The device self-watering
The invention relates to agriculture and can be used in irrigated agriculture for offline automatically determine the timing of irrigation and management of these irrigation of small areas, such as orchards, vineyards and single plants. The device includes a unit balancing and shut-off body, and a stop valve consists of a casing, a plunger connected with the sensing element of pressure, and saddles. The housing further includes fittings of the input and output of water, the power balance can be made in the form of coil springs or bellows unit. The hose water includes the saddle, and as a sensitive element of the pressure used flaccid membrane. The invention provides an Autonomous automatic irrigation. 3 Il. The invention relates to agriculture and can be used in irrigated agriculture for Autonomous automatic irrigation of small areas such as gardens.Known drip irrigation system , consisting of water and nephroblastomas nodes, filter device for the preparation and supply of fertilizer in the piping system, remote control, magis the valves and channels of communication between the remote control and the control valve.A disadvantage of the known system is that it is specialized to control the distribution of large irrigated land, and for the implementation of its work requires the application of external energy (electricity) that under field conditions is often an insurmountable task.It is known device  control the humidity of the soil under drip irrigation, containing the soil moisture sensors, connected through a threshold elements to the logical unit associated with the blocks of program management and alarm, while the soil moisture sensor and the threshold elements of groups that are located in areas of moisture control droppers, and in each group the outputs of threshold elements combined scheme And sensors humidity sensors are located at different depths, and the threshold elements are made with the possibility of changing the tripping threshold.A disadvantage of the known device is that it is specialized for the control of soil moisture, land scarcity and also uses for its external energy is electricity that does not allow you to use it in remote conditions.Known tube nozzle for filling liquids with sealed self-aligning tube, the transmission element information consisting of a bellows device and transmission-tuning mechanism with the contact device, and a porous element made in the form of a few isolated parts, and the transmission element has an additional bellows devices interconnected rods and gear-tuning mechanism, with each part of the porous element of the Autonomous connected to the atmosphere.The disadvantage of this known device is that, it is designed to manage soil moisture using an external energy is electricity that does not allow you to use it in a completely Autonomous conditions.It is known device  - tensiometer soil, containing a sealed volume, comprising a porous ceramic hollow element, a connecting tube, a nozzle for filling liquids with sealed self-aligning tube, the sensing element of pressure and a removable indicator.This is a known technical solution is the closest to the technical essence and the achieved beneficial effects and are taken by the author for the prototype.Negotia.The purpose of the present invention is the provision of Autonomous functions of automatic irrigation.This objective is achieved in that in a device containing a sealed volume, comprising a porous ceramic hollow element, a connecting tube, a nozzle for filling liquids with sealed self-aligning tube and sensing element pressure further comprises the power trim and a stop valve and a stop valve consists of a casing, a plunger connected to the sensitive element of the pressure and seat, the housing includes a socket input and output of water, the power balance can be made in the form of coil springs or bellows unit, the hose water includes saddle, and as a sensitive element of the pressure used flaccid membrane.Essential features which distinguish the claimed invention from the prototype, in the known technical solutions are not found. This allows us to conclude that the claimed invention has significant differences.The proposed solution combines the sensor detect the start and end of the irrigation and the watering device. Implemented with this function, you sozdat start watering, manages irrigation and finishes watering with increasing soil moisture to a pre-specified value.In Fig. 1 shows the scheme of the proposed device; Fig. 2 shows one embodiment of the proposed device using a helical compression springs as a unit trim; Fig. 3 shows another possible embodiment of the proposed device using a bellows unit as a block trim.Fig. 1 includes irrigated plant 1, the irrigation pipeline 2, the proposed device is offline automatic irrigation 3 with a porous ceramic hollow element 4, is lowered into the soil 5 to the depth of the root system of plants 1.6 - local zone soil moisture after watering.The diagram in Fig. 1 shows how using the proposed device self-watering 3, you can water the plant 1. Irrigation pipe 2 is laid in a row with plants at a height of 40-50 cm (as shown in Fig. 1), or is located in the land of the exit surface in plants 1 and is connected to a device independent automatic irrigation 3. The pressure in the irrigation pipe 2 is created by an external water supply system for irrigation. The device is Oliva is determined using tenzimetricheskikh method. This method allows to determine the local vacuum (soil moisture tension) in the soil that is created in the area of root hairs of plants by sucking their capillary moisture between fine soil particles.When determining the start of irrigation (increasing local vacuum up to a certain limit in the area of the root system of plants) proposed device 3 automatically delivers water to the root zone of the plant 1. When watering in soil 5 accumulated gravitational moisture, which under its own weight penetrates the lower layers of soil 5. In soil 5 formed the outline of hydration 6. Over time, this moisture reaches the porous ceramic hollow element 4 of the irrigation device 3. The vacuum inside the porous ceramic hollow element 4 decreases, and the watering device 3 stops the flow of water through itself. Watering is completed. The device implements all the functions of watering automatically and fully Autonomous.In Fig. 2 is one embodiment of the proposed device Autonomous automatic irrigation. It includes a sealed volume, comprising a porous ceramic hollow element 1, a connecting tube 2, tube 3 for the Gulf of fluid from a sealed self-aligning tube 4, custy body, consisting of a body 7, a piston 8 connected to the sensor element 5, the fitting 9 enter the water with the saddle 10 and the nozzle 11 o water.The device operates as follows.It is evident from Fig. 1 and the explanation it is clear that with decreasing moisture content in the soil it creates a local area of increasing vacuum due to the activity of the root system of plants (suction of water from this local area. This increase in the perceived vacuum sealed volume of the device, namely a porous ceramic hollow element 1. Inside porous ceramic hollow element 1 water (through the connecting pipe 2 and pipe 3, the Gulf of the liquid-sealed self-aligning tube 4). In the case of increasing the local vacuum in the soil due to less water the root system of the plants, the water level inside the porous ceramic hollow element 1 begins to decline. Due to this, begins to increase the vacuum in the closed sealed volume of the internal cavity of the porous ceramic element 1, the connecting tube 2 and the sensing element of the pressure - flaccid membrane 5. Flaccid membrane 5 starts to bend downward due to the pressure difference (atmospheric pressure from above through the nozzle 11 of the water outlet and the vacuum situate 6. With a further increase in vacuum flaccid membrane 5 together with the connected plunger 8 is moved down. This increases the gap between the seat 10 and the plunger 8, opening the flow of irrigation water through the nozzle 9 of the water inlet. As the fitting 11 of the release of water from the internal cavity of the housing 7 is constantly free (open), the water through it low consumption comes to watering. If water flow is not enough to increase the soil moisture content or the duration of irrigation is still small, local vacuum in the soil increases further. The membrane 5 with the plunger 8 is lowered even further, increasing water consumption for irrigation.Gradually gravitational water under gravity down, soaking the lower layers of the soil. While the contour of hydration (Fig. 1) reaches the porous ceramic hollow element. Local vacuum in the zone of hydrate begins to fall.He begins to fall and sealed in a closed volume (Fig.2) formed of a porous ceramic hollow element 1, the connecting tube 2 and flaccid membrane 5. The membrane 5 starts (under the action of the vertical force of the compression spring 6) climb up, blocking the connected plunger 8 water flow from the nozzle 9 to the input of irrigation water. Prov.Eskom mode and fully Autonomous.In Fig. 3 shows another variant of the proposed device automatic irrigation. It differs from the first by the fact that as a block trim it uses a bellows unit 6.This option is similar to the previous one. In this case, due to the greater surface of the bellows unit, the device is more accurate and can be used where necessary to maintain soil moisture content at more than a fixed level.In the practical implementation of the device it is necessary to prepare and set up, then mount the plants that you want to irrigate.The preparation of the proposed device to work practically does not differ from the preparation of the prototype except for configuration operations. The fully assembled device, you must fill with boiled water and to adjust the operation of the device at the desired value of the local vacuum (soil moisture tension), for example for fruit 0,7...0,8 kN/cm2. To do this: - connect to socket 9 water inlet hose with water or compressed air at a working pressure of about 0.01 MPa (0.1 kgf/cm2). The water should not pass through the device, the plunger 8 is fully whodied to tighten the fitting 9 water inlet to stop the passage of water when the plunger 8 is denser in the saddle 10, moving the membrane 5 and the loading block trim 6); - Unscrew the sealed self-aligning tube 4; - mount the device on the stand so that the porous ceramic tip 1 was completely in the tank, whence it is pumped by compressor air; - pour boiling water through the pipe 4, avoiding the presence of air bubbles in a closed sealed volume of the device (special technology); - instead of a sealed self-aligning tube 4 twist the gauge; - include the compressor and pump out the air from the tank, which is mounted porous ceramic hollow element 1 of the device. With increasing vacuum to the pre-set value, for example 0,7...0,8 kN/cm2from fitting 11 water outlet should go water. The operation of the device set by loosening the fitting 9 water inlet and, therefore, mitigating the power trim 6 (in this case a compression spring); - stop the compressor, gradually reducing the vacuum in the tank to zero (atmospheric pressure); - Unscrew the gauge connection for Gulf water; instead of the gauge slowly spinning sealed self-aligning tube 4;
- the device is removed from the test stand.Charged device is required using a special drill (diameter drill should correspond to the external diameter of the porous ceramic hollow element 1 device) to drill a hole in the soil to the desired depth (for newly planted fruit 50. . .75 cm). From excavated from the bottom of the borehole soil to prepare a slurry with the consistency of the relevant sour cream and pour into the well. Then insert the porous ceramic hollow element 1 of the device in the hole and cover with soil. The configuration of the device and mounting it in the workplace ends.Practical field tests of the proposed device has shown its sustainable operation during the entire vegetation period (in winter, the device must be removed because of the danger of thawing in cold winters).The main advantages of the proposed technical solution against known:
fully Autonomous operation of the watering device;
- fully automatic operation of the device from determining the need to start irrigation and water supply to determine whether his termination and the termination of the water supply;
- watering can occur with increased content of mechanical impurities in irrigation water due to the change of the circular hole for supplying water;
- watering process is not dependent on changes in ambient temperature and pressure of the surrounding atmosphere;
- the device can be used for irrigation as single plants or groups of the Cesky is absolutely safe;
- the device is not critical to high levels of dust and corrosive environments;
- the device is not critical to the high humidity of the atmosphere and may be exposed to rain;
- the device does not require high qualification of the staff;
- the device can be used for irrigation steep mountain slopes, where the use of other methods of irrigation is excluded because of the risk of washout of topsoil;
- the device can be used not only for irrigation but also for the plants by watering with dissolved fertilizer due to the fact that the water flow can vary within wide limits and wash the precipitated crystalline substance from the drip line and the internal cavity of the device.USED INFORMATION
1. Surin Century A. Nosenko C. F. Mechanization and automation of irrigation of agricultural crops. M.: Kolos. 1981, 281 S. (Textbooks and manuals for C. agricultural colleges). P.246.2. USSR author's certificate 1192735 And a 01 G 25/16, 31/05/84. Published 23.11.85. Bull. 43.3. USSR author's certificate 1335856 A1, G 01 N 7/04, a 01 G 25/00, 15/03/86. Published 07.09.87. Bull. 33.4. The soil tensiometer 20 AM-II. Passport L 82.787.000 PS.
Ustroili element, connecting tube, a nozzle for filling liquids with sealed self-aligning tube and the sensing element of pressure, characterized in that it further comprises a unit balancing and shut-off body, and a stop valve consists of a casing, a plunger connected to the sensitive element of the pressure, and the seat, the housing includes a socket input and output of water, power trim made in the form of coil springs or bellows unit, the hose water includes the saddle, and as a sensitive element of the pressure used flaccid membrane.
FIELD: irrigation systems used for automatic watering of plants on restricted area plots.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus has accumulating vessel with bottom opening closed with valve, auxiliary vessel, two float valves, one of float valves being adapted for supplying of water into accumulating vessel and other float valve being adapted for cutting-off water supply. Valve floats are arranged in auxiliary vessel disposed below accumulating vessel bottom and connected by means of flexible pipes with hermetically sealed vessels provided with porous bottoms deepened into soil. When water is sucked through porous bottoms into soil, water level in auxiliary vessel is lowered and float valves are opened, with water being delivered into accumulating vessel through one of float valves. When predetermined water level is reached, valve for discharge opening is opened, water is supplied into low-pressure irrigation system and is further delivered through second float valve into auxiliary vessel. As a result, water level in auxiliary vessel is increased to cut-off water supply into accumulating vessel.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and simplified construction.
FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, system for automatic protection and controlling of self-propelled multi-tower sprinkling machines.
SUBSTANCE: hydraulic system has locking device equipped with hydraulic drive and positioned at entrance end of machine, controllable hydraulic relay connected to control pipe extending through each tower and connected to hydraulic relay control unit and through narrowing device to pressure pipeline, return valve, normally open locking valves and actuating devices with tower position sensors disposed on rods which are fixed on housing bars of synchronization mechanism for intermediate supporting carts, hydraulically controlled valve mounted in feeding line of hydraulic drive for terminating cart and hydraulically communicated with control pipe. Actuating devices are connected through inlet pipe unions with control pipe via normally open locking valve by means of T-pipe, and through outlet pipe union with atmosphere. Tower position sensors are formed from plates made of fluorinated plastic material and equipped with slot widening at its ends. Plates are fixed on rods of synchronization mechanism by means of bolt connection so that said plates are movable axially of rod. Silicone pipe positioned within slot is joined with inlet and outlet pipe unions rigidly fixed within housing of synchronization mechanism for intermediate towers. Hydraulic communication between narrowing device and pressure pipeline is provided through return valve.
EFFECT: simplified construction and enhanced reliability in operation.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, irrigation systems, more particular, controlling of water flows supplied into upstream of open irrigation system.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus has upper, lower and minimum level sensors made in the form of hermetic contacts mounted on floats, in upstream water-intake construction, within hollow sleeves cooperating with magnets immovably fixed on sleeves. Hermetic contact of upper level sensor is connected to power unit through time delay relay, receiving-transmitting unit connected to unit for controlling of electric engine of downstream pump-and-power unit, control unit for main electric hydraulic relay and in parallel with end switch mounted on hydraulic drive of locking apparatus engageable with stop positioned on hydraulic drive stem in upper position of pump. Hermetic contact of lower level sensor is connected to power unit through time delay relay, receiving-transmitting unit, unit for controlling electric engine of downstream pump-and-power unit, control unit of additional electric hydraulic relay and in parallel with second end switch also mounted on hydraulic drive of locking apparatus and engageable with said stop in lower position of pump. Hermetic contact of minimum level sensor is connected to power unit and unit for controlling electric engine of upstream pump-and-power unit.
EFFECT: increased efficiency by providing automatic controlling of water flow rate supplied to upstream of open irrigation system.
FIELD: irrigation systems for automatic irrigation of plants on restricted areas.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus has accumulation reservoir with bottom opening closed with valve, auxiliary reservoir, two float valves, one of said valves being designed for feeding water to accumulation reservoir and other valve serving for cutting-off said feeding process. Valve floats are positioned within auxiliary reservoir positioned lower than bottom of accumulating reservoir and connected through flexible pipelines to hermetically sealed reservoirs having porous bottoms and embedded in soil. Drawing of water by soil through said bottoms results in reduction of water level within auxiliary reservoir. Float valves are opened and water is delivered through one of said valves into accumulating reservoir. On reaching of predetermined water filling level, discharge opening valve is opened and water is delivered into low-pressure irrigation system and through other float valve into auxiliary reservoir. Increase in water level within accumulation reservoir cuts-off feeding of water into this reservoir. During operation of high-pressure irrigation system, functioning of apparatus is regulated by filling of accumulation reservoir to certain small volume and stabilized by means of detachable reservoir adapted to be mounted on accumulation reservoir and having horizontal partition walls.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and enhanced reliability in operation of apparatus.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the irrigation systems and can be used, in particular, for automatic watering of plants in garden sites and kitchen gardens. The device for automatic watering of plants includes a feeding tank with a siphon established on a mark of operation, starting chamber and evaporating tray. The feeding tank is supplied with cutout lever valve and an overfall tube. The starting chamber has the form of bucket and is executed with possibility of free rotationally oscillatory movement around pivotal axes between two fixed stops. The evaporating tray is established on the springs which have been put on dowels, fixed on the top edge of the feeding tank wall. The plunger is located rigidly on the evaporating tray connected pivotally with the lever of cutout valve. The valve is installed on the cutout valve entering and regulating water current. The overfall tube is connected to an irrigating network.
EFFECT: provision of rational use of water for plants watering.
SUBSTANCE: automated irrigation system equipped with low pressure rotating sprinklers consists of hydraulic pumping station, containing turbine connected with a shaft of high and low pressure pumps. The central control board is connected with automatic weather station, metre, placed on the low pressure supply pipeline of irrigation system, and winding of commutating three-way valve, the inlet of which is connected with the outlet of the high pressure pump, and the outlet with the inlet of the high pressure supply pipeline. The outlets of the high pressure supply pipeline are connected with the inlet of the first tree-way valve of the control systems and hydraulic protection of sprinklers from failures, the drive of which is connected with a plunger of ratchet gear, and diaphragm actuator of which is connected with high pressure supply pipeline. The outlet of the first three-way valve is connected through throttle with diaphragm actuator of double throw switch, interacting with the drive of the second three-way valve, the inlet of which is connected with high pressure supply pipeline, and the outlet is connected with feed line of hydraulic drive of the sprinkler and line of hydraulic protection of the sprinkle from failures through the cut-off valve. The outlet of the line of hydraulic protection is connected with the diaphragm actuator of the cut-off valve and diaphragm actuator of hydrorelay controlling hydraulic drive gate valve, placed on the inlet of the sprinkler. The outlet of the feed line of hydraulic drive is connected with through three-way valve with end pulse sprinkler, and the drive of the third three-way valve is connected with on-off mechanism connecting pulse sprinkler with the feed line of hydraulic drives, which contacts with the sensors of the beginning and the end of sprinklers passing the corner sector.
EFFECT: invention allows simplifying automated control system, increasing quality of irrigation.
SUBSTANCE: method includes creation of irrigation sections at southern slopes with wide stationary beds with narrow trenches and dead-end irrigation furrows at the edges of beds. Trenches are laid along the middle of beds and filled with vegetable remains, manure and coated with mulch of vegetable remains. Californian worms are added into narrow trenches arranged in the middle of beds. Distance between dead-end furrows makes 1.2…1.8 m and corresponds to distance between wheels of agricultural equipment. Beds and dead-end irrigation furrows are arranged at both sides from self-discharge pipeline of irrigation network in irrigation section and laid at the angle to area horizontals. Slope of irrigation furrows does not exceed inclination of 0.005. Yearly in autumn narrow trenches are released from biohumus and filled with a new mixture of vegetable remains and manure. System of melioration comprises irrigation systems on irrigation sections. Irrigation systems comprises self-discharge pipeline laid along maximum slope of area, stationary beds, dead-end irrigation furrows, measuring and computing system. Measuring and computing system is connected by radio channel to central control panel of irrigation systems in irrigation sections, which are connected to signalling indicator of irrigation termination and double-wire communication line to devices of gates control. Devices of gates control are installed on units of irrigation system, inlet of which is connected to discharge pipeline, and outlet - to irrigation pipelines and microhydrants for water supply. Irrigation pipelines are laid parallel to discharge pipeline. Vortex water activator is installed on discharge pipeline. Signalling indicator of irrigation termination is arranged in the form of two soil moisture detectors, the first of which is installed in lower horizon of active soil layer. The second detector is installed at lower border of active soil layer.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to improve quality of irrigated sections melioration in piedmont area, to eliminate losses of irrigation water for depth filtration and discharge, to improve crop capacity and increase efficiency of irrigation systems.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: the device comprises a system of injection wells, output wells and water distribution network with wells and surge units for aerosol moisturing. The injection wells contain gas-vapour or electric generators installed along the outer frame and inside the aquifer. The output wells contain pumps. The water distribution network with wells and surge units for aerosol moisturing is installed on the irrigated plot of the field. The gas-vapour generator contains a combustion chamber. The combustion chamber has a lid on one of its sides with an inlet valve to feed pressurized air from the piston compressor. Another side of the combustion chamber is fitted with outlet from extracting burned gas, combined nozzles for injecting the mixture of fuel thermal breakdown products and conductive fluid. The combined nozzles are installed on the combustion chamber wall in series one after another. The burner nozzles are installed adjacent to combined nozzles, they are used for injecting hot products of thermal breakdown of conducting fluid and products of burning the gaseous fuel-air mixture. The burner nozzle is connected with the piston valve mechanism. The piston valve mechanism contains a cylinder with a piston and a spring. The cylinder is fitted with a duct feeding pressurized air from the receiver. The receiver has a back flow valve and ducts fitted water-injecting nozzles. The ducts are connected with the cylindrical part of the valve mechanism. The cylindrical part of the valve mechanism has a blow valve for releasing the gas-vapour mixture into the atmosphere and a flange for fixation on the casting pipe of the injection well. The injection well is connected with the tubing string. The surge unit contains a receiving chamber. The receiving chamber has a back flow valve with water pressure. The receiving chamber is connected with the mixing chamber. The mixing chamber is fitted with a nozzle, and the surge unit is installed on a pillar. The pillar is connected inside the well to the water distribution network. The water network has a hinge connection to change the inclination angle of the bore, a jointed support used to rotate it the bore on the platform and a combustion chamber with expanding nozzle. The burner nozzles have a frame with hoses for conductive fluid feeding. The hoses are connected with cylindrical ducts. The cylindrical ducts are located inside the frame in the insulated layer. The electrodes are installed on one side of the cylindrical ducts. The electrodes are connected to the surge generator. Nozzles are installed on another end of cylindrical ducts. The nozzles are installed at an angle in relation to each other and are connected to the spraying nozzle blasting chamber. The spraying nozzle has a bottom with gas stream outlets.
EFFECT: the construction ensures high production yield of crops.
3 cl, 14 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device of automatic control of mist-generating plant relates to gardening, namely to vegetative propagation of horticultural crops by the method of herbaceous cuttings. The device comprises operating mode switches on the number of units of mist-generating plant, a commutation switch to connect the power source to the units of mist-generating plant and cyclical timing relay that determines the duration of the presence or absence of each unit power. The cyclical timing relay consists of a microcontroller, a real-time clock, a memory module, two encoders, control buttons and an alphanumeric LCD display.
EFFECT: device of automatic control of mist-generating plant provides optimisation of watering mode by an independent set of time of watering and the time of pause separately for several intervals within the day, such as morning, day, evening and night.
SUBSTANCE: automated check outlet conduit comprises a lock installed on a water-outlet hole on a horizontal axis of rotation, a control chamber with an elastic shell, communicated with reaches, a valve connected with a level sensor, limiters of the control range. The automated check water outlet is equipped with a stem for fixation of the range of discrete control within wide limits, having a movable float level sensor. The control chamber is equipped with an outlet nozzle, on which there is a magnet for valve fixation. At the same time limiters of the control range are made in the form of fixators, one of which is arranged in the upper part of the stem above the movable float level sensor, and the other ones are arranged above the outlet nozzle of the control chamber.
EFFECT: expanded control range and stabilisation of device operation under various heads.