The device self-watering

 

The invention relates to agriculture and can be used in irrigated agriculture for offline automatically determine the timing of irrigation and management of these irrigation of small areas, such as orchards, vineyards and single plants. The device includes a unit balancing and shut-off body, and a stop valve consists of a casing, a plunger connected with the sensing element of pressure, and saddles. The housing further includes fittings of the input and output of water, the power balance can be made in the form of coil springs or bellows unit. The hose water includes the saddle, and as a sensitive element of the pressure used flaccid membrane. The invention provides an Autonomous automatic irrigation. 3 Il.

The invention relates to agriculture and can be used in irrigated agriculture for Autonomous automatic irrigation of small areas such as gardens.

Known drip irrigation system [1], consisting of water and nephroblastomas nodes, filter device for the preparation and supply of fertilizer in the piping system, remote control, magis the valves and channels of communication between the remote control and the control valve.

A disadvantage of the known system is that it is specialized to control the distribution of large irrigated land, and for the implementation of its work requires the application of external energy (electricity) that under field conditions is often an insurmountable task.

It is known device [2] control the humidity of the soil under drip irrigation, containing the soil moisture sensors, connected through a threshold elements to the logical unit associated with the blocks of program management and alarm, while the soil moisture sensor and the threshold elements of groups that are located in areas of moisture control droppers, and in each group the outputs of threshold elements combined scheme And sensors humidity sensors are located at different depths, and the threshold elements are made with the possibility of changing the tripping threshold.

A disadvantage of the known device is that it is specialized for the control of soil moisture, land scarcity and also uses for its external energy is electricity that does not allow you to use it in remote conditions.

Known tube nozzle for filling liquids with sealed self-aligning tube, the transmission element information consisting of a bellows device and transmission-tuning mechanism with the contact device, and a porous element made in the form of a few isolated parts, and the transmission element has an additional bellows devices interconnected rods and gear-tuning mechanism, with each part of the porous element of the Autonomous connected to the atmosphere.

The disadvantage of this known device is that, it is designed to manage soil moisture using an external energy is electricity that does not allow you to use it in a completely Autonomous conditions.

It is known device [4] - tensiometer soil, containing a sealed volume, comprising a porous ceramic hollow element, a connecting tube, a nozzle for filling liquids with sealed self-aligning tube, the sensing element of pressure and a removable indicator.

This is a known technical solution is the closest to the technical essence and the achieved beneficial effects and are taken by the author for the prototype.

Negotia.

The purpose of the present invention is the provision of Autonomous functions of automatic irrigation.

This objective is achieved in that in a device containing a sealed volume, comprising a porous ceramic hollow element, a connecting tube, a nozzle for filling liquids with sealed self-aligning tube and sensing element pressure further comprises the power trim and a stop valve and a stop valve consists of a casing, a plunger connected to the sensitive element of the pressure and seat, the housing includes a socket input and output of water, the power balance can be made in the form of coil springs or bellows unit, the hose water includes saddle, and as a sensitive element of the pressure used flaccid membrane.

Essential features which distinguish the claimed invention from the prototype, in the known technical solutions are not found. This allows us to conclude that the claimed invention has significant differences.

The proposed solution combines the sensor detect the start and end of the irrigation and the watering device. Implemented with this function, you sozdat start watering, manages irrigation and finishes watering with increasing soil moisture to a pre-specified value.

In Fig. 1 shows the scheme of the proposed device; Fig. 2 shows one embodiment of the proposed device using a helical compression springs as a unit trim; Fig. 3 shows another possible embodiment of the proposed device using a bellows unit as a block trim.

Fig. 1 includes irrigated plant 1, the irrigation pipeline 2, the proposed device is offline automatic irrigation 3 with a porous ceramic hollow element 4, is lowered into the soil 5 to the depth of the root system of plants 1.

6 - local zone soil moisture after watering.

The diagram in Fig. 1 shows how using the proposed device self-watering 3, you can water the plant 1. Irrigation pipe 2 is laid in a row with plants at a height of 40-50 cm (as shown in Fig. 1), or is located in the land of the exit surface in plants 1 and is connected to a device independent automatic irrigation 3. The pressure in the irrigation pipe 2 is created by an external water supply system for irrigation. The device is Oliva is determined using tenzimetricheskikh method. This method allows to determine the local vacuum (soil moisture tension) in the soil that is created in the area of root hairs of plants by sucking their capillary moisture between fine soil particles.

When determining the start of irrigation (increasing local vacuum up to a certain limit in the area of the root system of plants) proposed device 3 automatically delivers water to the root zone of the plant 1. When watering in soil 5 accumulated gravitational moisture, which under its own weight penetrates the lower layers of soil 5. In soil 5 formed the outline of hydration 6. Over time, this moisture reaches the porous ceramic hollow element 4 of the irrigation device 3. The vacuum inside the porous ceramic hollow element 4 decreases, and the watering device 3 stops the flow of water through itself. Watering is completed. The device implements all the functions of watering automatically and fully Autonomous.

In Fig. 2 is one embodiment of the proposed device Autonomous automatic irrigation. It includes a sealed volume, comprising a porous ceramic hollow element 1, a connecting tube 2, tube 3 for the Gulf of fluid from a sealed self-aligning tube 4, custy body, consisting of a body 7, a piston 8 connected to the sensor element 5, the fitting 9 enter the water with the saddle 10 and the nozzle 11 o water.

The device operates as follows.

It is evident from Fig. 1 and the explanation it is clear that with decreasing moisture content in the soil it creates a local area of increasing vacuum due to the activity of the root system of plants (suction of water from this local area. This increase in the perceived vacuum sealed volume of the device, namely a porous ceramic hollow element 1. Inside porous ceramic hollow element 1 water (through the connecting pipe 2 and pipe 3, the Gulf of the liquid-sealed self-aligning tube 4). In the case of increasing the local vacuum in the soil due to less water the root system of the plants, the water level inside the porous ceramic hollow element 1 begins to decline. Due to this, begins to increase the vacuum in the closed sealed volume of the internal cavity of the porous ceramic element 1, the connecting tube 2 and the sensing element of the pressure - flaccid membrane 5. Flaccid membrane 5 starts to bend downward due to the pressure difference (atmospheric pressure from above through the nozzle 11 of the water outlet and the vacuum situate 6. With a further increase in vacuum flaccid membrane 5 together with the connected plunger 8 is moved down. This increases the gap between the seat 10 and the plunger 8, opening the flow of irrigation water through the nozzle 9 of the water inlet. As the fitting 11 of the release of water from the internal cavity of the housing 7 is constantly free (open), the water through it low consumption comes to watering. If water flow is not enough to increase the soil moisture content or the duration of irrigation is still small, local vacuum in the soil increases further. The membrane 5 with the plunger 8 is lowered even further, increasing water consumption for irrigation.

Gradually gravitational water under gravity down, soaking the lower layers of the soil. While the contour of hydration (Fig. 1) reaches the porous ceramic hollow element. Local vacuum in the zone of hydrate begins to fall.

He begins to fall and sealed in a closed volume (Fig.2) formed of a porous ceramic hollow element 1, the connecting tube 2 and flaccid membrane 5. The membrane 5 starts (under the action of the vertical force of the compression spring 6) climb up, blocking the connected plunger 8 water flow from the nozzle 9 to the input of irrigation water. Prov.Eskom mode and fully Autonomous.

In Fig. 3 shows another variant of the proposed device automatic irrigation. It differs from the first by the fact that as a block trim it uses a bellows unit 6.

This option is similar to the previous one. In this case, due to the greater surface of the bellows unit, the device is more accurate and can be used where necessary to maintain soil moisture content at more than a fixed level.

In the practical implementation of the device it is necessary to prepare and set up, then mount the plants that you want to irrigate.

The preparation of the proposed device to work practically does not differ from the preparation of the prototype except for configuration operations. The fully assembled device, you must fill with boiled water and to adjust the operation of the device at the desired value of the local vacuum (soil moisture tension), for example for fruit 0,7...0,8 kN/cm2. To do this: - connect to socket 9 water inlet hose with water or compressed air at a working pressure of about 0.01 MPa (0.1 kgf/cm2). The water should not pass through the device, the plunger 8 is fully whodied to tighten the fitting 9 water inlet to stop the passage of water when the plunger 8 is denser in the saddle 10, moving the membrane 5 and the loading block trim 6); - Unscrew the sealed self-aligning tube 4; - mount the device on the stand so that the porous ceramic tip 1 was completely in the tank, whence it is pumped by compressor air; - pour boiling water through the pipe 4, avoiding the presence of air bubbles in a closed sealed volume of the device (special technology); - instead of a sealed self-aligning tube 4 twist the gauge; - include the compressor and pump out the air from the tank, which is mounted porous ceramic hollow element 1 of the device. With increasing vacuum to the pre-set value, for example 0,7...0,8 kN/cm2from fitting 11 water outlet should go water. The operation of the device set by loosening the fitting 9 water inlet and, therefore, mitigating the power trim 6 (in this case a compression spring); - stop the compressor, gradually reducing the vacuum in the tank to zero (atmospheric pressure); - Unscrew the gauge connection for Gulf water; instead of the gauge slowly spinning sealed self-aligning tube 4;
- the device is removed from the test stand.

Charged device is required using a special drill (diameter drill should correspond to the external diameter of the porous ceramic hollow element 1 device) to drill a hole in the soil to the desired depth (for newly planted fruit 50. . .75 cm). From excavated from the bottom of the borehole soil to prepare a slurry with the consistency of the relevant sour cream and pour into the well. Then insert the porous ceramic hollow element 1 of the device in the hole and cover with soil. The configuration of the device and mounting it in the workplace ends.

Practical field tests of the proposed device has shown its sustainable operation during the entire vegetation period (in winter, the device must be removed because of the danger of thawing in cold winters).

The main advantages of the proposed technical solution against known:
fully Autonomous operation of the watering device;
- fully automatic operation of the device from determining the need to start irrigation and water supply to determine whether his termination and the termination of the water supply;
- watering can occur with increased content of mechanical impurities in irrigation water due to the change of the circular hole for supplying water;
- watering process is not dependent on changes in ambient temperature and pressure of the surrounding atmosphere;
- the device can be used for irrigation as single plants or groups of the Cesky is absolutely safe;
- the device is not critical to high levels of dust and corrosive environments;
- the device is not critical to the high humidity of the atmosphere and may be exposed to rain;
- the device does not require high qualification of the staff;
- the device can be used for irrigation steep mountain slopes, where the use of other methods of irrigation is excluded because of the risk of washout of topsoil;
- the device can be used not only for irrigation but also for the plants by watering with dissolved fertilizer due to the fact that the water flow can vary within wide limits and wash the precipitated crystalline substance from the drip line and the internal cavity of the device.

USED INFORMATION
1. Surin Century A. Nosenko C. F. Mechanization and automation of irrigation of agricultural crops. M.: Kolos. 1981, 281 S. (Textbooks and manuals for C. agricultural colleges). P.246.

2. USSR author's certificate 1192735 And a 01 G 25/16, 31/05/84. Published 23.11.85. Bull. 43.

3. USSR author's certificate 1335856 A1, G 01 N 7/04, a 01 G 25/00, 15/03/86. Published 07.09.87. Bull. 33.

4. The soil tensiometer 20 AM-II. Passport L 82.787.000 PS.


Claims

Ustroili element, connecting tube, a nozzle for filling liquids with sealed self-aligning tube and the sensing element of pressure, characterized in that it further comprises a unit balancing and shut-off body, and a stop valve consists of a casing, a plunger connected to the sensitive element of the pressure, and the seat, the housing includes a socket input and output of water, power trim made in the form of coil springs or bellows unit, the hose water includes the saddle, and as a sensitive element of the pressure used flaccid membrane.

 

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