and given up by the steam flow to the low potential. Due to this, at the stage of use of the oxygen-containing gas, the ratio of oxygen : carbon raw materials reduced to 0.075 to 0.13, which leads to the resulting decrease in the share of consumption of hydrocarbons as fuel to 7.5-13%.The proposed method is carried out according to the scheme (drawing) in the following way. The mixture of natural gas with steam fed through the heat exchanger F in the reactor And on the first step of the conversion. This is followed by compression of the mixture in the compressor, after which it enters the reactor in the second stage. On the third level in the reactor D, serves a mixture of the second stage and the oxygen-containing gas. Obtained after three what about the ether.The method is as follows.Example 1. The system serves a mixture of water vapor from methane in a molar ratio of 11:1 at a temperature of 265oC and a pressure of 6.9 MPa. After the heat exchanger, the mixture is fed to the first stage catalytic conversion at a temperature of 735oC. the Degree of methane conversion (the percentage conversion of methane into hydrogen and carbon monoxide) in the first phase lead up to 59%. This is followed by compression of the mixture to a pressure of 23 MPa and temperature 785oC. At the second stage conversion lead up to 84%. On the third step serves a mixture of the second stage and the oxygen-containing gas in a ratio of molecular oxygen : carbon raw material, equal 0,26: 1. At the third stage the temperature is increased to 860oAnd the conversion is brought up to 99.6%. The consumption of methane as a fuel is 13% of total consumption.Example 2. The system serves a mixture of water vapor from natural gas in a molar ratio of steam : carbon raw material is 10:1 at a temperature of 265oC and a pressure of 6.9 MPa. After the heat exchanger, the mixture is fed to the first stage catalytic conversion at a temperature of 735oC. methane Conversion in the first stage is brought to 55%. This is followed by compression of the mixture to a pressure of 23 MPa and temperature 785oC. the second is the rate of molecular oxygen : carbon raw material, equal 0,26:1. At the third stage the temperature is increased to 850oWith, and conversion lead to 99.4%. Consumption of natural gas as fuel consumption is 13.6% of the total consumption.Example 3. The system serves a mixture of water vapor from natural gas in a molar ratio of steam : carbon feedstock 8:1 at a temperature of 455oC and a pressure of 12 ATM. After the heat exchanger, the mixture is fed to the first stage catalytic conversion at a temperature of 925oC. methane Conversion in the first stage lead up to 67%. This is followed by compression of the mixture to a pressure of 50 ATM and a temperature of 970oC. At the second stage conversion lead up to 91%. On the third step serves a mixture of the second stage and the oxygen-containing gas in a ratio of molecular oxygen : carbon raw material, equal to 0.15:1. At the third stage the temperature is increased to 970oAnd the conversion rate was adjusted to 99.1%. Consumption of natural gas as fuel consumption is 7.5% of the total consumption.Advantages of the proposed method are: reduction of the consumption of hydrocarbons, used as fuel; reduction of the maximum temperature conversion stage using oxygen-containing gas; reducing the size and material of the catalytic reactors.
FIELD: hydrocarbon conversion catalysts.
SUBSTANCE: catalyst for generation of synthesis gas via catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons is a complex composite composed of ceramic matrix and, dispersed throughout the matrix, coarse particles of a material and their aggregates in amounts from 0.5 to 70% by weight. Catalyst comprises system of parallel and/or crossing channels. Dispersed material is selected from rare-earth and transition metal oxides, and mixtures thereof, metals and alloys thereof, period 4 metal carbides, and mixtures thereof, which differ from the matrix in what concerns both composition and structure. Preparation procedure comprises providing homogenous mass containing caking-able ceramic matrix material and material to be dispersed, appropriately shaping the mass, and heat treatment. Material to be dispersed are powders containing metallic aluminum. Homogenous mass is used for impregnation of fibrous and/or woven materials forming on caking system of parallel and/or perpendicularly crossing channels. Before heat treatment, shaped mass is preliminarily treated under hydrothermal conditions.
EFFECT: increased resistance of catalyst to thermal impacts with sufficiently high specific surface and activity retained.
4 cl, 1 tbl, 8 ex
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method includes searching for continental or oceanic rift generation zones, supported by abnormal mantle with output of substance branches to earth crust. Drilling of wells by turbodrills into mantle substance. After well enters mantle substance a reaction hollow is formed in it by putting together force and product wells or by expanding force and/or product wells. Water is pumped into force well and gas-like hydrogen is outputted to surface through product well forming during reaction of inter-metallic substances fro mantle substance to water. Water is fed in amount, adjusting output of hydrogen, while reaction surface of reaction hollow is periodically regenerated, for example, by high pressure water flow, supplied through jets in reaction hollow, on remotely controlled manipulators. Expansion of well may be performed via explosions of explosive substances charges, and it is possible to separate forming gaseous hydrogen and water steam by separator mounted therein.
EFFECT: higher effectiveness of hydrogen production.
FIELD: alternative fuel production and catalysts.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to (i) generation of synthesis gas useful in large-scale chemical processes via catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons in presence of oxygen-containing components and to (ii) catalysts used in this process. Catalyst represents composite including mixed oxide, simple oxide, transition element and/or precious element, carrier composed of alumina-based ceramic matrix, and a material consisting of coarse particles or aggregates of particles dispersed throughout the matrix. Catalyst has system of parallel and/or crossing channels. Catalyst preparation method and synthesis gas generation method utilizing indicated catalyst are as well described.
EFFECT: enabled preparation of cellular-structure catalyst with high specific surface area, which is effective at small contact times in reaction of selective catalytic oxidation of hydrocarbons.
6 cl, 2 tbl, 16 ex
FIELD: autothermal catalytic reforming of hydrocarbon feed stream.
SUBSTANCE: method relates to method for reforming of hydrocarbon feed stream with water steam at elevated temperature to produce gas enriched with hydrogen and/or carbon oxide. Hydrocarbon stream is passed through water steam reforming catalyst bed wherein oxygen is fed through oxygen-permeable membrane followed by removing of finished product from this bed. Said catalyst bed contains in input region catalyst with reduced or without water steam reforming activity, but having hydrocarbon feed oxidation activity.
EFFECT: process with improved characteristics due to temperature controlling in reactor.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: alternate fuel manufacture catalysts.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to generation of synthesis gas employed in large-scale chemical processes such as synthesis of ammonia, methanol, higher alcohols and aldehydes, in Fischer-Tropsch process, and the like, as reducing gas in ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy, metalworking, and on gas emission detoxification plants. Synthesis gas is obtained via catalytic conversion of mixture containing hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon mixture and oxygen-containing component. Catalyst is a complex composite containing mixed oxide, simple oxide, transition and/or precious element. Catalyst comprises metal-based carrier representing either layered ceramics-metal material containing nonporous or low-porosity oxide coating, ratio of thickness of metallic base to that of above-mentioned oxide coating ranging from 10:1 to 1:5, or ceramics-metal material containing nonporous or low-porosity oxide coating and high-porosity oxide layer, ratio of thickness of metallic base to that of nonporous or low-porosity oxide coating ranging from 10:1 to 1:5 and ratio of metallic base thickness to that of high-porosity oxide layer from 1:10 to 1:5. Catalyst is prepared by applying active components onto carrier followed by drying and calcination.
EFFECT: increased heat resistance and efficiency of catalyst at short contact thereof with reaction mixture.
13 cl, 2 tbl, 17 ex
FIELD: electric power and chemical industries; methods of production of the electric power and liquid synthetic fuel.
SUBSTANCE: the invention presents a combined method of production of the electric power and liquid synthetic fuel with use of the gas turbine and steam-gaseous installations and is dealt with the field of electric power and chemical industries. The method provides for the partial oxidation of hydrocarbon fuel in a stream of the compressed air taken from the high-pressure compressor of the gas turbine installation with its consequent additional compression, production of a synthesis gas, its cooling and ecological purification, feeding of the produced synthesis gas in a single-pass reactor of a synthesis of a liquid synthetic fuel with the partial transformation of the synthesis gas into a liquid fuel. The power gas left in the reactor of synthesis of liquid synthetic fuel is removed into the combustion chamber of the gas-turbine installation. At that the degree of conversion of the synthesis gas is chosen from the condition of maintenance of the working medium temperature at the inlet of the gas turbine depending on the type of the gas-turbine installation used for production of the electric power, and the consequent additional compression of the air taken from the high-pressure compressor of the gas-turbine installation is realized with the help of the gas-expansion machine powered by a power gas heated at the expense of the synthesis gas cooling before the reactor of synthesis. The invention allows simultaneously produce electric power and synthetic liquid fuels.
EFFECT: the invention ensures simultaneous production of electric power and synthetic liquid fuels.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: petrochemical industry.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with petrochemical industry, in particular with a method of catalytic preliminary reforming of the hydrocarbon raw materials containing higher hydrocarbons. The method provides for the indicated hydrocarbon raw materials gating through a zone of a catalyst representing a fixed layer containing a noble metal on magnesia oxide (MgO) and-or spinel oxide (MgAl2O4) at presence of oxygen and water steam. The technical result is a decrease of a carbon share on the catalyst.
EFFECT: the invention allows to decrease a carbon share on the catalyst.
3 cl, 2 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: technology for production of methanol from syngas.
SUBSTANCE: claimed method includes mixing of hydrocarbon raw material with water steam to provide syngas by steam conversion of hydrocarbon raw material and subsequent methanol synthesis therefrom. Conversion of hydrocarbon raw material and methanol synthesis are carried out under the same pressure from 4.0 to 12.0 MPa. In one embodiment hydrocarbon raw material is mixed with water steam and carbon dioxide to provide syngas by steam/carbonic acid conversion of hydrocarbon raw material in radial-helical reactor followed by methanol synthesis therefrom under the same pressure (from 4.0 to 12.0 MPa). In each embodiment methanol synthesis is carried out in isothermal catalytic radial-helical reactor using fine-grained catalyst with grain size of 1-5 mm. Methanol synthesis is preferably carried out in two steps with or without syngas circulation followed by feeding gas from the first or second step into gasmain or power plant.
EFFECT: simplified method due to process optimization.
12 cl, 3 tbl, 3 dwg
FIELD: methods of production a synthesis gas.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the process of production of hydrogen and carbon oxide, which mixture is used to be called a synthesis gas, by a selective catalytic oxidation of the hydrocarbonaceous (organic) raw material in presence of the oxygen-containing gases. The method of production of the synthesis gas includes a contacting with a catalyst at a gas hourly volumetric speed equal to 10000-10000000 h-1, a mixture containing organic raw material and oxygen or an oxygen-containing gas in amounts ensuring the ratio of oxygen and carbon of no less than 0.3. At that the process is conducted at a linear speed of the gas mixture of no less than 2.2 · 10-11 · (T1 + 273)4 / (500-T2) nanometer / s, where: T1 - a maximum temperature of the catalyst, T2 - a temperature of the gas mixture fed to the contacting. The linear speed of the gas mixture is, preferably, in the interval of 0.2-7 m\s. The temperature of the gas mixture fed to the contacting is within the interval of 100-450°C. The maximum temperature of the catalyst is within the interval of 650-1500°C. The technical effect is a safe realization of the process.
EFFECT: the invention ensures a safe realization of the process.
10 cl, 5 ex
FIELD: chemical industry; petrochemical industry; oil refining industry and other industries; methods of production a synthesis gas.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of the methods of production of a synthesis of gas and may be used in chemical, petrochemical, oil refining and other industries. The method of production of synthesis gas using a vapor or a vapor-carbon dioxide conversion of a hydrocarbonaceous raw material provides for purification of the hydrocarbonaceous raw material from sulfuric compounds, its commixing with steam or with steam and carbon dioxide with formation of a steam-gas mixture. The catalytic conversion of the steam-gas mixture is conducted in a reactor of a radially-spiral type, in which in the ring-shaped space filled with a nickel catalyst with a size of granules of 0.2-7 mm there are the hollow spiral-shaped walls forming the spiral-shaped channels having a constant cross section for conveyance of a stream of the steam-gaseous blend in an axial or in a radially-spiral direction. At that into the cavities of the walls feed a heat-transfer agent to supply a heat into the zone of reaction. The invention ensures intensification the process.
EFFECT: invention ensures intensification the process.
4 cl, 4 dwg, 2 tbl, 3 ex