The way the vegetation fertilizing crops
The invention relates to agriculture, namely the application of trace elements in liquid form during the growing season of crops. The method involves preparation of an aqueous solution of fertilizer and periodic irrigation of plants using a fine sprinkling. Vegetation feeding combined with the diurnal cycle regulation phytoclimate crops method of fine sprinkling in the days when the ambient temperature exceeds the biologically optimal for crops. Vegetation feeding solution fertilizers combined with a final sprinkling vnutrisutochnogo cycle when the rate of flow of solution fertilizers 2 - 6 m3/ha Invention improves the yield and quality of agricultural products. 2 C.p. f-crystals, 1 Il., table 4. The invention relates to agriculture, in particular to the technology of making of trace elements in liquid form during the growing season of crops.Known means for foliar treatment of oil-bearing crops, which use natural mineral bischofite (see RU, patent 2134252, C1, M CL605 D 9/02, 01 21/00, A 01 N 59/08. Means the Kaya Federation). - Application 97120819/25; Claimed 11.12.1997; Publ. 10.08.1999).Natural mineral bischofite formula MgCl26H2O extract from the fields of the Volgograd region by dissolving in water and extrusion under pressure on the day surface. Oily liquid solution (brine) natural mineral bischofite belongs to the category of nesmeshivayuschikhsya liquids. Therefore, the disadvantage of the above method foliar feeding crops bischofite brine is low efficiency. As for major irrigation and method of fine sprinkling (spraying), the smallest droplets bulbs solution mineral bischofite roll down the surface of the leaf blades of agricultural crops. This is particularly evident when feeding vegetables (tomatoes, eggplant, cucumbers) and cucurbits (melons, watermelons, pumpkins) crops due to the peculiarities of the structure of their leaves.There is also known a method of fine sprinkling of annual crops, where the seasonal irrigation rate to be paid in the form of a single irrigation rates, the parameters of which are determined taking into account climatic indices on the basis of statistical data about quantities is,15.05.02).The disadvantage of this method is the uncertainty of the parameters of the vegetation fertilizing agricultural crops.Also there is a method of growing fertilizing irrigated crops, we adopted the closest analogue, comprising preparing a solution of fertilizers in irrigation water and periodic irrigation of plants with a sprinkler, in which, to improve the digestibility of fertilizer plants, irrigation is carried out in conditions of low-volume irrigation, wetting-drying at the rate of solution flow rate of fertilizers on wetting 2...10 m3/ha and duration of the drying period 8...12 min depending on meteorological conditions with a repetition cycle of wetting-drying to make the necessary dose of fertilizers (SU authorship 1806517 A1, M CL5A 01 WITH 21/00. The way the vegetation fertilizing irrigated crops / R. P. Zadneprovsky and centuries Serebryakov (USSR). - Application 4887133115; Claimed 25.10.1991; Publ. 07.04.1993. - Bull. 13).The disadvantages of this method include the high standards a single fertilizer, resulting in burns leaf surface; low efficiency of absorption of plant fertilizers, no the purpose.The essence of the claimed invention.The problem to which the invention is directed, - improving the efficiency of absorption by the plants fertilizers under controlled phytoclimate crops.The technical result is to increase the yield and quality of agricultural products.This technical result is achieved by the fact that in the known method of growing fertilizing agricultural crops, comprising preparing an aqueous solution of fertilizer and periodic irrigation of plants using a fine sprinkling, according to the invention vegetation feeding combined with the diurnal cycle regulation phytoclimate crops method of fine sprinkling in the days when the ambient temperature exceeds the biologically optimal for crops, while growing feeding solution fertilizers combined with a final sprinkling vnutrisutochnogo cycle when the rate of flow of solution fertilizers 2...6 m3/ha; vegetation feeding and regulation of phytoclimate method fine sprinkling of winter wheat do with 10...11 to 17...19 h at intervals of 0,5...2,0 h on days when temperatures which are a mixture of brine natural mineral bischofite sulfate type and adhesive substances on the basis of 16...22% solution of starch adhesive with a viscosity of 12. . . 20 cSt, with bischofite brine and mortar are in a mixture in the ratio 2:1...4:1.The drawing shows a graph of air temperature changes during the day for various years in the heat supply (5...90%) in the Volgograd region.Information confirming the possibility of implementing the inventive method are as follows.Technology is growing fertilizing using brine natural mineral bischofite irrigated crops include sequential execution of the following technological operations: preparation of solutions of fertilizers in irrigation water; periodic irrigation with dissolved mineral fertilizers with sprinkler (DDN-70, PCI-100, DD-30 and others) or converted dual console sprinkler units DDA-100 MA or DDA-100 BX (designed by JSC "Volgograd plant irrigation techniques "WATT").Regulation of phytoclimate crops method of fine sprinkling (DMD) perform in the critical days of the vegetation period, when the ambient temperature exceeds the biologically optimal for cultivated crops. When this vegetation feeding solution Udo is..6 m3/ha.In particular, for winter wheat fertilization and vegetation control phytoclimate method fine sprinkling perform in those days, when the ambient temperature exceeds 22...25oWith depending on grade (see attached graph of the diurnal variation of ambient temperature). Regulation of phytoclimate crops DMD method is carried out in the period from 10. . . 11 to 17...19 h at intervals of 0,5...2,0 h single irrigation depths 4 m3/ha.As a solution fertilizer use brine natural mineral bischofite sulfate type formula MgCl26H2O. the Composition of the samples of the brine leaching of bischofite produced in Gorodishche and Narimanov fields of the Volgograd region, are given in table. 1. Chemical analysis of brines made in laboratories, Volgograd, depending on the place of production of bischofite, shown in the table. 2. The content of macro - and micro elements, in particular in bischofite brine from wells 4 Gorodishche field is given in table. 3.Due to the nonwettability lamina most crops bischofite brine it is applied to the surface of crops (leaves and stems) cultivated Cho glue.When the ambient temperature is above +20oC and wind speeds greater than 5 m/s using a 16% solution of starch glue. At high humidity and ambient temperatures of less than +20oWith use 22% of the adhesive based on starch.In the composition of the adhesive with a viscosity of 12...15 cSt for foliar feeding when the air temperature is more than +20oWith include: starch - 42,4 kg; borax 0,39 kg; caustic soda - 0,94 kg; water - 210 kgIn the adhesive with a viscosity of 18...20 cSt includes: starch - 61 kg; borax - 0,39 kg; caustic soda - 0,91 kg; water - 210 kg (l).In a mixture of bischofite brine and mortar are in the ratio 2:1...4: 1.In table. 4 shows data for 2000...2001 multifactor field experiments to investigate the influence on the yield foliar treatment of winter wheat varieties of the don region, confirming the efficiency of foliar feeding bischofite brine as a carrier of macro - and microelements on the background of the regulation of phytoclimate crops method of fine sprinkling.Thus, presents the results of the pilot test indicate a high efficiency of foliar nutrition of agricultural plants bischofite brine in combination with an adhesive agent, held tablemaintaining sprinkling.
Claims1. The way the vegetation fertilizing agricultural crops, comprising preparing an aqueous solution of fertilizer and periodic irrigation of plants using a fine sprinkling, characterized in that the vegetation feeding combined with the diurnal cycle regulation phytoclimate crops method of fine sprinkling in the days when the ambient temperature exceeds the biologically optimal for crops, while growing feeding solution fertilizers combined with a final sprinkling vnutrisutochnogo cycle when the rate of flow of solution fertilizers6 m3/ha.2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the vegetation feeding and regulation of phytoclimate method fine sprinkling of winter wheat do with 1011 to 1719 hours with intervals of 0.52,0 h on days when the temperature 6.gif">With, depending on the variety.3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that as a solution fertilizer use a mixture of brine natural mineral bischofite sulfate type and adhesives based on 1622%-aqueous solution of starch glue viscosity 1220 cSt, with bischofite brine and mortar are in a mixture in the ratio 2:14:1.
FIELD: soil restoration from formation fluid contaminants in oil recovery and transportation regions.
SUBSTANCE: claimed composition contains (mass %): chemical ameliorant 3.5-5.7; organic fertilizer 15.7-29.0; adsorbent 67.5-78.6. Method for sectioning soil treatment includes application of composition onto soil layer with 30 cm of depth. Then treated layer is shifted out of spot boundary. Opened surface is covered with composition of present invention. Then mole drainage of 60-65 cm in depth is made in soil by using mole plow or chisel plow, followed by plowing of 58-51 cm in depth and returning of sheared soil into spot.
EFFECT: effective soil restoration from formation fluid contaminants.
5 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method involves applying alternative organic fertilizer into soil, with alternative organic fertilizer being straw used in an amount of 4.5-5.6 t/hectare and green mass of stubble green manure crop (lupine) used in an amount of 7.9-8.6 t/hectare; plowing-in said organic fertilizer into soil in the autumn.
EFFECT: increased farm crop yield owing to increased soil fertility, provision for obtaining of ecologically safe product, and reduced labor consumption.
1 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: method involves applying aqueous solutions containing biologically active components onto soil; providing agrophytobiocenosis by means of flat air flow; providing instrument-aided, visual and organoleptical control of changes in agrophytobiocenosis; adding into biologically active components grits preliminarily ground to fraction size of 0.01-0.005 mm; mixing with water in the ratio of 10:1, respectively, and with sugar in the ratio of 100:1, respectively; holding solution for 24 hours; feeding flat air flow into core, with flow speed of air ranging between 20 and 150 m/s; judging and making solutions on the basis of results of instrument-aided, visual and organoleptical control of changes in agrophytobiocenosis. Method allows level of realization of plant productivity potential to be increased by 10-20% and protein content in wheat grain to be increased by 1-2%.
EFFECT: increased efficiency, improved disease resistance of plants and provision for obtaining of ecologically clean agricultural product.
7 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, application of organic fertilizers into soil from fertilizer piles.
SUBSTANCE: method involves laying piles in rows and forming windrows from said piles; before forming windrows, leveling fertilizer pile along windrow so that height of fertilizer layer is less than height of windrow and greater than height determined from formula hp min = h
EFFECT: increased efficiency by improved process for application of organic fertilizer into soil from piles placed onto field.
FIELD: agriculture, agronomic chemistry, agronomic ecology, soil biology, and chemical analysis of soil.
SUBSTANCE: method involves determining content of mineral nitrogen and potentially mineralizable nitrogen provided by soil incubation at temperature of 34-36°C for 7-8 days; converting mineral and potentially mineralizable soil nitrogen to solution by boiling incubated soil suspension in water in the ratio of 1:5 during 20 min for sandy, sandy loam and medium loamy soil and during 30 min for heavily loamy soil; subjecting aqueous extraction of soil sample to analysis by means of Kieldal apparatus for determining nitrogen content actually available to plants under light alkaline hydrolysis conditions; determining nitrogen content potentially available to plants under drastic alkaline hydrolysis conditions; forecasting fertilizer nitrogen dose on the basis of nitrogen content actually available to plants for predetermined yield of specific crop with the use of coefficient of assimilation by plants of soil nitrogen and fertilizers, and amount of nitrogen needed for production of 1 centner/hectare of product from formula: ,
where D is forecast fertilizer nitrogen dose; N is kg/hectare; Yc is crop yield for which fertilizer nitrogen dose is calculated, centner/hectare; C is amount of nitrogen needed for production of 1 centner/hectare of product of designed crop, kg/hectare; Naa is amount of nitrogen in soil actually available to plants, kg/hectare; 0.4 is coefficient of usage by plants of available nitrogen from fertilizer, %. Method may be used for evaluation of humic podzol soil with regard to its nitrogenous state, forecasting of need for nitrogenous fertilizer by plants, determining stock of nitrogen available to plants and forecasting of crop yields. Method does not require prolonged observations and controlling of soil temperature during plant growing periods.
EFFECT: increased efficiency, elimination of employment of expensive bulky equipment for performing forecasting process.
5 dwg, 4 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method involves providing presowing soil cultivation; applying fertilizer such as compost; sowing seeds; providing care of young crops. Fertilizer application and seeding procedures are provided simultaneously, with preliminarily prepared multipurpose seed and compost mixture being introduced into soil at weight ratio of components of 1:20, respectively. Multipurpose seed and compost mixture is prepared by mixing components with following holding of seeds at room temperature for 24 hours.
EFFECT: increased yield of cereal crops due to effective utilization of fertilizers by plants.
1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, mineral fertilizer utilization processes.
SUBSTANCE: method involves introducing into soil phosphate flour in an amount sufficient for obtaining of estimated yield, with phosphate flour being preliminarily mixed with carbamide and phosphogypsum; spreading resulted mixture over soil surface and embedding with the use of cultivators, disk harrows or surface plows. Method allows phosphate flour to be used as fertilizer on soil with neutral or close to neutral acidity.
EFFECT: increased efficiency in utilizing of phosphate flour on acid soil.
FIELD: agriculture, agronomy, in particular environmentally harmless method for enhancement of agriculture land fertility crop-producing power.
SUBSTANCE: claimed method includes introducing into ground of fertilizer, such as mixture of montmorillonite and palygorskite, in weight ratio of 1:1. Said mixture is introduced in amount of 3-6 ton/hectare.
EFFECT: increased effectiveness of fertilizer application and enhanced agriculture land fertility.
1 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: agricultural engineering.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus has vessel manufactured from composition containing powdered cereal threshing wastes, nutritive substances, polymeric binder and biocides. Composition components are used in the following ratio, wt%: powdered cereal threshing wastes 20-7; nutritive substances 50-70; polymeric binder 5.0-20; biocides 0.1-1.0. Polymeric materials with acetate, or hydroxyl, or carboxyl, or ketone, or urethane, or nitrogen-containing, or ethereal functional groups or mixture of said materials may be used as polymeric binder. Mineral nutritive admixtures such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, manganese, copper, zinc, boron, molybdenum may be used as nutritive substances. Apparatus may be utilized for growing of plants as well as for transportation thereof, has stable form and is fully biodegradable.
EFFECT: wider operational capabilities, increased efficiency and reduced injure to environment.
3 cl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: method involves grinding and spreading straw-like and plant materials; enriching said materials with anti-depressant additives; embedding said materials into soil and providing surface composting with following basic tillage; before surface embedding of organic materials, introducing gypsum or powdered superphosphate as anti-depressant additive; 20-30 days after surface composting, providing basic cultivation. Method allows organic substances to be used as fertilizer immediately under field conditions, preferably by introducing straw and other postharvest remains.
EFFECT: increased efficiency in utilization of organic materials as fertilizer, reduced costs and depressing action of fresh organic remains during utilization immediately in field.
2 cl, 3 tbl