The method of partial oxidation of hydrocarbons and designed for its implementation burner

 

The invention relates to a method for partial oxidation of hydrocarbons and gaseous mixtures containing hydrogen and carbon monoxide. The method of partial oxidation of hydrocarbons is that the stream containing the hydrocarbon gas and a stream containing free oxygen gas, is fed into the reaction chamber. It includes the following stages: mixing the first part of the stream containing free oxygen gas and its interaction with the first gas stream containing gaseous reaction products circulating within the reaction chamber, the mixture in the reaction chamber of the second part of the stream containing free oxygen gas stream containing a hydrocarbon gas with getting the gas stream containing hydrocarbons and free oxygen, which at least partially mixed with each other, mixing of the gas stream containing hydrocarbons and free oxygen, which at least partially mixed with each other, and its interaction with the second gas stream, containing gaseous reaction products circulating within the reaction chamber, receiving a gas stream containing hydrogen and carbon monoxide. The way lways;">

The present invention relates to a method for partial oxidation of hydrocarbons and gaseous mixtures containing hydrogen and carbon monoxide, such as synthesis gas and fuel or regenerating gas.

The present invention particularly relates to a method of partial oxidation, which comprises the following stages: - a feed stream containing a hydrocarbon gas into the reaction chamber and a feed stream containing free oxygen gas in the reaction chamber.

In the description and the claims under the "hydrocarbon" ("hydrocarbons") refers to light and/or heavy saturated and/or unsaturated hydrocarbon or mixture of hydrocarbons (e.g., With1-C6); "stream containing hydrocarbon gas" refers to the fluid containing gaseous hydrocarbons, such as methane or natural gas, or a gas stream containing suspended therein a solid fuel (e.g. coal dust or black carbon), or the gas flow containing dispersed liquid hydrocarbons (for example, such light or heavy hydrocarbons like naphtha or fuel oil).

In the technique of the stream of gas containing suspended liquid uglevodoroy usually "smoke."

In the invention it is also proposed burner, designed to implement the above method.

As you know, in industry, in which methods are used for partial oxidation of hydrocarbons, there is an increasing need to establish ways to increase the output of products, simple from the point of view of its practical implementation and more efficient in terms of cost and power consumption.

Taking into account the above requirements in recent years have been developed various methods for partial oxidation, whereby with the goal of significantly reducing the amount of oxygen consumed and more efficient production of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, the oxidation reaction is carried out at a relatively low temperature of about 1300oC.

In one of these ways, which are described, for example, in EP-A 0276538, the stream containing the hydrocarbon gas is first mixed with the obtained beforehand with a solution containing coal soot, and then, after evaporation of a solution of water mixed at a temperature of 927-1316oWith oxygen in the reaction chamber in which the combustion process receive the hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

what also helps reduce the number supplied to the reaction chamber oxygen, he nevertheless has a number of the following disadvantages.

The main disadvantage of this method is that generated in the immediate vicinity of the burner coal soot when occurring in the reaction chamber of the pyrolysis of the hydrocarbon comes into contact and mixed with the hot gases circulating inside the chamber, before the formation of the corresponding mixture of soot with oxygen.

This method of getting soot has significant disadvantages, which are that for the separation of soot obtained from the reaction products and feed back into the reaction chamber it is necessary to conduct a number of operations that require a large amount of energy, which, obviously, complicates the entire installation for implementing this method and involve significant capital investment and high operating costs.

Furthermore, the inside of the reaction chamber coal soot even when full gasification of the whole number of the received and returned to the reaction chamber soot reduces the overall yield of the process of partial oxidation and reduces the amount of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, which can be obtained per unit combusted in the chamber of the hydrocarbon.

On the other hand, Izv very high temperature in the reaction chamber (about 1400oC), and hence the high consumption of oxygen and a low rate of conversion, as described, for example, in EP-A 0276538, page 2, lines 6-13.

In addition, installing, working on such methods also have shortcomings lies in the relative complexity of their changeover, inability to work in the face of large changes in the quantity supplied to the reaction chamber of the reactants and, as a consequence, potential disruptions or an accelerated formation of soot.

Considering all these limitations, the practical realization of the known methods for partial oxidation of hydrocarbons requires significant investments that significantly affects the value received on units as end-products of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, the need for which at present is constantly growing. In addition, known methods for partial oxidation of hydrocarbons cannot satisfactorily solve the problem of the strict requirements in respect of complete combustion of hydrocarbons produced as waste in the oil industry in the distillation of petroleum.

The technical problem to be solved by the present invention is directed, is to have robledal would be high performance and would allow us to obtain large quantities of hydrogen and carbon monoxide per unit combusted hydrocarbon and at the same time would allow low temperature partial oxidation significantly reduce the number of produced coal soot, would have a high degree of flexibility in the work and would be easy to implement with low energy consumption and low operating costs.

In accordance with the present invention this problem is solved with the help of its proposed method, which differs from the above method that additionally includes the following stages: - mixing of the first part of the stream containing free oxygen gas, and its interaction with the first gas stream containing gaseous reaction products circulating within the reaction chamber, mixing the second portion of the stream containing free oxygen gas stream containing a hydrocarbon gas into the reaction chamber to receive the gas stream containing hydrocarbons and free oxygen, which at least partially mixed with each other, - mixing of the gas stream containing hydrocarbons and free oxygen, which at least partially mixed with each other, and its interaction with the second gas stream containing gaseous reaction products circulating within the reaction chamber, receiving a gas stream containing hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

In the description and the claims under the "pre gas, in which in addition to the products of incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons, i.e. CO and H2contains H2O CO2traces of hydrocarbons, H2S, and possibly N2and Ah.

An advantage of the present invention is the possibility of a significant increase in comparison with the known methods the number of hydrogen and carbon monoxide produced per unit combusted hydrocarbons.

In fact, thanks to offer in the present invention the mixing part of the stream containing free oxygen gas stream containing hydrocarbons of the gas inside the reaction chamber before the stream containing the hydrocarbon gas will come into contact with hot gases circulating inside the reaction chamber, can be almost completely or at least substantially reduce the amount of coal soot formed during the subsequent combustion of hydrocarbons.

In this case, the influence of coal soot on the conversion yield of hydrocarbons in the reaction chamber will be either very small, or even zero, which, obviously, creates optimal conditions for hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

It should be noted that during partial oxidation oglivie coal soot, if coming to the reaction chamber, the gas stream contains gaseous hydrocarbons, or to minimize it when applying to the reaction chamber of the gas stream containing liquid and/or solid hydrocarbons.

This result is achieved even at relatively low temperatures (in the range from 950 to 1300oC), and hence at reduced compared with the known methods the consumption of oxygen and the increased output of the process occurring in the reaction chamber (i.e., increased amounts of CO and H2).

As an example of the process of partial oxidation of natural gas (in the absence of coal dust), when the amount of oxygen consumed O2does not exceed 210 moles per kilomole of dry natural gas, which differs sharply downward from the amount of oxygen consumed by the partial oxidation by known methods.

In other words, proposed in the invention method eliminates the possibility of mixing part of the hydrocarbons passing through the reaction chamber, in the absence of oxygen directly heated to high temperatures (1000-1400o(C) circulating inside the reaction chamber gases, financial p is proposed in the invention method inside the reaction chamber, the first hydrocarbon appropriately mixed with free oxygen and then interact with the hot gases, in which instead of the pyrolysis reaction chamber flows through the reaction of combustion of pre-mixed at least partly with each other reagents, accompanied by the production of hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

Proposed in the present invention the method is simple, economical, and can easily be practically implemented, and does not require high energy consumption and large operating costs.

It should be noted that the combustion of gaseous hydrocarbons, such as methane or natural gas, installing, operating on offer in the invention method, there is no need to have equipment for separation and recycling of coal soot, which, obviously, allows for a comparison with the known installations to reduce investment costs and reduce energy consumption.

The advantage of the proposed method lies in its high operational flexibility, and the fact that it allows you to maintain high conversion output when conditions change, work in a wide range.

Proposed in the invention method can, in particular, in contrast to known methods, to ensure the effective operation of the unit when the change in the broad limit is about 1).

In the most preferred embodiment of the invention in its proposed method of flow in the reaction chamber of the stream containing the hydrocarbon gas stream containing free oxygen gas is carried out in two separate essentially circular jets with coincident with each other axes.

In this case, the mixture of hydrocarbons with free oxygen occurs within the reaction chamber can be most effectively and quickly.

In addition, it was found that for more effective mixing of the stream containing the hydrocarbon gas is expedient to submit to the reaction chamber in the form of an external stream and preferably at a higher speed than the speed of the stream containing free oxygen gas.

The portion of the stream containing free oxygen gas, which are mixed within the reaction chamber with a stream containing a hydrocarbon gas prior to interaction of free oxygen circulating inside the chamber gaseous reaction products and which in the proposed invention the method is called the second part, in the preferred embodiment, can be from 10 to 90%, more preferably from 50 to 70%, of the total stream containing free oxygen gas.

With the 30 to 300 m/s, preferably from 60 to 180 m/s, and the velocity of the stream containing free oxygen gas fed to the reaction chamber should be within the range of from 10 to 100 m/s, preferably from 20 to 60 m/s

In this preferred embodiment of the proposed invention the method also includes: - transmission of a stream containing free oxygen gas through the first essentially cylindrical channel of a given length, made in the burner, which takes place inside the reaction chamber, passing a stream containing a hydrocarbon gas through the essentially annular space formed between the first channel and the second external in relation to the first channel, the axis of which coincides with the axis of the first channel and the second channel is greater than the first length, and education within the reaction chamber between the ends of the second and first channels of the mixing zone, in which the stream containing the hydrocarbon gas is mixed with the stream containing free oxygen gas feed stream containing a hydrocarbon gas of essentially annular free space in the area of mixing zone, which is located near the inner wall of the second channel, expansion and direction of flow soteriades the project, resulting in the Central zone of the reaction chamber in the mixing and interaction of the first part of the stream containing free oxygen gas from the first part of the stream circulating in the Central zone of the reaction chamber a gaseous reaction products, and the second part stream containing free oxygen gas after mixing with the stream containing the hydrocarbon gas forms a gas stream containing hydrocarbons and free oxygen, which at least partially mixed with each other.

This method provides the necessary preliminary mixture of hydrocarbons and free oxygen at the inlet to the reaction chamber in the most efficient and reliable way and at the same time allows at this stage to avoid any contact of the hydrocarbons circulating in the reaction chamber gaseous reaction products.

In addition, when implementing the method is also preferable to include the following stages:
- bandwidth stream containing free oxygen gas through the first essentially cylindrical channel of a given length, made in the burner, which takes place inside the reaction chamber,
- bandwidth stream containing a hydrocarbon gas through essentially it is the anal, the axis of which coincides with the axis of the first channel,
- bandwidth stream containing water vapor and/or inert gases through essentially the annular space formed between the second channel and the third external channel, the axis of which coincides with the axis of the second channel,
- feed stream containing water vapor and/or inert gases in the reaction chamber in the form of essentially annular jet, in which the area of the mixing flow gas containing hydrocarbons and a stream containing free oxygen gas,
- stream containing the hydrocarbon gas of essentially annular space in the region of the mixing zone, located next to the essentially annular jet of gas stream containing water vapor and/or inert gases
extensions and directions in the area of the mixing stream containing free oxygen gas flowing from the first channel, in the direction of essentially annular jet of gas stream containing water vapor and/or inert gases, resulting in the first part of the stream containing free oxygen gas is mixed and reacts with the first circulating inside the reaction chamber flow containing gaseous oxygen gas is mixed with the stream containing the hydrocarbon gas with the formation of the gas flow, containing hydrocarbons and oxygen, which are at least partially mixed with each other.

In the preferred embodiment, this pre-mixing occurs at the site of the inner wall of the channel through which the reaction chamber is a stream containing hydrocarbons and gas which passes from the end of this channel to the end channel on which the camera is a stream containing free oxygen gas.

In practice, the portion of the stream containing free oxygen gas, it is expedient to submit to the stream containing the hydrocarbon gas and to provide the necessary mixing of the hydrocarbon with free oxygen in a very small space in order in the case of gaseous hydrocarbons to completely eliminate, and in the case of liquid and/or solid hydrocarbons significantly reduce the formation of coal soot during the subsequent mixing of these gases with the hot gases circulating in the reaction chamber.

In order to speed up the enlargement process stream containing free oxygen gas and its movement in the direction of the inner wall of the second channel in the zone of mixing of the gas stream is preferably directed so that the trajectory of his d gas comes into contact with the stream containing the hydrocarbon gas on the way out of the first channel.

In accordance with another variant of the invention proposes a burner for use in the process of partial oxidation of hydrocarbons, which is:
the first essentially cylindrical pipe of a certain length that forms inside a circular channel through which a stream containing free oxygen gas is fed into the burner for reaction chamber,
the second pipe inside the first pipe located on the same axis, and the length of which is greater than the length of the first pipe and which forms between its wall and the wall of the first pipe is essentially an annular space through which the reaction chamber is a stream containing a hydrocarbon gas,
and characterized by the presence of
zone of mixing, which is located between the respective ends of the first and second tubes and in which the stream containing the hydrocarbon gas is mixed with the stream containing free oxygen gas,
device for directing a stream containing a hydrocarbon gas of essentially annular free space in that part of the mixing zone, which is located at the inner wall of the second tube,
device for expanding stream containing free Ki is remesiana, resulting in the first part of the stream containing free oxygen gas is mixed and reacts with the first stream containing gaseous reaction products circulating within the reaction chamber, in the Central zone of the chamber, and the second part stream containing free oxygen gas is mixed with a stream containing a hydrocarbon gas and forms together with it a gas stream containing hydrocarbons and free oxygen, which at least partially mixed with each other.

In one preferred embodiment of a burner for the partial oxidation of hydrocarbons is characterised by the presence of a third pipe that covers the outside located on the same axis of the second pipe and forms together with the second pipe located between them and inside the third pipe essentially annular free space, from which the reaction chamber is supplied with a flow of gas containing water vapor and/or inert gases, and devices for expanding stream containing free oxygen gas flowing from the first pipe, and its direction in the direction of the stream containing the hydrocarbon gas flowing from the second pipe, resulting in the first part of the stream containing Svobody reaction, circulating inside the reaction chamber, in the Central zone of the chamber, and the second part stream containing free oxygen gas is mixed with a stream containing a hydrocarbon gas and forms together with it a gas stream containing hydrocarbons and free oxygen, which at least partially mixed with each other.

Preferably the device for directing a stream containing a hydrocarbon gas to perform in the form of an annular orifice, the cross-section less than the cross-section of the annular space and which is located in the plane of the end of the first pipe between the free annular space and the agitation zone.

Preferably the device to expand and stream containing free oxygen gas to perform in the form located at the end of the first pipe section that extends outward towards the inner wall of the second tube and forms at the end of the outlet gas, the diameter of which is larger than the diameter of the inner hole of the remaining part of the first pipe.

Thus it is advisable that the diameter of the hole for the gas outlet 1.25 to 10 times, preferably 2 to 4 times exceeded the diameter of the front of reseraunt rounded.

In one of preferred embodiments of the burner expanding the site runs continuously from the inner wall of the first pipe to its outer wall with a constant angle between the cylindrical end of the inner wall and the outer end wall or variable angle, which varies smoothly from 0othe cylindrical end of the inner wall to almost 90oat the end of the outer wall.

The angle of inclination of the expanding area it is advisable to choose in the range from 30 to 90opreferably from 45 to 80o.

Preferably the length is located in the zone of mixing of the inner wall of the second pipe to take 5-15 times greater radial length of the annular hole located between the first and second pipes.

Preferably located in the zone of mixing of the inner wall of the second pipe to give the shape of a truncated cone, the diameter of which would rise by the end of the wall.

It is advisable to tilt within the area of mixing of the inner wall of the second pipe to the longitudinal axis of the pipe to choose in the range from 0 to 60opreferably from 10 to 30o.

The burner in accordance with the invention may have additional Proc. of the morning the hole forms a channel for delivery to the reaction chamber in the form of a purely axial flow stream containing free oxygen gas.

The proposed burner preferably with flow through the inner tube to the reaction chamber of the gas generator containing fuel stream to heat the reaction chamber.

Other distinctive features and advantages of the invention discussed below in more detail on not limiting the scope of invention example one of the options proposed in the invention method and several embodiments of the burner with reference to the accompanying drawings on which is shown:
in Fig.1 is a longitudinal section of the model, which schematically shows the direction of movement of the reactants and formed in the reaction gases in a hypothetical gas generator, in which there is a partial oxidation of hydrocarbons on the preferred option proposed in the invention method,
in Fig.2 - installation scheme, which is proposed in the invention, the method of partial oxidation of gaseous hydrocarbons,
in Fig.3 is a longitudinal section of parts of a burner made in accordance with a preferred variant of the present invention,
in Fig.4 is a longitudinal section of a detail of the burner, made by another option.

The basic principle is depicted may be put at risk areas of the various gas streams in a hypothetical generator, at the heart of which lies a way that corresponds to the preferred variant of the present invention.

In Fig.1 schematically shows an end protruding into the reaction chamber, indicated in the drawing position 2, the hypothetical gas generator burner 1, located in the Central zone 2A of the chamber 2.

Stream 3 containing free oxygen gas and a stream 4 containing a hydrocarbon gas is fed to the zone 2A of the reaction chamber of the burner 1 through the respective pipes 5 and 6.

In this case, the threads 3 and 4 gas are served in the reaction chamber 2 in the form of an annular jets when the direction of flow 3 gas in the pipe 5 has a spiral shape shown in the drawing in the form of a spiral arrow 3A, and the flow 4 flows through the annular free space 7 located between the pipes 5 and 6.

When the gaseous reagents in the reaction chamber 2 in the form of an annular jets, it is desirable that the gas stream containing the reaction products (i.e. hydrogen and carbon monoxide), formed during the combustion of hydrocarbons, was divided into two streams 8A and 8B, circulating in the Central zone 2A in the peripheral area 2B of the reaction chamber 2, respectively.

As containing gaseous reaction products flows is e with gaseous reagents accompanied instant ignition of the latter and the formation of a flame in the stream 3 containing free oxygen gas and the pyrolysis of hydrocarbons, which are present in the stream 4 containing hydrocarbon gas.

Avoid pyrolysis of hydrocarbons, which causes the formation of coal soot in the reaction chamber 2, proposed in the present invention the method includes a step of mixing at least partially, hydrocarbon free oxygen prior to their mixing with the hot gaseous reaction products circulating in the reaction chamber 2.

To this end, the pipe 6 is longer than the pipe 5 and is shaped like a truncated cone end 6A, which is included in the reaction chamber 2.

Inside this end 6A, in particular at the inner wall of the pipe 6, is a zone of mixing, in which the stream 4 containing hydrocarbon gas is mixed with stream 3 containing free oxygen gas and in which there are no disturbances from stream generated in the reaction chamber gases, in particular, from the steps of the flow 8V.

For more intensive mixing of the hydrocarbon with free oxygen at the end of the pipe 5 is made of an expanding cone 5A.

In this design only after at least partial mixing of the hydrocarbons and free oxygen and formation containing hydrocarbons and Svobodny oxygen is mixed with a stream of 8B and react, accompanied by the production of hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

This method of supply of reactants to the reaction chamber (in the form of an annular jets), when the free oxygen gets into a stream of hydrocarbons in circulation in the Central zone of the reaction chamber portion formed in the reaction gases creates optimal conditions for mixing a certain part of free oxygen and its subsequent interaction with the gaseous reaction products circulating in the Central zone 2A of the reaction chamber 2, resulting in a sustained flame, which is formed in the center of the chamber 2 near the feed area in her stream containing free oxygen gas.

In addition, the location of the pipe through which the reaction chamber is oxygen inside the tube, on which the camera serves hydrocarbons, the end 6A of the outer tube 6 of the burner 1 can be used for mixing of reagents and for the protection of hydrocarbons from exposure to the hot gases circulating in the peripheral area 2B of the reaction chamber, and from the effects of fire, which spreads outward from the Central zone of the burner 1.

In order to better describe the peculiar features offer is currently way mixing or diffusion.

Normal blending (or mixing) is a process in which a stream of gas containing hydrocarbons and a stream containing free oxygen gas are mixed with each other usually in the burner prior to their submission to the reaction chamber.

With this mixture of gases mix with each other or completely, when in the end you get a stream of gas with uniform concentrations of oxygen and hydrocarbon or partially, when the concentration distribution in entering the combustion chamber the flow is uneven and depends on the method and duration of mixing. The process of mixing of this type are described, for example, in EP-A 0098043.

Although theoretically, the mixing of the gases must in any case effectively reduce the number of produced coal soot, however in practice this method has not been applied due to the potential for dangerous consequences, the cause of which lies in the very nature of this process of mixing.

In fact, when the gas generator hidden danger of the burner, reverse flash, i.e. the beginning of the oxidation reaction in the channels of the burner, always exists and is the cause of premature exit of the burner out of operation. This phenomenon is almost impossible controls the output changes in the flow rate of the reactants.

Diffusion is a process in which a stream of gas containing hydrocarbons and a stream containing free oxygen gas are served separately to the reaction chamber where they are mixed with each other and with gaseous reaction products circulating in the chamber. Such a process is described, for example, in the above-mentioned EP-A 0276538.

The drawbacks of such conventional methods, which were discussed above in the analysis of existing state of the art, and manifested, in particular, in the intensive formation of coal soot, which is formed as a result of interaction within a reaction chamber having a high temperature circulating in her gas supplied into the chamber hydrocarbons that have not been properly mixed with free oxygen.

Proposed in the present invention, the way in which to interaction of hydrocarbons formed in the reaction chamber in the reaction of oxidation of the gases inside the chamber are pre-mixed stream containing a hydrocarbon gas stream containing free oxygen gas, contrary to existing claims, in accordance with which the reagents should be mixed one with mesheanii formed with the camera in the reaction gases.

It should be emphasized that only on the basis when creating the present invention research was able to develop proposed in the present invention, the method of partial oxidation of hydrocarbons with high conversion yield and is not accompanied by the formation of coal soot (or drastically reducing the number of produced coal soot).

Essentially it can be argued that proposed in the invention is defined by the combination of the aforementioned techniques, but devoid of the inherent disadvantages and provides at the same operating conditions substantially higher yield of the reaction of hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

In Fig.2 shows a system 10, which is proposed in the present invention, the method of partial oxidation of hydrocarbons.

In a preferred embodiment, the system 10 includes two heater 11 and 12, designed respectively for heating the stream containing the hydrocarbon gas stream containing free oxygen gas, the gas generator 13, in which there is a partial oxidation of hydrocarbons, and the boiler 24, is designed to exploit thermal energy of the flow is obtained in the gas generator therefore do not require detailed description.

The core 13 has a neck 14 and a housing 15, which is internally lined with a conventional and therefore not shown, capable of withstanding the high temperature refractory material designed to protect the inner walls of the shell.

Inside the housing 15 has a reaction chamber 16, in which the combustion of the hydrocarbons and oxygen.

In the neck 14 is located the burner 17, the open end which communicates with the reaction chamber 16.

The stream containing the hydrocarbon gas fed into the gas generator 13 through the pipe 18, which passes through the pre-heater 12.

Similarly, the stream containing free oxygen gas fed into the gas generator 13 through the pipe 19 after passing through the heater 11.

In the example shown in Fig.1, the stream containing the hydrocarbon gas contains essentially gaseous hydrocarbons such as natural gas or methane and their mixtures, as a carrier which uses water vapor or inert gases.

In addition, the stream containing the hydrocarbon gas may be present in a given volume of gases obtained in various industrial installations, for example gases from the synthesis loop installation, such as an inert gas or water vapor that contains dispersed or suspended small particles of liquid or solid fuel.

Under the "fine particles" refers to liquid droplets or solid particles, the average size of which ranges from 0.1 to 1 mm

As an example of liquid fuel that can be used in the proposed in the present invention method can be called oil, fuel oil, diesel fuel, naphtha, crude oil or residues formed in sections of the distillation of the plant for processing oil, and mixtures thereof. Examples of solid fuels are asphalts (bitumens) and fossil fuels and their mixtures.

When using liquid or solid hydrocarbons shown in Fig.2 installation should have a section of the processing and extraction of the installation of the entire generated coal soot, which are not shown.

In the stream containing free oxygen gas usually contains gas selected from the group comprising air, oxygen-enriched air, i.e. the air in which the oxygen content greater than 21 mole%, essentially pure oxygen, i.e., the gas in which the oxygen content is not less than 95 mol. percent, and mixtures thereof.

The streams of gaseous reagent is not below 600oWith, thereby preparing them to flow into the gas generator 13.

The unit 10, which is implemented proposed in the present invention the method may also include not shown in Fig.2 normal desulfuration designed to remove any traces of sulfur from a stream containing a hydrocarbon gas.

Working pressure in the gas generator 13 is usually from 1 to 150 bar.

Streams of heated gas are fed into the gas generator 13, namely in the reaction chamber 16, through the burner 17.

In particular, the stream containing free oxygen gas is fed into the reaction chamber 16 through a channel with a circular cross section formed inside the first essentially cylindrical tube 20 having a certain length.

The stream containing the hydrocarbon gas is fed into the reaction chamber 16 through the annular space formed between the first tube 20 and the second external to it by a pipe 21, which is located on the same axis with the first pipe, but is greater than the first pipe length.

In a preferred embodiment, the burner 17 is also an area of 22 mixing, which is formed inside the reaction chamber 16 between two adjacent ends of the pipes 20 and 21 and which is kulinowski in the reaction chamber a gaseous reaction products.

Immediately at the exit from the zone 22 of the mixing in the reaction chamber 16, the process of mixing the reagents with each other begins and ends with the reaction of partial oxidation of hydrocarbons, in which is formed a gas stream containing hydrogen and carbon monoxide, which is derived from the gas generator 13 through the pipeline 23.

Depending on the purity of the stream containing free oxygen gas, the duration of heating and the type containing a mixture of hydrocarbon gas molar ratio of oxygen to carbon in the stream of mixed gases may vary from 0.5 to 1.2.

Received in the gasifier reaction products of partial oxidation of hydrocarbons selected from the pipeline 23, pass through the boiler 24, where they are cooled by indirect heat exchange with the stream of water, which is heated and turns into water vapor with a high for the possible use of heat content (i.e. vapor pressure of from 20 to 100 bar).

For this purpose the pipes 25 and 26, which respectively, in the boiler 24 is fed water from the boiler selected water vapor.

The presence of the boiler 24 is shown in Fig.2 installation depends mainly on the type of fuel combusted. In the case when the impurity concentration, for cooling, you can not use the boiler, and easy working on water rapid cooling device (not shown).

In the above described system 10 can successfully use proposed in the present invention the method, which is characterized in particular in that it includes a stage of mixing and interaction of the first part of the stream containing free oxygen gas with the first circulating inside of the reaction chamber 16 stream containing gaseous products of the reaction gas mixture of the second portion of the stream containing free oxygen gas stream containing a hydrocarbon gas in the zone 22 of the mixing reaction chamber 16 to receive the gas stream containing hydrocarbons and free oxygen, which at least partially mixed with each other, and the mixing and interaction of the gas flow, formed in this way in zone 22 mixing with the second circulating in the reaction chamber 16 stream containing gaseous products of the reaction gas to obtain a gas stream containing hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

This method allows you to completely eliminate the formation of coal soot or substantially reduce the amount of produced coal soot sales is to increase the yield of the final product, i.e. hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

As noted above, proposed in the present invention the method is quite effective in significant changes in the flow rate of the source reagents, which does not affect its conversion output.

It should be noted that proposed in the invention method allows for use as a feedstock gaseous hydrocarbons to completely eliminate the formation of coal soot.

The absence of coal soot is determined by the substance of the proposed invention in a preliminary mixing of the reagents in the reaction chamber 16 and the resulting presence of free oxygen in the stream containing the hydrocarbon gas during its subsequent mixing with hot circulating in the reaction chamber gases.

For more intensive mixing of the reactants and their more effective in further combustion preferably at the inlet to the reaction chamber 16 speed supplied to it stream containing a hydrocarbon gas ranged from 30 to 300 m/s, preferably from 60 to 180 m/s, and the velocity of the stream containing free oxygen gas ranged from 10 to 100 m/s, preferably from 20 to 60 m/s

In the most preferred of the first oxygen gas through the first pipe 20, the transmission of a stream containing a hydrocarbon gas through the annular space formed between the first tube 20 and the second pipe 21, the direction of flow of gas containing hydrocarbons arising from the free annular space zone 22 mixing in the inner wall 27 of the second pipe 21, and the extension and direction of the stream containing free oxygen gas flowing from the first pipe 20, in the zone 22 of the mixing to the inner wall 27 of the second pipe 21.

In this way, free oxygen and hydrocarbons can be quickly and efficiently pre-mix with each other, thereby preventing exposure to hydrocarbons of hot gases circulating in the reaction chamber 16, as well as protecting them from the effects of fire, which is distributed in the reaction chamber 16 from the Central area of the end of the burner 17.

It is shown in Fig.3 burner 17 in the preferred embodiment, is in addition to the pipes 20 and 21 corresponding device 31 for directing a stream containing the hydrocarbon gas from the annular space to the interior area 22 of the mixing and reaction chamber 17 to the area of the inner wall 27 of the second pipe 21 and the corresponding condition is UBA 20 to located in the zone 22 of the mixing section of the inner wall 27 of the second pipe 21.

In Fig.3 shows more detail of the burner 17, in particular of its ends is made in accordance with the preferred option.

Shown in this drawing individual parts of the burner, which are structurally and functionally equivalent parts of the burner shown in Fig.2, and indicated by the same numbers as in Fig.2, further detail will not be considered.

It should be noted that the pipes 20 and 21 of the burner are hollow, allowing more efficient cooling, which is described in more detail below.

The end of the first pipe 20, a circular passage inside the first pipe 20 and the annular space formed between the second pipe 21 and the first tube 20, the burner 17 is indicated in Fig.3 positions 28, 29 and 30, respectively.

To expedite the flow of gas containing hydrocarbons, moving in the zone 22 of the mixing on the inner wall 27 of the second pipe 21, a device for directing a stream containing a hydrocarbon gas should be implemented in the form of circular holes 31 with less than the annular space 30, the cross-section located at the end 28 of the first pipe 20 between the free space 30 and zone 22 of the mixing.

The device d is s 20, preferably in the form of expanding outward towards the inner wall 27 of the second pipe 21 and formed the first pipe 20 canal, which ends at the end of the pipe 28 to the outlet opening 33 located between the channel 29 and the area 22 of the mixing, the diameter of which is larger than the diameter of the inner hole of the remaining part of the first pipe 20.

The presence in the burner of this device provides the necessary extension of the stream containing free oxygen gas and its movement in the direction of the inner wall 27 of the second pipe 21 and its optimal penetration into the stream containing the hydrocarbon gas.

The diameter of the hole 33 must be greater than the diameter of which is in front of him the inner bore 32 of the tube 20 1.5-10 times, preferably 2 to 4 times.

As shown in Fig.3, the expanding section 32 of the first pipe 20, it is advisable to perform rounded, which creates conditions for achieving controlled and, if possible, maximize your stream containing free oxygen gas and its direction within the area 22 of the mixing of the inner wall 27 of the second pipe 21.

In the preferred embodiment proposed in this invention method, the stream containing Svoboda simultaneously stream containing a hydrocarbon gas passes from the annular space 30 in zone 22 mixing through the annular opening 31, located in the reaction chamber 16 and formed between the end 28 of the first pipe 20 and the end 34 of the second pipe 21, and moves in the zone 22 of the mixing along the inner wall 27 of the second pipe.

In the most preferred embodiment of the present invention, the section 32 is continuous from the inner 20A to the outer wall 20B of the tube 20 either with a constant angle from the end of the inner wall 20A to the end of the outer wall 20B, or preferably with variable angle varying from 0oat the end of the inner wall 20A to almost 90oat the end of the outer wall 20B. At the end of the outer wall of the 20th century coincides with the end of the pipe 20 and the inner end wall 20A coincides with the end of the cylindrical part of the tube 20.

This unique form of section 32 of the pipe 20, through which the reaction chamber 16 flows containing free oxygen gas, can significantly reduce the intensity of thermal wear, located on the end 28 of the pipe section.

Spent creating inventions studies have shown that the absence of sharp corners on the section 32, which connects the inner wall 20A with the outer wall 20B of the tube 20, effectively prevents the formation in this area in the stream containing the SV is ome, in the proposed invention the burner oxygen to the outlet pipe 20 moves along an area 32 in a continuous linear flow, provides some cooling of the surface of this area.

Preferably, in particular, to first contact stream containing carbon gas flowing through the pipe 21, with the stream containing free oxygen gas flowing through the pipe 20, occurred at the end 28 of the tube 20.

It should be noted that in known burners service life of the pipe on which the burner supplied with oxygen, does not exceed a few months, after which the tubes have to be replaced, stopping at this time, the operation of the entire plant.

In the proposed in the present invention the burner service life end portion of these pipes is much larger and reaches a few years, which, obviously, allows you to work on the installation of such burners continuously for quite a long time. The possibility of prolonged operation without stopping not only reduces the cost of its repair and maintenance, but also reduces the loss get on it as end-products of hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

Rounded shape of section 32 (see Fig.3) provides, in h is 20.

Optimal in this respect, the results can be obtained if the angle of the section 32 will lie in the range from 30 to 90opreferably from 45 to 80o.

In the most preferred embodiment of the proposed invention the burner length in the zone 22 of the mixing of the inner wall 27 of the second pipe 21, as measured between the respective ends 28 and 34 of the pipes 20 and 21, is selected depending on the radial length (cross-sectional area) of circular holes 31 located between the pipes 20 and 21.

Preferably, the length of the wall was in 5-15 times the radial length of the hole.

This ratio allows to optimally select the desired amount of pre-mixed with each other reagents (which there should be neither too large nor too small).

In another embodiment of the proposed invention the burner diameter in the zone 22 of the mixing of the inner wall 27 of the second pipe 21 is increased to the end 34, resulting in the mixing zone 22 areas takes the form of a truncated cone.

In particular, the angle being in the zone 22 of the mixing of the inner wall 27 of the second pipe 21 to the longitudinal the tion in the form of a truncated cone, larger diameter which is determined by the size of the outlet 36 of the burner 17, and the smaller - diameter inner wall 27 of the second pipe 21 in the plane of the end 28 of the first pipe 20, solves essentially two tasks: firstly, the conditions for stream containing carbon gas was at a certain distance from the Central zone occurring in the reaction chamber of the flame, and, secondly, increasing the width of the inner zone of the reaction chamber, which is the process of partial oxidation of hydrocarbons (Fig.1 this zone is indicated by the position 2A) that allows you to completely stabilize (hold center) formed in the reaction chamber of the flame.

In a preferred embodiment, the burner 17 has a device 37, which sends flows through the pipe 20 stream containing free oxygen gas in a spiral or helical path, which provides more intensive expansion of this thread and its accelerated motion in the direction in the zone 22 of the mixing of the inner wall of the second pipe 21.

The burner shown in Fig.3, this device consists of one or more suitably shaped blades 37, which can be run inclined to the longitudinal OS is authorized length, located on the axis of the internal bore hole 29 of the tube 20.

The blades 37 are profiling so that they sent a stream of their gas flowing along a helical path. Preferably, the outer surface of the tube 38 was located along a helical line several such blades 37.

In an alternative embodiment, not shown, for such a device you can use the form pipe 20 or tube 38.

It is shown in Fig. 3, the tube 38 is made open, as it can additionally be used as a simple and reliable means of regulating the flow containing gaseous products of the reaction gas circulating in the Central zone of the reaction chamber 16, as well as stabilization of flame.

To this end, the portion of the stream containing free oxygen gas is directed through the tube 38 in the form of a purely axial countercurrent to the flow of gaseous products of the reaction gas flowing across the Central pipe 20.

Alternatively, the tube 38 can be used for heating the inner lining of the gasifier, feeding through it to the inside of the reaction chamber 16 corresponding fuel. The possibility of such additional use having odnaznachno for this purpose burners.

Available in a wall of the first pipe 20 and the second pipe 21 channels 39 and 40 are designed for pumping through them, coolant, preferably water.

Such cooling pipes 20 and 21 can effectively monitor their temperature, particularly the temperature of their ends 28 and 34, thus preventing overheating and possible premature failure.

Under certain from the point of view of a temperature mode of the operating conditions of the gasifier from such cooling of the feed pipes of the burner can be waived.

In Fig. 4 shows details of the burner made according to another variant of the invention.

Shown in this drawing, parts which are structurally and functionally no different from similar parts of the burner 17, shown in Fig.3, are denoted by the same as in Fig.3, positions.

In the burner 17, made according to this variant, the protective or shielding effect is not located in zone 22 of the mixing of the inner wall 27 of the second pipe 21 (Fig.3), and essentially annular jet, for example, steam and/or inert gases supplied to the reaction chamber 16 within which passes the stream containing the hydrocarbon gas.

The existence of such additional or braided stream, the image is s 22 mixing and its isolation from the containing gaseous products of the reaction gas flow, circulating in the peripheral zone of the reaction chamber 16. Arrow 42 shown in Fig.4 correspond shown in Fig.1 arrows 8B.

In this embodiment, the burner protective or shielding effect is created not by increasing the length of the second pipe 21 with respect to the length of the first pipe 20, and the other way, preferably based on the formation of the shielding gas flow (arrow 41) using steam and/or inert gases.

As the device through which the reaction chamber is fed creates a protective shield gas (or water vapor), it is preferable to use the third pipe 43, in which is located the pipes 20 and 21, having with her a common axis. Position 44 marked free annular space formed between the third pipe 43 and the second pipe 21.

When using designed burner gas stream containing water vapor and/or inert gases, is fed through the pipe 43 to the reaction chamber 16 in the form of essentially annular jet, which forms the outer boundary of the mixing zone 22. At the same time in the zone 22 of the mixing channel 29 through the outlet 33 of the first pipe 20 is a stream containing free oxygen gas, and through the ring aterciopelados oxygen gas stream containing a hydrocarbon gas.

In this embodiment of the invention the process of partial oxidation of hydrocarbons, based in particular on the preliminary mixing zone 22 of the mixing stream containing the hydrocarbon gas with the second part of the stream containing free oxygen gas and the absence of contact prior to mixing with each other with the hot gases circulating in the reaction chamber 16, is exactly the same as in the above embodiment, and has the same advantages.

In the example shown in Fig.4, the thread 41 of the gas containing water vapor and/or inert gases flowing outside the outer wall of the pipe 21, creates a cooling effect and cools the pipe, in particular its end. Therefore, in this embodiment, the tube 21 can be performed more durable than hollow tube shown in Fig.3.

The above description details the many advantages offered in the present invention, the method of partial oxidation of hydrocarbons, which enables the reaction of partial oxidation of hydrocarbons:
- in the complete absence of coal soot in partial oxidation of gaseous hydrocarbons in a relatively simple scheme ustanovka or solid hydrocarbons,
- low consumption of oxygen with a high yield of the produced hydrogen and carbon monoxide per unit of fuel burned and
- with the increased service life of the burner.


Claims

1. The method of partial oxidation of hydrocarbons, in which a stream containing the hydrocarbon gas is served in the reaction chamber and the stream containing free oxygen gas serves in the reaction chamber, characterized in that it includes the following stages: mixing and interaction of the first part of the stream containing free oxygen gas with the first gas stream containing gaseous reaction products circulating within the reaction chamber, mixing the second portion of the stream containing free oxygen gas stream containing a hydrocarbon gas into the reaction chamber to receive the gas stream containing hydrocarbons and free oxygen, which at least partially mixed with each other, mixing and interaction of the gas stream containing hydrocarbons and free oxygen, which at least partially mixed with each other, with the second gas stream containing gaseous reaction products circulating within re is audica fact, the flow of gas containing hydrocarbons and a stream containing free oxygen gas serves to the reaction chamber in the form of an essentially circular jets with coincident with each other axes.

3. The method according to p. 2, characterized in that the stream containing free oxygen gas serves in the reaction chamber within a stream containing a hydrocarbon gas, which preferably has a higher velocity than the stream containing free oxygen gas.

4. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the proportion of the second part of the stream containing free oxygen gas is from 10 to 90% of the total stream containing free oxygen gas.

5. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the velocity of the stream containing the hydrocarbon gas fed into the reaction chamber is in the range from 30 to 300 m/s, preferably from 60 to 180 m/s, and the velocity of the stream containing free oxygen gas fed into the reaction chamber is in the range from 10 to 100 m/s, preferably from 20 to 60 m/s

6. The method according to p. 2, characterized in that it also includes the following steps: transmission of a stream containing free oxygen gas through the first essentially cylindrical channel of a given length, made in the burner, kovu, the annular space formed between the first channel and the second is external to the first channel, the axis of which coincides with the axis of the first channel and the second channel is greater than the first length, and education within the reaction chamber between the ends of the second and first channels of the mixing zone in which the stream containing the hydrocarbon gas is mixed with the stream containing free oxygen gas feed stream containing a hydrocarbon gas of essentially annular free space in the area of mixing zone, which is located near the inner wall of the second channel, the extension and direction of the stream containing free oxygen gas flowing from the first channel to the inner wall of the second channel in the zone of mixing, resulting in the Central zone of the reaction chamber in the mixing and interaction of the first part of the stream containing free oxygen gas with the first flow circulating in the reaction chamber a gaseous reaction products, and the second part stream containing free oxygen gas after mixing with the stream containing the hydrocarbon gas forms a gas stream containing hydrocarbons and free sour implementation also includes the following steps: transmission of a stream containing free oxygen gas through the first, essentially, a cylindrical channel of a given length, made in the burner, which takes place inside the reaction chamber, passing a stream containing a hydrocarbon gas through, essentially, the annular space formed between the first channel and the second, external to the first channel, the axis of which coincides with the axis of the first channel, the transmission of a stream containing steam and/or inert gases, through, essentially, the annular space formed between the second channel and a third, external, channel whose axis coincides with the axis of the second channel, flow, containing water vapor and/or inert gases in the reaction chamber in the form of essentially annular jet, in which the area of the mixing flow gas containing hydrocarbons and a stream containing free oxygen gas, the direction of the stream containing the hydrocarbon gas of essentially annular space in the region of the mixing zone, next to, in essence, an annular jet of gas stream containing water vapor and/or inert gases, expansion and direction in the mixing zone of the stream containing free oxygen gas flowing from the first channel, in right the first portion of the stream containing free oxygen gas is mixed and reacts with the first circulating inside the reaction chamber flow containing gaseous products of the reaction gas in the Central zone of the reaction chamber, and the second part stream containing free oxygen gas is mixed with the stream containing the hydrocarbon gas with the formation of the gas stream containing hydrocarbons and oxygen, which are at least partially mixed with each other.

8. The method according to PP.6 and 7, characterized in that the flow of oxygen-containing gas flows through the first channel along a helical path.

9. The method according to PP.6 and 7, characterized in that the second portion of the stream containing oxygen gas comes into contact with the stream containing the hydrocarbon gas on the way out of the first channel.

10. Burner for partial oxidation of hydrocarbons, having a first essentially cylindrical tube (20) of a certain length that forms inside a circular channel (29), through which a stream containing free oxygen gas is fed into the burner for reaction chamber (16) and a second tube (21), within which is held the first pipe located on the same axis, and the length of which is greater than the length of the first pipe and which forms together with the first pipe located within it, essentially, an annular space (30), through which the reaction chamber (16) is a stream containing a hydrocarbon gas, characterized by the presence of the 1) and in which the stream containing the hydrocarbon gas is mixed with the stream containing free oxygen gas, device (31) for stream containing a hydrocarbon gas of essentially annular space (30) in that part of the zone (22) of the mixing, which is located at the inner wall (27) of the second pipe (21), and device (32) for the expansion of the stream containing free oxygen gas flowing from the first pipe (20), and its direction in the direction within the area (22) mixing the inner wall (27) of the second pipe (21), resulting in the first part of the stream containing free oxygen gas is mixed and reacts with the first stream containing gaseous reaction products circulating within the reaction chamber, in the Central zone of the chamber, and the second part stream containing free oxygen gas is mixed with a stream containing a hydrocarbon gas and forms together with it a gas stream containing hydrocarbons and free oxygen, which at least partially mixed with each other.

11. Burner for partial oxidation of hydrocarbons, having a first essentially cylindrical tube (20) of a certain length that forms inside a circular channel (29), through which a stream containing free oxygen gas is fed into the burner for reacciona forms together with the first pipe located inside and between the pipes (20, 21) essentially annular space (30), through which the reaction chamber (16) is a stream containing a hydrocarbon gas, characterized by the presence of a third pipe (43), which covers the outside located on the same axis of the second tube (21) and forms together with the second pipe located between them and inside the third pipe, essentially, an annular space (44), from which the reaction chamber (16) is a stream of gas containing water vapor and/or inert gases, and the device (32) to enhance stream containing free oxygen gas flowing from the first pipe (20), and its direction in the direction of the stream containing the hydrocarbon gas flowing from the second pipe (21), resulting in the first part of the stream containing free oxygen gas is mixed and reacts with the first stream containing gaseous reaction products circulating within the reaction chamber, in the Central zone of the chamber, and the second part stream containing free oxygen gas is mixed with a stream containing a hydrocarbon gas and forms together with it a gas stream containing hydrocarbons and free oxygen, which at least partially mixed with each other.

the designs are in the form of an annular orifice (31), the cross-section less than the cross-section of the annular space (30) and which is located in the plane of the end (28) of the first pipe (20) between the free annular space (30) and area (22) of the mixing.

13. Burner on PP.10 and 11, characterized in that the device (32) for extension and stream containing free oxygen gas is made in the form located at the end (28) of the first pipe (20) plot (32) that extends outward towards the inner wall (27) of the second tube (21) and forms at the end (28) of the hole (33) for the gas outlet, the diameter of which is larger than the diameter of the inner hole of the remaining part of the first pipe (20).

14. Burner on p. 13, characterized in that the diameter of the hole (33) for gas exit 1.25 to 10 times, preferably 2 to 4 times greater than the diameter of the front of the expanding gas flow section (32) of the hole of the first pipe (20).

15. Burner under item 13, wherein the expanding section (32) of the first pipe (20) is made rounded.

16. Burner under item 12, characterized in that the expanding section (32) passes continuously from the inner wall (20A) of the first pipe (20) to its outer wall (20B) with a constant angle between the cylindrical end vnutrennih end of the inner wall (20A) to almost 90 at the end (28) of the outer wall (20B).

17. Burner under item 16, characterized in that the angle of the expanding section (32) is in the range from 30 to 90, preferably from 45 to 80.

18. Burner under item 10, characterized in that the length within the area (22) mixing the inner wall (27) of the second pipe (21) in 5-15 times the radial length of the annular holes (31) located between the first and second tubes (20, 21).

19. Burner under item 10, characterized in that located in the area (22) mixing the inner wall (27) of the second tube (21) has the form of a truncated cone, the diameter of which increases toward the end (34) of the wall.

20. Burner under item 10, characterized in that the angle is located in a zone (22) mixing the inner wall (27) of the second tube (21) to the longitudinal axis of the tube lies in the range from 0 to 60, preferably from 10 to 30.

21. Burner on PP.10 and 11, characterized by the presence of additional pipe (38), which is located inside of the first pipe on the same axis, and it is less than the first pipe, the length, the bore of which forms a channel for delivery to the reaction chamber (16) in the form of a purely axial flow stream containing free oxygen gas.

22. Burner according to p. 21, characterized in that it is made with the possibility of feed of the reaction chamber.

 

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FIELD: hydrocarbon conversion catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: catalyst for generation of synthesis gas via catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons is a complex composite composed of ceramic matrix and, dispersed throughout the matrix, coarse particles of a material and their aggregates in amounts from 0.5 to 70% by weight. Catalyst comprises system of parallel and/or crossing channels. Dispersed material is selected from rare-earth and transition metal oxides, and mixtures thereof, metals and alloys thereof, period 4 metal carbides, and mixtures thereof, which differ from the matrix in what concerns both composition and structure. Preparation procedure comprises providing homogenous mass containing caking-able ceramic matrix material and material to be dispersed, appropriately shaping the mass, and heat treatment. Material to be dispersed are powders containing metallic aluminum. Homogenous mass is used for impregnation of fibrous and/or woven materials forming on caking system of parallel and/or perpendicularly crossing channels. Before heat treatment, shaped mass is preliminarily treated under hydrothermal conditions.

EFFECT: increased resistance of catalyst to thermal impacts with sufficiently high specific surface and activity retained.

4 cl, 1 tbl, 8 ex

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