Absorbing and resistant to cutting sheet materials, multi-purpose

 

The invention relates to sheet material, multi-purpose, which is suitable to protect the bearing surfaces from placed on her various items and substances, in particular kitchen surfaces. The sheet material includes an absorbent layer with opposite first and second surfaces. This sheet material also includes having resistance to cutting control system in contact with an absorbing layer, in which the sheet material has an absorption efficiency, equal to not less than about 0.2, and resistance to cutting of not less than approximately 30 kgf/cm, while having resistance to cutting reference system either forms a continuous network, or consists of a mass of discrete elements, made in the absorbing layer. Also present decision refers to the article having absorbency, resistance to cutting and grinding. The technical result achieved these signs is the creation of a sheet of material having a high absorbing ability, resistance to cutting, resistance to crushing, which helps prevent damage to the various surfaces and spoilage due to pnim and flexible, that makes it easy to use. 3 C. and 15 C.p. f-crystals, 17 tab., table 2.

The invention relates to sheet materials which are suitable for protecting the bearing surface placed on her various objects and substances, and Vice versa. The present invention relates also to such sheet materials, which are able to absorb and/or contain different fluids that may be contained in such different objects and/or substances and/or to distinguish them, and to protect the bearing surface of these liquids.

The sheet materials of the type designed to protect objects or substances from the bearing surface and/or protect the bearing surfaces from objects or substances is well known in the art. Such materials can be used to create a permanent form of protection, but more often focused on a specific situation or a specific task, and required or used for a limited period of time, after which they are disposed.

One common application program such sheet materials is to prepare food for consumption, such as the preparation of certain meat products for cooking. When t is s, food from contamination of the bearing surface such as the surface of the counter, and also protecting the surface of the counter from contamination by blood, water, and other liquids that are present on the surface of the food product. Protective sheet materials can also protect the substrate from physical damage, such as impact with a sharp object or cutter type knife or cleaver, used in the preparation of such food products.

Usually, however, the consumer is faced with a paradoxical situation when the choice of a suitable sheet material for use in such a program of preparation of food products. Sheet materials having a relatively high absorption capacity, such as materials based on paper, usually have relatively low resistance to cutting, while materials with high resistance to cutting, such as a plastic sheet materials have a relatively low absorptive capacity.

Accordingly it would be desirable to obtain a sheet material having a relatively high absorption capacity and a relatively high resistance to cutting and the remaining will compare the th material also had high resistance to crushing.

It would be desirable to provide such a sheet material, which, being durable in use, easy and economical to manufacture so that to get rid of it after use.

The present invention is to eliminate the above disadvantages.

Another objective of the present invention is to provide protection from cuts, disposable sheet material.

Another object of the present invention is to provide a sheet material having absorptive capacity, resistance to cutting and resistance to crushing.

Solving these tasks is achieved technical result consists in the creation of a sheet of material having a high absorbing ability, resistance to cutting, resistance to crushing, which helps prevent damage to the various surfaces and damage due to spills during cutting items such as food, while the sheet material is light, thin and flexible, making it easy to use.

This technical result is achieved by using the stated sheet multi-purpose material agreement is am all fields of alternatives, contained in the claims.

Sheet multi-purpose material contains an absorbent layer and in contact with the absorbing layer of material resistant to cutting. Material resistant to cutting, may include resistant to cutting control system, such as an individual resistant to cutting bearing elements made, for example, within the absorbing layer. Resistant cutting material can, on the other hand, include resistant to cutting particles such as polymer particles, the average size of which is equal to, for example, not less than approximately 100 μm, which are scattered in the absorbing layer. Preferably the sheet material has an absorption capacity, equal to not less than about 0.2, and resistance to cutting of not less than approximately 30 kgf/cm, and more preferably absorptive capacity, equal to not less than approximately 1.0, and resistance to cutting of not less than about 40 kgf/see it is also Desirable that the sheet material possessed resistance to cuts of at least 30 kgf/cm, the absorptive capacity of not less than 0.2 and loss on a wet abrasion of less than about 400 mg per 100 revolutions.

Other objectives of the present invention will become ochevidiets the embodiments of the present invention, including the best of the currently considered the method of implementation of the present invention, just as an illustration. As will be clear that the invention can be implemented in various other aspects and embodiments of without deviating from the substance of the invention. In accordance with these drawings and descriptions are illustrative character and do not restrict the framework of the invention.

The present invention is explained in the following description with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which identical positions denoted by the same elements, where Fig. 1 shows a partially segmented three-dimensional image of one variant of implementation of the absorbing and resistant to cutting sheet multi-purpose material which is the subject of the present invention; Fig. 2 shows a partially segmented three-dimensional image of the other embodiments of the absorbing and resistant to cutting sheet multi-purpose material which is the subject of the present invention; Fig. 3 shows a partially segmented three-dimensional image of another embodiments of the absorbing and resistant to cutting sheet multipurpose material on which Noah is the image of another embodiments of the absorbing and resistant to cutting sheet material, multi-purpose, which is the subject of the present invention; Fig. 5 shows a partially segmented three-dimensional image of another embodiments of the absorbing and resistant to cutting sheet multi-purpose material which is the subject of the present invention; Fig. 6 shows a partially segmented three-dimensional image of another embodiments of the absorbing and resistant to cutting sheet multi-purpose material which is the subject of the present invention; Fig. 7 shows a partially segmented three-dimensional image of another embodiments of the absorbing and resistant to cutting sheet multi-purpose material which is the subject of the present invention; Fig. 8 shows the image in terms of the amorphous structure, suitable for use in the manufacture of sheet materials that are the subject of the present invention; Fig. 9 shows a graph corresponding to the data shown in the table.1;
in Fig. 10 shows in plan a typical sheet material made according to the present invention;
in Fig. 11 shows a cross-section of a typical sheet of material of Fig. 10;
in Fig. 12 shows a cross-section with the Cesky processing system worksheet suitable for the manufacture of sheet material in Fig. 10 in accordance with the present invention;
in Fig. 14 shows a cross-section of another variant implementation of the layered sheet material made according to the present invention;
in Fig. 15 shows a diagram illustrating the process and equipment that can be used in the manufacture of laminated sheet material shown in Fig. 14;
in Fig. 16 shows a diagram illustrating a typical equipment and technological process, which can be used to seal sheet material, such as sheet materials shown in Fig. 10-12 and 14, and
in Fig. 17 shows a table of data illustrating the preferred characteristics of sheet materials made in accordance with the present invention.

The term "absorption efficiency" in this case denotes the derived parameter used to characterize the sheet materials and determine how well they behave in terms of cooking food. The efficiency of absorption at the same time takes into account both the intensity of the absorption and poglosheniy absorbs a sufficient amount of liquid for a suitable period of time. It is also desirable that the Mat was relatively thin (most preferred thickness 0,076 cm) to easily take the form of the working surface and to create the impression of suitability only for one-time use. The absorption efficiency can be defined as follows:

where absorption is measured in gwater/cm2the intensity in the gwater/scm2thickness is measured in cm and the absorption efficiency is represented by units (gwater/cm2) (gwater/scm2) (1/cm). Therefore, the absorption efficiency increases with increasing absorptive capacity and intensity and decreases with increasing thickness of the Mat.

Typical food is cut into slices of fruit. When cutting most fruits are selected watery juice. Especially juicy fruits, such as oranges, can allocate up to 10 g of juice per fruit. It is desirable that the Mat for cooking food completely absorbed all 10 grams of juice for 30 seconds to facilitate the removal of the Mat while maintaining purity. Regular Mat for p is Noah thickness 0,076 see Thus, it is desirable that the Mat for food preparation were as described above, absorptive capacity equal to at least 0.2 and more preferably greater than at least 1.0.

The term "resistance to splitting in this case is a derived parameter that is used to characterize the sheet materials and determine how well they behave in terms of cooking food.

The results of a comprehensive consumer tests show that Mat for food preparation must have resistance to cutting, equal at least of 2.27 kg (5 lb) and measured according to the method of determination of resistance to cutting, discussed below, so that the average consumer in a single use could not penetrate the protective surface thoroughly. In addition, it is necessary to minimize the thickness of kitchen Mat for cooking food products to reduce waste, increase the willingness of the consumer to get rid of sheet material and facilitate storage of sheet material. Therefore, the thickness of the sheet material for the preparation of food must be the m (0,030 inch). In order for this structure possessed resistance to cutting, equal at least of 2.27 kg (5 lb) with a maximum preferred thickness 0,076 cm (0,030 inch), the structure must have a minimum specific resistance to cutting, equal to 30 kg/cm (2,27 kg/0,076 cm=30 kgf/cm), and more preferably a minimum specific resistance to cutting, equal to 40 kgf/see

In Fig. 1 shows one embodiment of the sheet material 10 multi-purpose, which is the subject of the present invention. Sheet material 10 includes an absorbent liquid layer 2 forming a reservoir for fluid, impermeable to fluid protective layer 3 and resistant to cutting reinforcement system consisting of many individual reinforcing elements 1, which extends without interruption from the protective layer 3 through the absorbing layer 2 to the surface of the absorbing layer. Sheet material 10 is shown in an orientation suitable for placement on a supporting surface (not shown), such as a counter or table, and a protective layer 3 is in contact with the bearing surface, and a reinforcing elements facing toward the outside relative to the bearing surface. The sheet material may also include dooa 3, which may come into contact with the bearing surface.

Sheet material 10 includes a generally flat structure type of the sheet to the desired size of the plane, which has two opposite main surfaces, similar to the essentially flat. Layers of such sheet material is also usually are essentially flat and/or limit the plane of the contacting surfaces. The protective layer 3 completely covers one surface of the absorbing layer 2, so that any contained fluid cannot pass through the protective layer 3 and get on a bearing surface on which is placed the sheet material 10. The reinforcing elements 1 pass through the surface of the absorbing layer 2 in a direction opposite to the protective layer 3, and in the shown embodiment, the implementation form a regular repeating pattern of elements.

The absorbing layer may be made of any material or materials suitable for absorbing and/or content of any liquid/liquids of interest. Suitable materials include fiber fabric or sheet material made of natural fibers (cellulose, etc. and/or synthetic origin, including hollow fiber and fiber to prirodnye starches and resins, etc., or their combination. Of particular interest are materials such as cellulosic substrate type cardboard. The absorbing layer may contain one continuous layer of material or may include a layered structure consisting of multiple layers of the same or of different composition. In addition, the absorbent material may include a carrier network, which itself may possess or not to possess the absorptive capacity, but may bear an absorbent material. The purpose of the absorbing layer in the sheet material is absorbing and insulating liquids.

The protective layer may be made of any material or materials suitable for forming a continuous layer or coating on the surface of the absorbing layer is not permeable to the interest of liquids. Suitable materials are plastic films laminated or deposited on the absorbing layer, thermoplastic resin, directly molded or extruded on an absorbing layer, metal foil and other impervious coating applied by printing, spraying or other method of local application. The protective layer may contain one continuous layer of material or may contain livna system may contain zonal curly, discrete or continuous coating or layer of pressure-sensitive adhesive or any other adhesive system, known in the art and designed to create the bonding force between the sheet material 10 and the bearing surface. This additional feature provides additional lateral stability greater than the friction force between the protective layer and the carrier surface. Depending on the stickiness of the adhesive and/or construction sheet material may be required detachable lining or other forms. Other forms can be used not sticky, but has a relatively high coefficient of friction material that resists slipping on most conventional bearing surfaces.

Reinforcing the system can be made of any material or materials suitable for forming solid or network of individual elements having the desired size, shape and located at set intervals. In accordance with the present invention a reinforcing system preferably is essentially nonabsorbing and essentially impervious to interest fluids. In a preferred embodiment, the implementation of reinforcing the system ishitani them such as hydrophobic, lipophobia or other types of materials. For other applications, the reinforcing system is made from a material and/or treated with a material having a tendency to wetting of surfaces by liquids, such as hydrophilic, lipophilic or other types of materials. Suitable reinforcing materials include polymeric film laminated or deposited on the absorbing layer, thermoplastic, thermosetting or crosslinking resin or thermosetting foams, cast directly caused by the printing method or extruded on an absorbing layer, coated paper or cardboard, glued on an absorbing layer with an adhesive, etc. Reinforcing system may contain one continuous layer of material or may include a layered structure consisting of multiple layers of the same or of different composition. Reinforcing system can have any desired thickness depending on the particular application.

In use, the sheet material is placed on a bearing surface, such as a counter, table or floor with placed on this material, object or substance. Object or substance can be a food product or any other product of interest, the operations. The sheet material may also be used to store object for collecting residual liquid, as in the case of defrosting frozen food. After use or when the absorbing layer is sufficiently contaminated or saturated liquids from sheet material can be eliminated accordingly.

The sheet material is preferably sufficiently flexible and soft so that it can adapt itself to a few rough or profiled bearing surface. In some forms of distribution or packaging may be desirable that the sheet material was quite soft in one or more directions, so that it can be rolled into a roll, giving it a more compact form. The choice of materials for corresponding elements of sheet material, as well as maintaining a relatively low modulus of bending through the use of appropriate design (small cross-sectional area, the minimum thickness in the direction perpendicular to the plane of the sheet material, the intermittent pattern and so on) contribute to obtaining the desired degree of flexibility. If desired, you can use weakened zones or lines, such as lines of perforations, for POH areas or in certain areas.

Additional absorption and protection of the underlying or supporting surfaces can also be obtained in the form of having a high absorption of the boundary layer at the periphery of the sheet material, a threshold on the extreme edge, or other suitable techniques.

The absorbing layer or any other sheet material which is the subject of the present invention, if it is required for a particular application, may contain or include certain active materials that act on the object or substance is placed on the sheet material and/or liquid contained in the item or substance or allocated to them. Such active substances may include supplements designed to neutralize, bind, disinfecting, deodorizing and changes otherwise the properties of a solid or liquid materials or atmospheric environment of the sheet material in the process of applying. Of particular interest are the additives that modify the behavior of liquids, such as watery fluid, on the basis of blood, fats, etc. can Usually be desirable in some applications deodorizing, obezzarazhivatelyami in the form, suitable for use.

In some applications it may be desirable inclusion in the protective sheet, changing the color of the items, which could indicate a status sheet in the process of applying. For example, it may be desirable to include in the worksheet changes the color of the composition, whereby the absorbing layer changes color when it absorbs fluid. In addition, the colors of the respective leaf elements can be selected so that the supporting system and the absorbing layer initially have the same color, such as white, until the color of the absorbing layer does not change in accent, such as red. One way to achieve this color change is the inclusion of a food additive character or colored powder, or below the absorbing layer, or directly into it. When the coloured powder is exposed to liquid, it dissolves in a liquid, penetrates into the absorbent layer and changes the apparent color of the absorbing layer. The color change may be initiated by other physical changes in functionality, such as depletion in the absorbing layer resources disinfecting additives or the presence of bacteria. One ª 1982, description of which is hereby incorporated by reference.

Resistant to cutting the reinforcing system is preferably essentially resistant to deformation, so maintain the separation between the substance or object and underneath absorbing layer. The materials used for forming the reinforcing system may optionally be elastic, so that in the process of applying can see a slight deformation, however, this deformation is by its nature temporary, and reinforcing the system returns to its essentially undeformed condition after termination of exposure to the substance or the subject of an effort.

When struck with a sharp object or a cutting tool such as a knife with a long essentially a straight edge, the sheet material 10 shown in Fig. 1, is configured such that the striking edge will be in contact with at least one and preferably more than one reinforcing element of the system, to distribute the force of impact and ensure that the striking edge is in contact with relatively more vulnerable absorbing layer and a protective layer located below and/or between elements.

Resistant rezani the processes, elastic, resistant to cutting and/or resistant to crushing. Perhaps the use of typical materials known in the art as possessing similar properties, including those that typically show a high degree of viscosity, interlocked molecular structure of a material with a relatively large molecular weight and a relatively high coefficient of sliding friction. Suitable materials include polymeric materials such as Sevilen, heavy polyethylene (HDPE), lightweight polyethylene (LDPE), linear light polyethylene (LLDPE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastisol, polypropylene (PP), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), crystallized PET, PBT, PEN, and polyurethanes, sealed paper materials, epoxies, thermoplastics, inorganic fillers or fibers, mineral fibers and the like.

In Fig. 2 shows another embodiment of the sheet material 10, which is the subject of the present invention. In the implementation according to Fig. 2 the supporting elements 1 protrude above the upper surface of the absorbing layer 2 to prevent direct contact of the materials placed on the sheet material, with an absorbing layer. In the implementation of Fig. 2, like the version of the implementation of Fig. 1, also the external surface of the absorbing layer 2 and above it.

In Fig. 3 shows another embodiment of the invention, however, Fig. 3 the supporting elements 1 are up above the absorbing layer 2, but don't penetrate the absorbent layer 2 and therefore do not come into contact with the protective layer 3.

While the embodiments shown in Fig. 1-3 describe the sheet material 10, which is resistant to cutting reference system contains a number of separate support elements, the scope of the present invention is also resistant to cutting reference system consisting of a solid canvas material. In Fig. 4 shows such an embodiment in which the reference system consists of a molded film with many high resistant to cutting sections 1, surrounded by the grooves containing apertures for the passage of fluid in the absorbent layer 2. As in the previous implementations, the protective layer 3 protects the underneath surface from contamination. Thanks to the internal volume located between the molded film forming sections 1, and a protective layer 3, it is possible to refuse the absorbing layer 2, suggesting the possibility of using an internal volume for detention and accumulation of liquid, thus forming a reservoir with fluid.

In Fig. 5-7 po, moreover, in these embodiments of present continuous reinforcing system 1, forming a network on the working surface of the sheet material. As for structural elements, Fig. 5-7 directly correlate with the above analysis Fig. 1, 3 and 2, respectively.

Although in some cases it may be desirable distribution is divided into individual cells of the absorbing material, at the present time in most applications prefer to use a solid absorbent layer, to achieve the maximum level of absorption.

Whereas in Fig. 1-7 shows the ordered placement of the supporting elements, amorphous (disordered) figure placing reinforcing elements of the type shown in Fig. 8, can minimize the likelihood of contact blades or edges with an absorbing layer, while maintaining the flexibility of the structure with a separate support elements. Such amorphous pattern described in more detail in U.S. patent application 08/745339, filed November 8, 1996, on behalf of Mac Mall, Tweddell and Hamilton, entitled "three-Dimensional, resistant to the formation of nests of sheet materials and method and apparatus for their manufacture", description Omak, such as knives or sharp objects. In accordance with this sheet material may be oriented in any desired direction relative to the striking edge and ensure protection of the absorbing layer and the barrier layer from direct contact with such edge.

Sheet materials that are the subject of the present invention can be deployed in various schemes and used on a variety of assignments. Samples of products made from such sheet materials, and appropriate uses include, but are not limited to, the covers on the seats, mats for cooking, mats for drying washed or cooked food products, floor mats, lining for drawers and shelves, and the like. To interest subjects may include food products, such as cut pieces of meat products, pastries, products such as fruits and vegetables, and the like. To interest the substances may include substances with sufficient integrity to override the control system, such as a dough for baking.

In accordance with the present invention sheet mater is the fact that ability and resistance to cutting, more specifically, the coefficient of absorption capacity and resistance to shear.

Testing methods
The following test methods were developed and used for the evaluation of sheet materials that are the subject of the present invention.

The absorption intensity.

1) Sample size of 36 inches2(6 inches by 6 inches) (232,26 cm2) is weighed and placed directly under the burette.

2) From the burette to the sample pour 10 CC of distilled water.

3) allow Water to be absorbed for 30 seconds. (If all the water is absorbed faster than 30 seconds, record the time of absorption for subsequent calculations).

4) After 30 seconds, the sample 10 times tap on its side surface to remove all neogotiate water.

5) the Sample is weighed and record its weight.

6) the intensity of the absorption is determined by the formula (final weight - initial weight)/time. The units are gwater/s.

7) Specific absorption intensity is determined by the formula ((final weight - initial weight)/time)/area of the sample. The units are gwater/scm2.

8) According to the described scheme produce test 3-5 Abramov2(4 inches by 4 inches) (103,22 cm2) is weighed and placed, fully immersing in a container with distilled water.

2) the Sample is completely immersed for 120 seconds.

3) After 120 seconds, the sample is removed from the water and within 30 seconds, allow to drain the water.

4) After 30 seconds runoff water sample once shaken to remove excess water.

5) the Sample is weighed and record its weight.

6) Absorptive capacity is determined by the formula (final weight - initial weight)/sample area. The units are gwater/cm2.

7) According to the described scheme produce test 3-5 samples.

8) Report the average of the resulting value.

The absorption efficiency.

1) Calculate the efficiency of absorption produced by the formula
.

The device for determination of resistance to cutting.

Described testing device has a known force in the z-direction (vertical) to the blade of the knife to determine the resistance to cutting of the sample. In all trials as the blades of the knives used knives for cutting poultry 88-0337 company Personna. The test sample is placed on Ispytateley a certain load. Then the test platform is moved with a speed of 8 inches per second at a distance of 4 inches under the weight of the knife blade, forming a slice.

Then perform the consecutive sections with increasing load up until the knife blade will not penetrate the sample through. The effort required to ensure that the knife is completely passed through the sample record. The resistance to cutting is defined as the cutting force/thickness of the sample. The test is repeated with 3-5 individual samples, recording the average value.

Sheet materials that are the subject of the present invention demonstrate absorptive capacity and resistance to cutting of the above achievements to date performance. As shown in the attached data tables and graphical illustrations, sheet materials, which are the subject of the present invention, demonstrate the absorption efficiency of at least about 0.2, and resistance to cutting, equal to at least about 30 kgf/cm, more preferred absorption efficiency of at least approximately 1.0, and resistance to cutting, equal to at least about 40 kgf/see

itany as shown here, the program tests to obtain data are given in table.1 and shown in Fig. 9.

Samples 1-11 are resistant to grinding, and therefore, during operation of the cutting of these materials are less easily separated fragments, which reduces the possibility of contamination of food products during cooking. In particular, resistant to the cutting surface (for example, the surface of the cutting samples 1-11 show a loss when wet abrasion (according to the test described below) that are less than about 400 mg per 100 revolutions, and loss of dry abrasion (according to the test described below) that are less than about 300 mg per 100 revolutions.

In Fig. 10 shows the image in terms of the sample of sheet material 20 made according to the present invention. In this embodiment, the implementation of the sheet material 20 includes an absorbing substrate 22 and the variety is resistant to cutting particles 24, randomly distributed on the substrate 22. As best shown in Fig.11, the sheet 20 has an essentially uniform thickness t and includes a cutting surface 26 and second surface 28. Preferably the surfaces 26 and 28 are essentially flat.

Solid absorbing substrate 22 may be made of any material or materializaron include materials, made of natural fibers, such as cellulosic fiber or refined cellulose fibers and/or synthetic fibers, including hollow fibers and fibers with capillary channels. Alternatively, or in combination with such fibers absorbing substrate 22 may contain an absorbent polymeric foam material, an absorbent polymeric gelling material, hydrogel material and/or, for example, natural starches and resins. Of particular interest are the cellulose substrate type cardboard, usually used in the manufacture of paper. As described in more detail below, to form the substrate 22 can be used the pulp from SSK (Kraft pulp southern softwood), NSK (Kraft pulp Northern softwood) or eucalyptus.

In the implementation shown in Fig.10, the absorbing substrate 22 contains a continuous layer of material. However, the substrate 22 may be a layered structure consisting of multiple layers of the same or different composition. In addition, the dummy substrate 22 may contain absorbent or non-absorbent carrier grid, which may include an absorbent material.

Resistant to cutting particles 24 can be the abrasion and grinding under the influence of the cutting kitchen utensils, used in cooking, such as kitchen knives. Perhaps the use of typical materials having such properties, including those that demonstrate a high degree of viscosity and have a crystalline molecular structure. In a preferred implementation resistant to cutting particles 24 are made of polymeric materials such as ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), heavy polyethylene (HDPE), lightweight polyethylene (LDPE), linear light polyethylene (LLDPE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastisol, polypropylene (PP), modified polyethylenterephtalate (PETG), polystyrene and/or polyurethane. Can also be used with other thermoplastics, thermosetting plastics, polyolefins, polymer and/or glass composite materials. In addition, particles 24 can include melamine-formaldehyde polymers or polymeric materials which are mixed with fillers and/or additives, such as talc, mica, calcium carbonate, and/or other inorganic fillers.

Preferably the material used for manufacturing resistant to cutting particles 24, has a fairly low melting temperature Tmso that it will soften at temperatures that do not cause Obuhov is associated with the substrate 22 due to the application of heat and/or pressure, preferably during the subsequent process aimed at sealing sheet material obtained during the initial manufacturing process of the sheet. This process may also contribute to increased resistance of the sheet material for cutting and grinding. It is desirable that the melting point of the particles was below approximately 450oF (232,2oC) or equal to it. It is desirable that the material used to produce particles 24, had a softening temperature then vetch (using test ASTM D1525) of less than approximately 185oF (85oC) for easier fixing or bonding with the substrate 22 at a relatively low or moderate temperatures. One of the preferred materials for the manufacture of particle 24 is PETG polymer, such as, for example, marketed under the trademark EASTAR PETG COPOLYESTER 6763 company EASTMAN CHEMICAL CO., and the softening temperature of which Vick is about 185oF (85oC). This material has a high resistance to cutting and grinding, and has a relatively moderate softening temperature, providing a bond with the substrate 22 through the application of heat and/or pressure, without charring or fire pologitelnui total absorptive capacity. Another preferred material for use in the particles 24 is polystyrene.

As noted above, the particles 24 may also contain composite polymer materials. For example, for the formation of particles 24 in combination with one or more polymers can be used viscous inorganic fillers to reduce the cost of the particles 24 and/or changes in viscosity, density, resistance to cutting, color or other characteristics of the particles. Suitable fillers can be, for example, caso3, talc and mica. However, although the bulk materials and fillers can be used to generate particles 24, it is desirable that the absorbing substrate 22 was essentially no available inorganic filler particles. In this case, the term "loose filler" refers to inorganic particles that are not associated with absorbing substrate 22 and freely located in the absorbing substrate. Such material may be separated from the sheet 20 during the operation of cutting and mix with prepared food that can give food an undesirable appearance and/or make it unfit for consumption. It is also desirable that the absorbing substrate 22 on the merits . the content of inorganic fillers free particles of the filler are not devouring substrate material, such as cellulosic fibers and other materials described here. Under "absence" means an amount not exceeding that which would be a hazard when used in the absorbing substrate when cooking, or less than the amount at which the filler separated when cooking becomes noticeable by visual or tactile inspection of the absorbing substrate or food, or using both methods. Under tactile examination refers to the feeling of hands or, in the case of food products, lips. Preferably the substrate do not add these free particles of the filler. However, if they add the content of free filler particles should not exceed about 10%, more preferably not more than about 5%, more preferably not more than about 2%, more preferably not more than about 1%, more preferably not more than about 0.5%, more preferably not more than about 0.1% by weight of the dry sheet. Notwithstanding the foregoing, in si material, but the bulk material is not separated when using the absorbing sheet according to purpose (i.e. when placing food on the side of the sheet, designed for use in cutting, and the cutting of food at a time when they are on this side of the sheet.) Thus, the sheet can essentially be missing particles of the filler, when it contains an unbound granular material located or configured in such a way that it essentially or completely separated from the cutting surface during cutting. In particular, it is desirable that at least the surface of the cut sheet material was resistant to crushing and showed a loss when wet abrasion (according to the test described below) that are less than about 400 mg per 100 rpm, and more preferably less than about 300 mg per 100 revolutions. In addition, it is also desirable that the surface of the cut sheet material showed a loss in dry abrasion (according to the test described below) that are less than about 300 mg to 100 rpm, and more preferably less than about 200 mg per 100 revolutions.

Thanks devouring material or materials, receive 28. In addition, due to the fact that preferably are used relatively large polymer particles 24 instead of having smaller polymer fibers, which can cover the material of the substrate 22 during the formation of the finished sheet, is a large part of the absorptive capacity of the substrate 22. In other words, the polymer particles 24 are not fully cover the surrounding substrate material 22 and therefore slightly interferes with its absorption ability. In this connection, the sheet 20 can be applied more polymer 24, without significant negative impact on the absorptive capacity of the sheet. In contrast, the same amount of fine polymer fibers can completely dissipate the structure of the surrounding material of the substrate 20 and substantially blocking its ability to absorb.

In this regard, it is desirable that the polymer particles 24 was used in the amount not exceeding about 50% by weight of the sheet 20. More preferred is the use of polymer particles 24 in the amount of from about 10% to about 40% by weight and most preferably in an amount of about 30% by weight. It is also desirable to have an absorbent material in ogasawa abilities. Particles 24 preferably are not fibrous, and the average size of particles used is preferably equal to not less than 100 μm. It should be noted that while some of the particles have sizes less than 100 microns, the average size of all particles used preferably equal to at least approximately 100 microns. More preferably the average particle size ranges from approximately 100 to 1000 microns, and most preferably from 200 to 500 μm.

In addition, the polymer particles 24 are distributed over the sheet 20 preferably randomly and widely, providing good resistance of the sheet to cutting and grinding. This dispersion creates a high probability that cutting a piece of kitchen utensils that come into contact with one surface 26 or 28 will come into contact with one or more solid particles 24, thereby reducing the likelihood of cutting or grinding under the influence of the efforts of the cutting piece of kitchen utensils. Particles 24 under the cutting surface 26 or 28, can also help to minimize the cutting and/or grinding of the absorbing substrate 22. Polymer particles 24 are preferably placed on a completely discrete parts of the structure, leaving such oblasti.

The sheet material 20 preferably has a relatively large base weight. So, for example, to obtain sufficient resistance to cutting and absorptive capacity are preferred basic weight of not less than about 100 lbs/3000 ft2. More preferably, the basic weight of the sheet material 20 is not less than 165 lbs/3000 ft2most preferably, the basic weight of the sheet material is not less than 300 lb/3000 ft2. In addition, the sheet material 20 to obtain sufficient resistance to cutting and absorptive capacity preferably has a thickness t of approximately 250 microns (0.01 inch) to about 1270 microns (0.05 inches). If for the manufacture of sheet 20 are technology and equipment used in the paper industry, to change the basic weight and thickness of the obtained sheet 20 can be adjusted production parameters, such as intensity, frequency wire mesh, the pressure and the duration of its application, and so on,

Compacted sheet material 20 can be combined with one or more similar or different layers to obtain the layered structure 21, the material predetermined 20 may be bonded to the protective layer 30 to obtain a multi-layer sheet 21. The protective layer 30 may be made of any material or materials suitable for attachment as a layer or coating to the sheet 20. Suitable materials include polymeric films, thermoplastic resin, clay cover, cardboard or metal foil. The protective layer 30 may contain one integral layer of material or may have a layered structure composed of multiple layers of the same or different composition. The protective layer 30 may also have a high friction or non-slip surface to give a sheet structure 21 slip resistance. To impart resistance to sliding of the protective layer 30 preferably has a static friction coefficient equal to not less than about 0.4, and more preferably a coefficient of friction equal to not less than 1 relative to the bearing surface (e.g., a counter) to obtain the proper glide angle of about 45 degrees. In addition, the protective layer 30 is preferably impervious to liquids, to prevent discharge of fluid from sheet 20 and thus prevent contamination of the counter during use.

The layer 30 may be bonded or placed on a sheet of materie, gluing, coating, extrusion or other means. So, for example, to overlay layers such as a protective layer 30, having resistance to cutting and the absorptive capacity of the sheet 20 may use the system pressing in a hot condition. In addition to the additional layer 30 on the sheet 20, such a system pressing in a hot condition can also be used to seal the sheet 20 to increase its resistance to cutting and grinding, and/or to bond the polymer particles in the sheet 20, and/or locking them in absorbing sheet material.

Example embodiments of the system pressing in a hot condition 91 illustrated in Fig.16. As shown in this drawing, not subjected to the sealing sheet 20 can be fed from a drum or roll 72A, and a protective layer 30 can be served with drum 72W. Detachable paper 90 can be fed from the reel 72S and 72D to cover facing outward surface of the sheet 20 and the layer 30 in order to prevent sticking of the sheet and layer to press hot pressing 91. Through the press of hot pressing 91 at the same time miss four layer (90, 20, 30, and 90) for bonding or laminating the sheet 20 with a protective layer 30, as well as for ua heated roller 92A and B, promoting steel strip A, passing her warmth. Similarly heated rolls S and 92D promote and heated steel strip W. Four layers are heated and pressed between two strips of A and B and move between them, forming a layered material 21, which can gather around the drum E. Detachable paper can re-gather around rewinding rollers 93A and B.

It should be understood that although shown in Fig.12 example implementation uses a protective layer 30, the application of the protective layer is not required. In particular, in the system shown in Fig.16, the seal may be subjected to only the sheet material 20, which is then used as a compacted sheet without the protective layer. Conversely, while others described here, the embodiments shown without not permeable to liquid of the protective layer 30, it should be understood that any of these options can be provided with such a layer to improve the skid resistance and/or resistance to the discharge of liquid from the sheet material 20.

In Fig.13 shows as an example the equipment and production technology of sheet 20 according to the principles of the present invention. In the example, showing the project 51, and the compaction process is carried out later for a better fixing of the polymer particles in the sheet material and to obtain a compacted sheet material 20', which has a higher resistance to cutting and grinding. In particular, in Fig.13 pulp fibers in the solution is transferred from the tank 50, and the polymer particles in the solution is transferred from the tank 52. The materials move along the grooves 54 and 56 and fed to the mixing chamber 58, where these advanced materials are mixed with water to form the aqueous dispersion. In the mixing chamber 58 has a mixer 60, facilitating the mixing process.

Then the slurry from the mixing chamber is passed through the headbox from which it arrives on the mesh belt 64 or sieve on which it is formed wet sheet 20. Polymer particles are large enough not to pass through the mesh tape 64. However, the water from the sheet can drain through the mesh tape 64, when the sheet starts to dry. Further drying can be performed by passing the sheet between the pressure rollers 66 for the mechanical removal of water or through the vacuum chamber for pumping water from the sheet. The sheet 20 when the gap between the pressure rollers 66 may be located on the wool felt. For Sudakov 68. Subsequent compaction process, it is desirable that the rollers 70 passed additional heat and/or pressure to cause the flow of polymer particles and to fix them so in the worksheet. For example, the rollers 70 may include a sequence of rolls, such as the calender, for fixing the particles in the sheet. As shown previously in relation to Fig.16, the compaction process can also be used heated belt press. The obtained dried and compacted sheet 20 can then pull up on the drum 72.

In Fig. 14 illustrates another alternative multi-layer sheet 21 made in accordance with the principles of the present invention. In this embodiment, the implementation of the multi-layer sheet 21 includes a top layer 36, the bottom layer 37 and having absorbency and resistance to cutting of the sheet material 20. As described above, the sheet material 20 includes an absorbing substrate 22 and resistant to cutting polymer particles 24. The substrate 22 and the particles 24 may be made of one or more typical of the materials described above. For example, the substrate 22 preferably comprises cellulosic material, and the particles 24 preferably consist of polimerov who μm, and in the absorptive substrate 22 is essentially free of any inorganic fillers and it accounts for at least 50% of the weight of the sheet 20. The basic weight of the sheet 20 is preferably not less than 100 lb/3000 ft2and most preferably at least 250 lb/3000 ft2.

In the upper layer 36 and the bottom layer 37 preferably no polymer particles, and they can be made of any material, essentially covering the surfaces 26 and 28 of the sheet 20, to prevent thereby the selection of the particles 24 of the sheet 20 in the manufacturing process. For example, the upper layer 36 and the bottom layer 37 may be made of paper, cardboard, materials, paper or nonwoven materials. Found that when the particles 24 are separated or released in the manufacture of sheet 20, they can stick or melt at different parts of the production equipment. In this regard, it is desirable to provide one or more components that contribute to the retention of particles 24. The multilayer structure of Fig.14 is one of the preferred configurations designed to hold the particles 24 in the sheet 20. Additionally, as an alternative to using layers 36 and 37 can be used 37 possible inclusion in the composition of the sheet 20 a means of restraint or supplements for additional fixing of the particles 24 within the sheet 20. In addition to the implementation of the retention function in the manufacturing process of the sheet 20 layers 36 and 37 can improve after fabrication sheet other characteristics of the sheet, such as appearance and performance.

Layers 36 and 37 may be bonded or placed on the sheet material 20, extruded or obtained by hot forming on the sheet 20, or applied to the sheet 20 by way of printing, spraying, gluing, coating, extrusion or other means. In addition, the layers 36 and 37 can contain one integral layer of material or may have a layered structure composed of multiple layers of the same or different composition.

In Fig. 15 illustrates a possible method of manufacturing the multilayered structure 21 of Fig.14 using conventional papermaking equipment 51, such as equipment, producing paper or cardboard. In this example, the cellulose fibers in the solution is continuously fed through the headbox 162 on wire mesh or a grid of 64 for forming the lower layer 37. Then as you move layer 37 along a wire sieve 64 through the headbox 164 on top of the layer 37 is continuously serves the pulp from the pulp and polymer particles for the formation of the layer 20. In C Alekna in the solution for forming the layer 36. To complete the drying patterns unconsolidated layered structure 21 may be omitted through one or more drying rolls 68.

In the subsequent process of forming a seal structure 21 three layers 36, 20 and 37 may then be bonded, pressed or laminated together, forming a reinforced multilayer structure 21'. For example, you can use many of the heated rolls 66 and 66', such as used in calenders. Structure 21 may be subjected to pressing and heating between the rollers 66 and 66' for the fixation of polymer particles 24 in the structure and for forming a densified structure 21', which may then be wound on the drum 72.

Preferably, each of the layers 36 and 37 are considerably thinner than the sheet 20 and has a significantly lower basis weights than the sheet 20. For example, each of the layers 36 and 37 may have a basic weight of about 35 lbs/3000 ft2, while the sheet 20 may have a base weight of about 250 lbs/3000 ft2. Preferably the proportion of each of the layers 36 and 37 have from 10 to 25% of the base weight of the obtained multilayer structure, while the share of the middle layer makes up from 50 to 80% of baseline weight. Alternatively, the layers 37 and 38 DL is the roblem of those particles, which can stick to the equipment. For example, the equipment may be equipped with blades, such as scraper blades, designed to periodically clean off the material from the rolls and other components. In addition, these components, such as the drying rolls may be covered with non-sticking coating, such as Teflon, to prevent accumulation of material. As another alternative, the equipment may use an air flotation device to prevent contact of the sheet material 20 with the components. The sheet material 20 under reduced heating can also prevent the melting of the polymer particles 24 and their build-up on the equipment.

Additional examples
The following numbered examples describe examples of sheet materials. In particular, samples 1-3 and 5-6 describe the subject of the invention absorbing sheet materials containing resistant to cutting particles. All of the examples in the amount of 0.75% by dry weight of the paper used Kymene 557LX, increasing strength in a wet state Supplement manufactured by Hercules, Inc.

Sample 1. Kraft pulp southern softwood (SSK) and dry of evkaliptovye approximately 75% ~ 25% of Euc. To the pulp add particles PETG 6763 (Eastman Chemical), subjected to cryogenic grinding on a disk grinder to the average particle size of approximately 300 microns. Particles are added in an amount of about 30% by weight of the total mass (paper + particles). The mixture is then passed through a machine for the production of plasterboard type Fortine, receiving rolls of loose paper base weight of about 320 lbs/3000 ft2. Then the paper is cut into sheets and subjected to the compaction process with the aim of increasing the resistance of the base paper to cutting and grinding. During this process seals the sheets are compressed in a heated belt press at a temperature of 380oF (193oC) and pressure 440 psi for 25 seconds.

Sample 2. Dry wood pulp SSK divided into fibers in water to obtain a slurry A. SSK and dry eucalyptus wood pulp share of fibre in water to obtain a slurry Century Paper fiber pulp is mixed in a ratio of approximately 75% ~ 25% of Euc. In the pulp To add particles PETG 6763 (Eastman Chemical), subjected to cryogenic grinding on a disk grinder to the average particle size of approximately 300 microns. Particles added to Kolichestvennyi layers made from the pulp and the middle layer is made of filled with particles of pulp Century Get rolls of loose paper base weight of about 320 lbs/3000 ft2moreover , the upper and lower layers are each base weighs about 35 lbs/3000 ft2. The total content of the polymer sheet is about 30% (by weight). Then the paper is cut into sheets and subjected to the compaction process to improve the resistance of the base paper to cutting and grinding, and the sheets are compressed in a heated belt press at a temperature of 380oF (193oC) and pressure 440 psi for 25 seconds.

Sample 3. SSK and dry eucalyptus wood pulp share of fibre in water to obtain a slurry. Paper fiber is mixed in a ratio of approximately 75% ~ 25% of Euc. To the pulp add particles PETG 6763 (Eastman Chemical), subjected to cryogenic grinding on a disk grinder to the average particle size of approximately 220 μm. Particles are added in an amount of about 30% by weight of the total mass (paper + particles). The mixture is then passed through a machine for the production of plasterboard type Fortine, receiving rolls of loose paper base weight of about 320 lbs/3000 ft2. During the subsequent process of sealing sheets are compressed in a heated lsec 4 (control sample). Kraft pulp southern softwood (SSK) and dry eucalyptus (Euc) wood pulp share of fibre in water to obtain a slurry. Paper fiber is mixed in a ratio of approximately 75% ~ 25% of Euc. The mixture is then passed through a machine for the production of plasterboard type Fortine, receiving rolls of loose paper base weight of about 320 lbs/3000 ft2. Then the paper is cut into sheets and subjected to the compaction process in which the sheets are compressed in a heated belt press at a temperature of 380oF (193oC) and pressure 440 psi for 25 seconds.

Sample 5. Kraft pulp southern softwood (SSK) and dry eucalyptus wood pulp share of fibre in water to obtain slurry. Paper fiber is mixed in a ratio of approximately 75% ~ 25% of Euc. To the pulp add particles PETG 6763 (Eastman Chemical), subjected to cryogenic grinding on a disk grinder to the average particle size of approximately 300 microns. Particles are added in an amount of about 30% by weight of the total mass (paper + particles). The mixture is then passed through a machine for the production of plasterboard type Fortine, receiving rolls of loose paper basic weight is the resistance of the base paper to cutting and grinding. The sheets are compressed in a heated belt press at a temperature of 380oF (193oC) and pressure 440 psi for 25 seconds.

Sample 6. SSK and dry eucalyptus wood pulp share of fibre in water to obtain a slurry. Paper fiber is mixed in a ratio of approximately 75% ~ 25% of Euc. To the pulp add particles PETG 6763 (Eastman Chemical), subjected to cryogenic grinding on a disk grinder to the average particle size of approximately 200 microns. Particles are added in an amount of about 30% by weight of the total mass (paper+particles). The mixture is then passed through a machine for the production of plasterboard type Fortine receiving coils are not compacted base paper weighing about 165 lbs/3000 ft2. Then the paper is cut into sheets and subjected to the compaction process to improve the resistance of the base paper to cutting and grinding. The sheets are compressed in a heated belt press at a temperature of 380oF (193oC) and pressure 440 psi for 25 seconds.

Testing methods
To obtain the characteristics of samples 1-6 apply the following testing methods.

The absorption intensity
Apply the method of determining the intense is the fact that ability, above.

The absorption efficiency
Apply the method of determining the efficiency of absorption described above.

Test cutting (cutting resistance or cutting)
Applied test method for splitting described above.

Test grinding (abrasion loss)
For grinding tests fit the following ways according to the standard TAPPI Tom-97, which are used to determine the resistance to crushing of samples 1-6, described above.

Determination of loss on abrasion by Taber (dry)
1. Cut a square sample 4 inch x 4 inch (101,6 mm x 101,6 mm) with a hole 1/4 inch (6.35 mm) in the center.

2. Install abrasive disks with Catalog number H-18 TABERa device for testing the abrasion TABER. Set on the parallel arms of the device TABERthe weight of 1,000,

3. Weigh the sample, accurate to three decimal places.

4. Place the sample in the slot of the sample on the instrument TABER. Lower the levers and turn the rotary table. Ensure the implementation of 100 rpm. sample removal from its surface unbound fibers. Weigh the sample, accurate to three decimal places.

6. Determine the specific abrasion loss as the difference between initial weight and final weight. The units are mglossmaterial/100 turns.

7. Perform this test three to five samples.

8. Let the average sample value.

Determination of loss on abrasion Taber on (wet)
1. Cut a square sample 4 inch x 4 inch (101,6 mm x 101,6 mm) with a hole 1/4 inch (6.35 mm) in the center.

2. Install abrasive disks with Catalog number H-18 TABERa device for testing the abrasion TABER. Set on the parallel arms of the device TABERthe weight of 1,000,

3. Weigh the sample, accurate to three decimal places.

4. Immerse the sample in thirty seconds in distilled water.

5. After 30 seconds, the sample is removed from the water and knocking ten times its lateral surface, remove any absorbed water.

6. Place the sample on the instrument TABER. Lower the arms and vkluchite for drying at a temperature of 140oF (60oC). Samples extracted the next day and for at least four hours enable its temperature to equalize with the ambient temperature.

8. Weigh the conforming sample accurate to three decimal places.

9. Determine the specific abrasion loss as the difference between initial weight and final weight. The units are mglossmaterial/100 turns.

10. Perform this test three to five samples.

11. Let the average sample value.

Sheet materials containing resistant to cutting particles and manufactured according to the present invention demonstrate a high absorptive capacity, high cutting resistance and low abrasion loss. The absorption efficiency, resistance to cutting and abrasion loss for samples 1-6 are shown in the table in Fig.17. As shown in Fig.17, sheet materials, manufactured according to the principles of the present invention have absorption efficiency, equal to not less than about 0.2, and resistance to cutting of not less than approximately 30 kgf/cm, and more preferably the absorption efficiency, equal to not less than che the sheet materials, which is the subject of the present invention have absorption efficiency not less than about 0.2, the resistance to cutting is not less than approximately 30 kgf/cm and a loss on the wet abrasion of less than about 400 mg per 100 revolutions. Even more preferably, sheet materials, which are the subject of the present invention have absorption efficiency not less than 1.0, the resistance to cutting of not less than 40 kgf/cm and a loss on the wet abrasion of less than about 400 mg per 100 revolutions. The cutting surface of such material is also preferably shows a loss of dry abrasion of less than about 300 mg to 100 rpm, and more preferably less than about 200 mg to 100.

As shown in the examples in Fig.17, it is desirable that the share of the absorbing material in the composition of the sheet accounted for at least 50% by weight to provide a high absorptive capacity and resistant to cutting particles ranged in weight from about 10 to about 50% by weight of the sheet. The sheet material preferably has a relatively large base weight. So, for example, to obtain sufficient absorptive capacity and the resistance to cutting is desirable the EU sheet material is not less than 165 lbs/3000 ft2(0,027 g/cm2and most preferably, the basic weight of the sheet material is not less than 300 lb/3000 ft2(0,049 g/cm2). In addition, the thickness t of the sheet material is from about 250 microns (0.01 inch) to about 1250 microns (0.05 inches) to ensure sufficient absorption capacity and resistance to cutting. Particles in the subject invention the sheet material is preferably composed of a polymeric material and preferably have dimensions of not less than about 100 microns and most preferably from 200 to 500 μm.

The above examples and description of the preferred variants of the invention are presented only for purposes of illustration and description. They are not intended to be exclusive or to limit the invention described specific forms, and in light of the above provisions are possible and considered various modifications and variations. Although the description of a large number of preferred and a range of implementation options, systems, configurations, methods and possible applications, it is necessary to understand that you can use many options and alternatives without deviation from the scope of the present soono the use of other additives to provide resistance to cutting and/or grinding, such as chemical additives.

Thus, the embodiments and the examples chosen and described in order to best illustrate the principles of the invention and its practical application and thus giving person skilled in the art to best utilize the invention in various embodiments of and with various modifications suited to the particular intended use. Accordingly, provided that such modifications are included in the scope of the invention limited by the attached claims.


Claims

1. Sheet multi-purpose material containing an absorbent layer with opposite first and second surfaces, wherein the sheet material also includes having resistance to cutting control system in contact with an absorbing layer, in which the sheet material has an absorption efficiency, equal to not less than about 0.2, and resistance to cutting of not less than approximately 30 kgf/cm, while having resistance to cutting reference system forms a continuous network.

2. Sheet material multipurpose n is the sheet material further comprises having resistance to cutting control system contact with an absorbing layer, in which the sheet material has an absorption efficiency, equal to not less than about 0.2, and resistance to cutting of not less than approximately 30 kgf/cm, while having resistance to cutting reference system consists of a mass of discrete elements, made in the absorbing layer.

3. The sheet material under item 1 or 2, in which the sheet material has an absorption efficiency, equal to not less than approximately 1.0, and resistance to cutting of not less than about 40 kgf/see

4. The sheet material under item 1 or 2, wherein the sheet material further contains, in essence, is not permeable to liquid barrier layer essentially completely covering the second surface.

5. The sheet material under item 1 or 2, in which reference system forms a shapeless figure.

6. The sheet material under item 1 or 2, in which the specified reference system forms an ordered pattern.

7. The sheet material under item 2, in which an absorbent layer forms a reservoir.

8. The sheet material under item 1 or 2, wherein said absorbent layer contains fibrous material.

9. The sheet material under item 1 or 2, in which the specified reference system contains the melcene, containing sheet material wherein the sheet material contains an absorbing substrate, resistant to cutting Supplement connected with absorbing substrate, and resistant to crushing Supplement connected with absorbing substrate, while resistant to cutting Supplement contains a variety with resistance to cutting particles randomly distributed on the substrate, and the sheet material has a resistance to cutting, equal to not less than approximately 30 kgf/cm, the absorption efficiency, equal to not less than about 0.2, and loss on a wet abrasion of less than about 400 mg per 100 revolutions.

11. The product under item 10, which is resistant to cutting additive and resistant to grinding additive form, essentially non-absorbent layer with holes.

12. The product under item 11, in which, essentially non-absorbent layer contains a polymer layer with holes.

13. The product under item 10, which is resistant to cutting additive and resistant to grinding additive form discrete areas resistant to cutting and resistant to crushing of the material.

14. The product under item 13, in which discrete areas contain the epoxy.

15. The product under item 10, in which the sheet material has a loss on dry abrasion less than h abrasion of less than about 200 mg per 100 revolutions.

17. The product under item 10, in which the sheet material has a basic weight of not less than 100 lbs/3000 ft2.

18. The product under item 10, which also contains a thin absorbing layer that is adhered to the sheet material.

Priority items:

18.06.1999 on PP. 1-9;

27.04.2000 on PP.10 - 18.

 

Same patents:

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FIELD: radio-electric engineering.

SUBSTANCE: cover is formed in form of layer on basis of fiber, placed between outer and inner layers of dielectric materials. Fiber layer along thickness is formed of several cloths of textile material of synthetic filaments with carbon cover with specific electrical, in which adjacent cloths are interconnected by inserts of given thickness on basis of dielectric connecting substance. Outer layer is made of rubber. Inner layer is made of dielectric connecting substance, containing granulated material, weakening reflection of electro-magnetic waves, in amount of 5-25% of total.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: chemical industry; methods of production of the cloth-shaped laminates with a cruciform arrangement of the layers.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to chemical industry, in particular to the methods of production of the cloth-shaped laminates with a cruciform arrangement of the layers used for manufacture mainly of bags made out of the such material and having a shape of a pipe, or a folded laminate cloth with a cruciform-shaped arrangement of layers manufactured out of two or more linked to each other oriented films. The film(s)of the laminate representing A-component is (are) placed on one side of the laminate with a cruciform arranged layers and has (have) the main or resulting direction of orientation essentially corresponding to the longitudinal direction of the cloth. The film(s) the laminate, representing B-component is (are) placed on the other side the laminate with a cruciform arrangement of the layers and has (have) the main or resulting direction of orientation essentially perpendicularly to the longitudinal direction of the cloth. The modulus of elasticity of the A- component material being in a non-oriented state is at least by 15 % below the modulus of elasticity of the B-component material being in a non-oriented state. The A- and B-components have different thermal shrinkage along the longitudinal direction of the laminate cloth. At that the thermal shrinkage of A-component is more, than the thermal shrinkage of B-component. The bags made out of the laminate with cruciform-shaped arrangement of the layers have the thermal-welded seams with the heightened strength for delamination at an impact.

EFFECT: the invention ensures, that the film of the laminate representing A-component has a bigger thermal shrinkage, than film of the laminate representing B-component, and the thermal-welded seams of bags have the heightened strength for delamination at an impact.

22 cl, 12 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex

Laminated structure // 2278937

FIELD: protection devices, particularly structures to protect vehicles and stationary devices against tamper, including terroristic acts.

SUBSTANCE: laminated structure comprises solid body and protective means formed of heat-resistant material and phase-changeable material, which may absorb heat. The protective means is located in the body. Two layers of highly rigid non-metallic material and layer of porous material having compressive strength of not less than 1.5 MPa and percent elongation in compression of not less than 20% are included in the laminated structure. Heat-resistant layer is applied to one surface, namely outer surface with respect to object to be protected, of highly rigid non-metallic layer. The protective means are united in single layer and arranged on inner side of the first layer of highly rigid non-metallic material. Substrate comprising at least two layers abuts the protective means. The substrate includes the first layer made of material with percent elongation of not less than 20% and tensile strength of 100÷360 MPa and the second layer made of material with percent elongation of not less than 25% and tensile strength of not less than 370 MPa. Layer of porous material is arranged between the substrate and the second layer of highly rigid non-metallic material. All layers are covered with layer of resilient non-metallic material.

EFFECT: improved protective properties, increased bullet-proofness and resistance to arc-jet cutters.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: building industry; methods of production of the construction products at the building industry works.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of building industry, in particular, to the method of production of the construction products at the building industry works and may be used for manufacture of the reinforced concrete, including the spatial structures with the heat-insulating layer. The technical result of the invention is reduction of the power input, improvement of the quality and expansion of list of products. The method of manufacture of double-layer reinforced concrete products includes the consecutive formation of the constructive and the heat-insulating layers of the reinforced concrete and its thermal treatment. The heat-insulating layer with the average density of 450-500 kg/m3 made out of the vermiculite-concrete mixture with flowability of 3-5 cm is molded by the vibrobeam with the simultaneous its reinforcement by the woven net in top level. After the structure achieves the plastic strength of 0.015-0.025 MPa, then begin the molding the constructive layer and conduct the thermal treatment by the method of the contact heating from the side of the heat-insulating layer.

EFFECT: the invention ensures reduction of the power input, improvement of the quality and expansion of list of products.

FIELD: manufacture of high-strength laminate metallic tubes with layers of easy-to-melt metals.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of feeding steel blank from heating chamber after hot rolling under pressure cylinders; winding on format drum sheet of easy-to-melt metal whose length exceeds that of hot steel sheet for forming inner protection layer of tube shell; applying onto steel sheet easy-to-melt metal sheet at temperature of steel sheet less than melting temperature of easy-to-melt metal; performing hot deforming at combined shaping by means of pressure of press-rollers for producing bimetallic strips; feeding bimetallic strips under pressure rollers of format drum for their further winding in order to produce tube shell with predetermined thickness of wall; winding on format drum easy-to-melt metal sheet with length exceeding that of all bimetallic strips for forming outer protection layer of tube shell; welding bimetallic strips one with other and with inner and outer protection layers for producing ready tube shells with use of pressure rollers on format drum rotating at melting temperature of easy-to-melt metal; joining produced shells to tube; performing said welding procedures during five revolutions of format drum. Shells are joined to tube with use of inner and outer annular welding and further final abutting due to welding steel annular members at side of outer surface of shells and butt welding by means of steel electrodes. Then easy-to-melt metal is surfaced onto welded seam.

EFFECT: enhanced strength and density of metallic tubes with non-exfoliating layers without macro-cracking and ruptures of welded joints caused by change of temperature of environment.

2 dwg

FIELD: processes of making protecting members such as filaments for protection against counterfeit of valuable papers, possibly determination of authenticity of bank notes and other bank-papers and credit documents.

SUBSTANCE: protecting magnetic filament includes polymeric film base onto which laminate structure of protecting means is formed. Such structure includes first masking layer of metallic material applied on base and successively arranged layer of magnetic material to be detected, additional masking layer of metallic material and outer covering film layer of polymeric material. First masking layer is arranged between surface of polymeric film base and layer of detected magnetic material whose characteristic magnetic parameters are limited by respective values: 0.1 Oe < Hc < 1 Oe; Hc/Hs ˜= 0.95 -0.98 where Hc - coercive force of magnetic material; Hs - saturation field of magnetic material.

EFFECT: enhanced degree of protecting valuable papers.

3 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: manufacture of laminated acoustic materials used in aeronautical engineering and automobile industry; manufacture of safety and sound-absorbing shields for automobile roads.

SUBSTANCE: proposed material includes layer made from non-woven needle-piercing material manufactured from polyoxadiazole or polyimidic fibers impregnated with binder of the following composition, mass-%: phenylmethyl polysiloxane, 87.6-95.0; polyorganoelemnto silazane, 3.6-3.9; tetrabromodiphenyl propane, 8.8-9.6 and layer of cellular structure which is made in form of honeycomb panel on base of glass or aramide fabric impregnated with phenolformaldehyde or polyimidic resin. Non-woven material and binder are used at the following ratio, mass-%: non-woven material, 25-52; binder, 48-75. Ratio of thickness of acoustic material layers is equal to 1: (1-2). Material possesses high and stable magnitudes of sound-absorbing coefficients of about 0.8-0.99 in wide frequency range (1.25-6 kHz).

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

3 cl, 1 tbl, 4 ex

FIELD: manufacture of sound-absorbing materials for reduction of noise inside confined space; aviation and automobile industries.

SUBSTANCE: proposed laminated sound-insulating material includes layer made from non-woven needle-piercing material impregnated with binder and layer of cellular structure. Layer of non-woven material is made from organic or carbon fibers. Aqueous dispersion on base of vinylidene chloride copolymer is used as binder. Layer of cellular structure is made in form of honeycomb panel on base of glass or aramide fabric impregnated with phenol formaldehyde resin. Proposed sound-absorbing material has high sound absorption coefficient within frequency range from 250 to 2000 Hz.

EFFECT: increased sound absorption coefficient.

5 cl, 2 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: metallurgy industry; methods of production of the superhard coatings.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to production of the superhard coatings. The product surface is pretreated in the vacuum chamber with the accelerated ions of argon with the energy up to 1000 eV and at the gas pressure of argon (2-6)·102 Pa. Then on the treated surface apply the underlayer on the basis of the metal selected from the group: titanium, chromium and zirconium. The underlayer is applied by means of the electric arc evaporator with separation of the plasma torrent by the magnetic field. Then apply the composite layer (metal-carbon) by the same method, as the previous layer. The diamond-like film is applied by means of the carbonic plasma generator at the pulse current of 3-5 kA at the discharge duration of 0.2-0.5 msec and the pause duration of no less than 10 msec. The diamond-like film is applied by the electric arc vacuum spraying of the graphitic cathode from the cathode spot generating the carbonic plasma at the pulse current of 3-5 кА, at the discharge duration of 0.2-0.5 msec and the pause duration of no less than 10 msec. Then form the protective underlayer of the matched atomic-molecular flows of carbon and the element from the group containing aluminum, titanium, silicon and zirconium, with the change of the mass % share from 0 up to 8; then apply the metallic layer. The technical result of the invention is development of the technology -of production of the superhard carbon-metal coating with the preset properties. At that the lower layer should have the high adhesion with the substrate material, the medium layer should have the high hardness, the increased -wear-resistance and the upper layer should have the good thermal conductivity and thermal stability.

EFFECT: the invention ensures development of the technology -of production of the superhard carbon-metal coating with the preset properties, its lower layer should have the high adhesion with the substrate material, the medium layer should have the high hardness, the increased -wear-resistance and the upper layer should have the good thermal conductivity and thermal stability.

6 cl, 1 ex

FIELD: construction, particularly building materials, namely landscaping articles, for instance figured paving stones and so on.

SUBSTANCE: method involves laying rigid concrete mix in form to create main layer; performing vibration compacting thereof; placing rigid concrete mix over main layer to create decorative face layer; carrying out final vibration compacting thereof and curing the obtained article. Main layer consists of the following concrete mix (% by weight): cement - 13.1-13.2, gravel with 3-10 mm particle dimensions - 39.6-39.9, sand - 43.4-43.7, remainder is water. Prior compaction is carried out with 120-250 g/cm2 pressure for 0.5-5.0 c. Decorative face layer is created of rigid concrete mix including the following components (% by weight): cement 18.2-18.6, quartz or dolomite flour - 1.1-2.9, decorative filler - 71.0-75.8, remainder is water. The decorative filler is mixture including sand, serpentinite, decorative granite and marble having 0.9-7 mm particle dimensions or mixture including sand, amphibolite, serpentinite and marble having 0.9-7 mm particle dimensions or mixture comprising sand, amphibolite, granite and marble having 0.9-7 mm particle dimensions. Final compaction is performed under specific pressure of 110-140 g/cm2 for 3.0-12.0 c. After that the article is placed in curing chamber. Decorative face layer of hardened article is subjected to grit blasting or sand blasting. Double-layered building article produced by above method is also disclosed.

EFFECT: enhanced appearance of face article surface, improved natural stone simulation, increased strength and service life, improved stability to surface damage and salt precipitation, decreased water sorption, increased wear and frost resistance, decreased material consumption and costs due to minimized pigment usage.

14 cl, 5 ex

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