The device is a digital camcorder that uses the compression of the video signal that is compatible with the standard of the expert group on moving images (age-2)

 

The invention relates to a digital camcorder, and more particularly to a device is a digital camcorder that uses methods of video compression that is compatible with the decoding device MPEG-2. Digital camcorder contains a camera that responds to a light image, for supplying a video signal in frame mode, circuit, responsive to the signals issued from the camcorder in Polyakova mode for forming segments of a compressed digital video signal that can be decoded decoding device standard AGE-2 compressed digital video signal issued from the schemes for the formation of segments of the compressed digital video signal that can be decoded decoding device standard AGE-2, used as input to the assembler, companyseo data and frames, and synchroblog coming from the assembler used in the modulator as a modulation signal, which controls the formation of modulation without returning to zero, and is supplied to the recording device for electromagnetic records in the form of magnetic fluctuations along the surface of the magnetic recording media. Technical result achieved during the implementation of the invention, costil.

This application is filed in accordance with article 35 U. S. C. 111(a) of the Patent law of the United States, claiming priority under article 35 U. S. C. 119(e), on the filing date of provisional application for serial number 60/056325, filed August 14, 1997 under article 35 U. S. C. 111(b) of the Patent law of the United States.

The present invention relates to a video device, a digital camcorder, and more particularly to a digital video camcorder that uses methods of video compression that is compatible with the decoding device MPEG-2.

Applications related to the present invention, the Inventors concurrently filed patent application entitled "DEVICE for VIDEO signal TRANSMISSION USING COMPRESSION TYPE VIDEO ONLY INSIDE the FRAME, WHICH is COMPATIBLE WITH the MPEG-2 STANDARD, which is given here as a reference, as it demonstrates a device that can be used in conjunction with digital video camcorder, described in the present description and the accompanying drawings.

The background of the invention currently recording on magnetic tape of the digital video cassettes (IEC) is carried out in accordance with the standards developed at the conference "Digital cassette videoman the standard density (SP), when one frame of video signal format NTSC (national television system Committee) is written in 1350 synchroblog. These 1350 synchroblog, 90 synchroblog accompanying audio and 44 synchroblog losses are distributed on ten consecutive oblique-line recorded tracks on the tape electromagnetic record. Synchroblog have the same length of the discharge, and five synchroblog constitute a segment of the five macroblocks duodenum. Each block WPC based on the unit image data in the format of 4: 2: 0 size 8x8 pixels. That is, the brightness (Y) quantized twice as intense in the horizontal direction and in the vertical direction than the red color difference signal (Cr) and blue color-difference signal (Cb). Each macroblock contains four blocks of discrete cosine transform (KDP), describing Y, and two blocks describing the CR and Cb, each of the blocks has an arbitrary length of the discharge. Although the serial digital video signal format for one segment has 385 bytes, often for the PDK transmission, capable of forming the desired image resolution, requires only a hundred or less. One of the goals of the inventors was more effective use of bytes available in each image using those bytes, which were not previously used.

Conference on Digital cassette recorders, high resolution established a standard base strip of high density (EAP), in which each frame of the television image high resolution together with associated audio and losses has twenty-consistent track record. The conference defined the standards for recording direct video streaming (UIP), advanced television (PTV), PAL+ for Europe and EDTV-II for Japan. The scheme accounts for UIP mainly involves the formation of a useful load of the segments of the transport stream for this funds transfer. A similar observation can be done on the schema entry for OEMs. However, there are rules implementation data to support the combined recording in addition to the normal playback.

TV images of high resolution, which is supposed to be written in the standard basic range of high density, is of type CMD (coding with multiple downsampled) with 1125 scanning lines and 1200 pixels brightness per scanline. Experts in the field have recognized that the standard basic range of high density is not according to what that was established by the Committee on advanced television systems (solution). The standard solution supports 480 scan lines and 640 pixels brightness on alternating scanline, 480 scanning lines and 720 pixels brightness on alternating or progressive scan line, 720 scan lines and 1280 pixels brightness on progressive scan line, and 1080 scan lines and 1920 pixels brightness on alternating scanline. A known practice is to record two digital data segment of the television signal in the standard solution, each of which is preceded by a temporary label, five synchroblog digital television signal.

The audio signals used in television as a source of signals, quanthouse at a frequency of 48 kHz, synchronized by the system clock of 27 MHz and is encoded in accordance with a compression standard for digital audio AC-3, which is described in document a/52, published solution. Data obtained by the audio compression versed on packet headers which gives an indication that the audio packets.

The signals used in television as a source of signals encoded in accordance with a compression standard video signal, AGE-2. The data resulting from the compression of the video signal is analyzed on the groups of video frames, each group of frames (HS) contains the initial coding of the lead frame, referred to as "I-frame", which is subjected only to compression of the video signal type "inside a frame", followed by the coding sequence of the remaining frames, which are compressed by type "between the frames". The remaining frames consist of so-called "P-frames" and the so-called "In-frame". Encoding each P-frame is based on the differences between this frame of reality and how this frame is predicted by extrapolation of the most recent previous I - and P-frames in accordance with the motion vectors, the resulting block-by-block comparison, the most recent of their previous I - and P-frames. The encoding of each frame is based on the differences between this frame of reality and how this frame is predicted using bidirectional interpolation of the preceding and subsequent of the I - and P-frames.

The compressed video signal in the standard format of AGE-2 is suitable for use, for example, in television broadcasting, where the complexity of the editing in this format of the transport stream does not cause any problem. In those instances when important ease of editing, predpochtite is the use of video compression-type "inside a frame". The ease of editing is desirable when mounting the video to remove unwanted frames, I repeat frames for implementation effects, slow motion or frame-by-frame playback, as well as to insert record fragments of reverse playback. Easy video editing is also desirable when removing snapshots from records received from the camcorder, retrieving the selected video data for transmission over the Internet and editing commercials out of video recorded from broadcast television.

In the case of video processing, for ease of editing, the inventors advocate video compression-type "inside a frame", in which each subsequent video frame is encoded in accordance with the method of encoding the compressed video signal type "inside a frame" leading I-frames in the standard AGE-2. Each frame is further indicated in the headers of the image as a frame encoded during video compression-type "inside a frame", as it is done in the case of leading cadres in the standard AGE-2. To implement this algorithm for video compression can be modified conventional encoder. Alternatively, encoder, designed for the I for encoding P frames and b-frames along with I-frames, since there is no need in the schemes of calculating the motion, which constitute a significant part of the full encoder standard AGE-2. For the calculation of required storage device capable of storing multiple frames. The inventors prefer digital camcorder was used in this simplified encoder in order to reduce wasteful consumption of the battery of the camcorder, as well as reducing the weight and size of the camcorder.

In many systems, video processing and for ease of editing, the decoder standard AGE-2 can be used for decoding of the continuous coding compressed video signal type "inside a frame" that describes the sequential video frames. Thus, the additional costs decoder for decoding a transport stream of I-frames without interfering with P - and b-frames. If the system has no decoder standard AGE-2, to provide such a decoder will need a reasonable amount, because the amount of hardware attributable to the decoder standard AGE-2, significantly less than the amount attributable to the coder standard AGE-2. Alternatively can be used modificare, consisting of a video camera, responsive to a light image, for supplying video signals in the frame mode; circuits, responsive to the video signals, which are received from a video camera for forming segments of a transport stream, these segments allow decoding using the decoding device standard AGE-2, and a recording device for electromagnetic recording a transport stream in the form of magnetic fluctuations along the surface of the magnetic recording media.

A brief description of the drawings Each of figs.1, 2, 3 and 4 is a schematic diagram corresponding camcorder, which is the embodiment of the present invention.

Fig. 5 is a detailed schematic diagram of the circuits forming the compressed video signal, which can be used in the camcorder of Fig.1 or 3.

Fig. 6 is a detailed schematic diagram of the circuits forming the compressed video signal, which can be used in the camcorder of Fig.1 or 3.

Fig. 7 is a schematic diagram of a device for obtaining a snapshot, which can be used together with camcorder in Fig.1 or 2.

Fig. 8 is a schematic of the ω Fig.3 or 4.

A detailed description of the preferred embodiments In Fig.1 shows a camcorder, which is the embodiment of the present invention. The video camera 1 generates frames of video data in the TV aspect 4: 3, including data on the luminance (Y) in each frame 480 active scan lines, each scan line 720 (or, in the alternative, 640) pixels. In the camcorder for home use camera 1, as a rule, uses a single solid-state imager with the color filter pattern; in the camcorder broadcast destination camera 1, as a rule, uses the optics of the beam splitter with separate solid imagenum for each of the three primary additive colors. It is assumed that each type of camera 1 has a circuit matrix, color correction, such that the video camera 1 supplies data on the luminance (Y), color data of the red color-difference signal (CR) and color data of the blue color difference signal (b) as components of the video data in the format of 4:2:2.

The input video signal processor 2 converts the signals Y, CR and b in discrete format 4:2:0, while decimatio 2:1 each of the signals SG and b both in vertical and in horizontal directions Poljane. Video data received from video camera 1, in each frame duration of one-thirtieth of a second have two alternating fields or instead slowly scanned over the frames with a duration of one-sixtieth of a second each. The schema of the corresponding filtering through a low pass filter to remove overlay effect, which is suitable for each of the alternatives, well-known experts in this field.

If each frame has two alternating fields, odd fields used vertical low pass filter to remove the effect of blending with 7 printed contacts, and in even-numbered fields is vertical low pass filter to remove the effect of superimposition of 4 printed contacts. Then earlier and later field of each frame line-by-line alternate and form a complete frame for encoding according to the method of compression. The result of this procedure is formed by a sequence of frames with a duration of one-thirtieth of a second each.

If the video camera 1 supplies the video data obtained as a result of successive scan frames with a duration of one sixtieth each, then after the processor input videosin is and rotation pseudopodia for framing alternating pseudopodia, appearing at a rate poledra. Assume that frames of video data are numbered modulo 2, which is in the order of their occurrence, and the lines of each frame are numbered consecutively in the order they appear. The amplitudes of the pixels of Y, CR and b in the odd scan lines of each odd frame combined with their counterparts in the immediately preceding even-numbered frame for forming field odd lines alternating frames pseudopodia appearing at a rate poledra. The amplitudes of the pixels of Y, CR and b in even-numbered scan lines of each odd frame combined with their counterparts in the immediately subsequent even-numbered frame for forming field even rows alternating frames pseudopodia appearing at a rate poledra.

Device video compression 3 receives the signals Y, CR and b in discrete format 4:2:0 encoding a video signal according to the method of compression. Device video compression 3 also receives the output from the counter temporary labels 5 which counts the cycles of the system clock in each group of sixteen frames. This output is accompanied by components of the compressed video signal to record the order in which they were formed. Encoding) is provided with the same coding Protocol video compression-type "inside a frame", which is only used for the first, the leading frame of each group of video frames when encoding video compression standard AGE-2. Protocol encoding video compression-type "inside a frame" operates under the assumption that each frame of reference signals Y, CR and b consists of closed blocks of linked array of size 8x8 pixels, consisting of rows and columns. Discrete cosine transform (KDP) for each of these blocks of size 8x8 pixels is calculated in the prescribed order. The coefficients of KDP each block of size 8x8 pixels of the reference video signal quanthouse and delivered in the prescribed order in the form of a serial bit binary numbers to build a string of bits, describing the corresponding block of the KDP. The sequence of blocks of the duodenum is then encoded by the entropy, which includes the encoding length of the run, followed by the coding of arbitrary length, based on the table of the estimated statistics. Standard video compression standard AGE-2 includes a recommended table of entropy coding. The quantization results of the duodenum is regulated so that the result type coding "inside a frame" for H on the frame in the format NTSC).

Device video compression 3 supplies the compressed video data for each successive frame formed in accordance with the encoding algorithms of the type "inside a frame" standard AGE-2 I-frame. The titles sequence, the titles of the groups of frames (HS), the headers of the frames, the header plates and headers macroblocks are inserted into the compressed video data using device video compression 3. The header frame includes a flag encoding an I-frame, which gives an indication of any decoder standard AGE-2, used to play back a recording on videotape, to decode compressed video data by type "inside a frame". This is as true in the case where the compressed video data are recorded directly in the case, when they are written after encoding the transport stream standard AGE-2.

Camcorder of Fig.1 developed taking into account its compatibility with digital cassette recorder and player in respect of combined play. Schema extract combined playback 4 retrieve data about the combined playback, consisting of the coefficients of KDP zero frequency and other low frequency sequence blocks duodenum is subramania, in which each frame is encoded as a leading I-frame data on the combined playback change more often than traditional coding standard AGE-2, however, this is acceptable. In the embodiment just described procedure, each frame is encoded as I-frame, but only every sixteenth frame is processed as a lead frame. In these alternative embodiments of the present invention, every sixteenth frame is stored for sixteen frames and is used to support the generation of data for combined play, that's more like the traditional procedure coding standard AGE-2. Currently, however, more preferred are those embodiments of the present invention that do not use this option because, if you do not save every sixteenth frame, it will significantly reduce the cost and simplify the device video compression 3. Schema extract combined playback 4 dismantle the discarded blocks duodenum, thus recoverable in synchroblog that come in assembler, kampanyasi data and frames for insertion into other synchroblog containing compressed video data to normal playback or compressed audio data. UGT is the combined playback at variable track recording tape. Otherwise, the assembler 6, kampanyasi data and frames is the same as those used in a digital cassette recorder standard definition (CCW CF).

It is assumed that the stereo reader sound 7 is connected with the video camera 1 in the composition of the camcorder of Fig.1 and the signals of the left channel (L) and the signal of the right channel (R). The signals L and R are received by the device audio encoding 8 to encode the audio compression. Encoding the audio compression can be any of a number of ways, for example in accordance with the standard of AGE-2, in accordance with standard as-3 in the United States, when the digital TV is written as a television program, or in accordance with the scheme of pulse code modulation (PCM).

In response to the control parameters set by the user of the camcorder of Fig.1, the control unit 9 sets forth the operating mode of the camcorder to work in the first layout data and personnel. In the first layout data and frames of the compressed video data from the device video compression 3 and compressed audio data from the device the audio compression 8 are used directly by the assembler 6, companysm data and frames. In sacrameno stored in the array, consisting of rows and columns in the memory storage device Assembly 6. Compressed audio data is temporarily stored in the array consisting of rows and columns, audiopaste storage device Assembly 6. Usually in a digital cassette recorders standard definition (CCW CF) of the first encoder signal with the function of error correction is a two-dimensional encoder reed-Solomon using external coding scheme (149, 138) and the internal coding scheme (85, 77). The memory storage device Assembly 6 is operated as a device for rotation of the first encoder with a function of correcting errors. Usually in a digital cassette recorders standard definition (CCW CF) of the first encoder of the audio signal with the function of error correction is a two-dimensional encoder reed-Solomon using external coding scheme (14, 9) and the internal coding scheme (85, 77), while audioplay storage device Assembly 6 is operated as a device for rotation of the first encoder with a function of correcting errors. The composition of the Assembly 6, companyseo data and frames are schemes that put the header length of 5 bytes before each line of data dline inaudio device Assembly 6. Header length of 5 bytes consists of a sync code length 2 bytes, followed by the identification code length of 2 bytes.

The control device operating mode 9 alternatively can have a custom control parameters, which set the camcorder on the second layout data and personnel. In the second mode, the transport stream received from the encoder transport stream 10, is used by the assembler 6, companysm data and frames, as an input signal instead of the compressed video data directly from the device video compression 3, and the compressed audio data from the encoder of the audio 8. Encoder transport stream 10 parses the compressed video data on pairs of consecutive video packets in MPEG-2 format, preceded by packet headers, each of which begins with a temporary label. Encoder transport stream 10 parses the encoded audio data in consecutive audio packets that precede the packet headers, each of which begins with a temporary label. Each audiospace follows the packet header with the auxiliary audio data, which contain codes that indicate what type of audio encoding is ansporting thread 10 with the encoder of the audio 8. Encoder transport stream 10 links video and audio packets in the first transport stream, which is supplied to the switch of the transport stream 11. Encoder transport stream 10 also composes the second transport stream different from the first transport stream so that it inserts an additional temporary labels extracted from the counter temporary labels 5. This is done in order to convert 2:5, in which each consecutive pair of packets with a length of 188 bytes in the second transport stream is recorded in five rows of the storage device Assembly 6, companyseo data and frames for subsequent read assembler 6 five synchroblog. The set of packages standard AGE describing specific compression formats video and audio that were used in the formation of a transport stream, loaded with encoder transport stream 10 in assembler, kampanyasi data and frames for insertion in the 19th, 20th and 156 th synchroblog each frame of data.

Further information about the assembler 6, companyweb data and personnel will be familiar to the person skilled in the art and conforms to the Specifications for consumer digital cassette videomagnitofonov high-resolution", held in December 1994. Synchroblog coming from assembler 6, companyseo data and the frames used in 24/25-modulator 12 as a modulating signal that controls the formation of alternating modulation without return-to-zero inversion. This alternating modulation without return-to-zero inversion is supplied to the recording recording (and reproducing) the tape device 13, which is a component of the camcorder of Fig.1 and has a sloping-line type recording. The results of the alternating modulation without return-to-zero inversion does not have a significant direct components, thus, the results of the enhanced modulation may have a transformer connection without loss of information for heads recorder tape 13 during the recording. This transformer connection is carried out using a rotary transformer between the drum head and the main unit of the recording device on the magnetic tape 13, the main unit contains the mechanism for transporting the recording media magnetic tape through the drum head.

While playing with the recording media tape electrical signals that cause the field on a moving carrier, using a rotary transformer associated with the power play in the recording and reproducing device 13. Power play takes the alternating modulation without return-to-zero inversion 24/25 on the demodulator 14 for alternate modulation without return-to-zero inversion 24/25, and the demodulator 14 plays synchroblog encoded with regard to the correction of errors that come to record with assembler 6, companyseo data and frames. Switch on the circuit of the bypass 15 of the recording device is selected in response to the wishes of the user to be able to choose to feed on the reverse assembler 16, demontide data and frames or encoded into account the correction of errors synchroblog that come with Assembly 6, companyseo data and frames or encoded into account the correction of errors synchroblog, which is reproduced by the demodulator 14 for alternate modulation without return-to-zero inversion 24/25 for submission to the inverse assembler 16, demontide data and frames.

Inverse assembler 16, demontide data and frames, corrects errors in entering the signal and, accordingly, is composed of decoders using the first code the video data, which is managed as a unit for rotation of the decoder of the video with the function of error correction. Reverse Assembly 16 also has a temporary storage device for storing audio data, which is managed as a unit for rotation of the decoder of the audio signal with the function of error correction.

When the control parameters set by the user on the control device operating mode 9, define normal playback on the first layout data and frames, switch audio/video 17 selects as its output the compressed video data and compressed audio data read from the corresponding temporary storage device back Assembly 16. Compressed video data and compressed audio data is read on switch audio/video 17 after error correction data decoders with the function of error correction in the composition of the inverse assembler 16. In this mode, the decoder compressed video signal 24 decodes the compressed video data received from the switch audio/video 17 - "only I-frames. If the decoder compressed video signal 24 along with the I-frames is also able to decode B-frames and P-frames, the decoder 24 is transferred to the decode mode - "only I-frames, the army thus the decoder 24 will be transferred to the decode mode - "only I-frames, responsive to the control parameters set by the user on the control device operating mode 9.

When the control parameters set by the user on the control device operating mode 9, define normal playback on the second layout data and frames, switch audio/video 17 selects as its output the compressed video data and compressed audio data supplied from the decoder transport stream 18. Compressed video data and compressed audio data are decoded from the video packets and audio packets read by the decoder 18 from the corresponding temporary storage device back Assembly 16, demontiruemogo data and frames. The video packets and the audio packets are read by the decoder transport stream 18 after error correction data decoders with the function of error correction in the composition of the inverse assembler 16. If the decoder compressed video signal 24 along with the I-frames is also able to decode B-frames and P-frames, the decoder 24 is transferred to the decode mode - "only I-frames, responsive to the header of the video frames in the compressed video signal, indicating that this mode, motorwaysthe control operating mode 9, ask a combined reproduction output signal, which is supplied with switch audio/video 17 contains a zero-compressed audio data is supplied as an input signal, and the compressed video data recorded in the signal quality of the combined play, then read from the temporary storage device back Assembly 16, demontiruemogo data and frames during playback. The audio signal restored by the decoder, the compressed audio signal 23 is subdued. If the decoder compressed video signal 24 along with the I-frames is also able to decode B-frames and P-frames, the decoder 24 is transferred to the decode mode - "only I-frames, responsive to the control parameters set by the user on the control device operating mode 9.

Compressed video data and compressed audio data switch audio/video 17 selects as its output signal, are passed to the encoder transport stream 19. Encoder transport stream 19 turns on the switch of the transport stream 11 transport stream, which is available when the camcorder of Fig.1 using a control device operating mode 9 is selected normal playback according to the first mode to the data by the user of the camcorder of Fig.1, reproduces in its output signal or transport stream prior to entry in the form in which he received him with encoder transport stream 10, or another transport stream after playing with the tape recorder 13. Switch transport stream 11 automatically selects the output signal from the encoder transport stream 10 as another transport stream, reacting to the fact that the control device operating mode 9 set to play on the first layout data and personnel. In response to that control device, the operating mode is set to play in the second mode, data Assembly and frame, switch traffic flows 11 automatically selects the output signal of the inverse assembler 16, demontiruemogo data and frames, the decoder transport stream 18 as another transport stream after playback, the switch 11 can play as its output signal.

In one embodiment, according to Fig.1, which is not too much will change the final performance of the camcorder, other transport stream after playing with the tape recorder 13 can always bignole switch transport stream 11, arrives at the encoder signal IEEE 1394 20. Encoder signal IEEE 1394 20 sets before each packet length is 188 bytes in the transport stream of the temporary label length 4 bytes, divides each packet length of 192 bytes with a fixed temporary labels on shorter data blocks (e.g. blocks of length 96 bytes), and precedes each data block header for access to transmission lines, as well as the CIP header. CIP-header contains information about the division of the packet length of 192 bytes marked with time stamps, as well as data with these characteristics appear in the transport stream next time.

In Fig. 1 shows a compressed video data and compressed audio data switch audio/video selects as its output signal used in a television transmitter ATSC low power 21, adapted to transmit a radio frequency signal to digital television receiver. This additional property of the camcorder, which is the embodiment of the present invention. Typical television transmitter ATSC low power described Mr. Ohm, Etc., Horovice in U.S. patent 5764701 dated June 9, 1998, entitled "VSB MODULATOR". Compressed video data and shosty time due to uneven movement of the tape. Such instability time is preferably adjusted by using the temporary stabilizer to re-bind the data to a stable clock source before these data will be used in the transmitter 21 to modulate the radio frequency carrier. This is desirable in order for the equalizer, which is used in a television receiver standard CPT (Committee on standards for advanced television), host of the radio frequency carrier, worked as it should. As a rule, it is easier to avoid problems of instability over time, signaling IEEE 1394 directly on the packet inverse assembler as part of the television receiver standard XPT than trying to connect the camcorder to the receiver through the RF input.

In Fig.1 shows one additional use of the camcorder, which is the embodiment of the present invention, as a TV transmitter standard NTSC low power 22, adapted to transmit a radio frequency signal to an analog television receiver. Compressed audio data selected by the switch audio/video 17 arrives at the decoder, the compressed audio signal 23. Compressed video data selected by the switch audio/video 14, postupdate AGE-2, however, in greatly simplified due to the fact that it decodes only I-frames. The decoders 23 and 24 serves a result of decoding the compressed audio data and video data, respectively, to the transmitter 16.

Camcorder of Fig.1 has an LCD viewfinder 25. During recording or preview the schema scanner viewfinder 26 serves the excitation signals to the LCD viewfinder 25 in response to the signals Y, CR and b in discrete format 4:2:0, which are received from the input video signal processor 2. During playback schemes scanner viewfinder 26 serves the scan signals to the LCD viewfinder 25 in response to the signals Y, CR and b in discrete format 4:2:0, which are received from the decoder to the compressed video signal 24. The scan signals applied to the liquid crystal viewfinder 25, as a rule, are signals scan type R (red), G (green) and b (blue).

In Fig. 2 shows a camcorder, which is different from the camcorder of Fig.1 the fact that there is realized a combined play. In the camcorder of Fig. 2 blocks KDP are recorded on the tracks of the electromagnetic tape in such a way that the coefficients of KDP zero frequency and other low frequency effects the product of the coefficients of KDP zero frequency and other low frequencies are restored to the formation of the display low-resolution and the coefficients of KDP higher frequencies are not taken into account. Remove strips of combined play, traditionally used when recording to a digital video tapes, leads to an increase in average speed data payload from 19.3 million bits per second up to 23 million bits per second.

Schema extract combined 4 for playback camcorder of Fig. 2 is omitted, and the device video compression 3 is replaced by device video compression 103, which does not require conditions facilitate communications with the scheme of extraction of the combined playback 4. This means that the camcorder of Fig.2 not recorded traditional data combined play. The decoder transport stream 10 is replaced by a decoder transport stream 110, modified to pair with device video compression 103, this pair will be described in more detail later when discussing Fig. 6. In the camcorder of Fig.2 assembler 6, kampanyasi data and frames is replaced by the assembler 106, kampanyasi data and personnel, which in their composition skips synchroblog describing bands combined playback, and increases the number of sinhabahu containing in each frame dock coefficients of KDP block sequence KDP each frame so the coefficients of KDP zero frequency and other low frequencies take the leading part of synchroblog. Inverse assembler 16, demontide data and frames is replaced by the inverse assembler 116, demontide data and frames, which takes into account that the recorded signal passes synchroblog describing bands combined play, and replaces the missing synchroblog synchroblog containing more detailed information about video packets.

Camcorders in Fig.1 and 2 use the video standard CCIR (consultative Committee on international radio) 301 with parameters sixty frames per second and 525 scanning lines per frame, as is customary in the United States of America. These camcorders are easy to modify, so that they could use the video standard CCIR 301 with parameters fifty frames per second and 625 scan lines per frame, as is customary in other countries. Such modifications embody the present invention in some of its aspects.

In Fig.3 shows a modification of the camcorder of Fig.1, in which the video camera 201 is used to form a progressively scanned video frames in a television picture format 16:9, including data about the brightness of the home-use camcorder 201, probably going to use a single solid-state imager with the filter color of the picture, the camcorder broadcast destination of the video camera 201 is likely to use the optics of the beam splitter with separate solid imagenum for each of the three primary additive colors. It is assumed that any type of camera 201 has a diagram of the color correction matrix, such that the video camera 201 provides data about the brightness (Y) and color data of the red color-difference signal (CR) and color data of the blue color difference signal (b) as components of the video data in the format of 4:2: 2. The input video signal processor converts the signals Y, CR and b in discrete format 4:2:2 by performing thinning 2:1 each of the signals SG and b both in vertical and in horizontal direction after the separable filtering of the signal in both directions through the low pass filter to remove the overlay effect.

Device video compression 203 receives signals Y, CR and b in discrete format 4: 2: 0 coding type of video compression, which is the type of "inside a frame" for each frame in accordance with the same Protocol type coding compression "inside a frame", which ispolnjat AGE-2. Schema extract combined playback 204 retrieve data about the combined reproduction for use in assembler 6, companyweb data and frames. Data about the combined playback contain the coefficients of KDP zero frequency and other low frequency sequence blocks KDP each frame (or, alternatively, only periodically occurring frames selected as leading, in less preferred embodiments of the present invention) according to the calculations performed in the device video compression 203.

The amount of data in the compressed video signal is increased for a camcorder of Fig. 3 compared with the camcorder of Fig.1 by increasing the number of pixels per frame. Thus, it is allowed that in the case of the camcorder of Fig.3, compressed video data of high resolution in each frame lasted twenty tracks recording on the magnetic tape, and not just ten tracks entries allocated for each frame of a video standard resolution in the case of the camcorder of Fig.1.

TV transmitter low power standard NTSC 22 is not needed due to the fact that the video camera 201 generates a progressively scanned frames of video data of the television is camping. Camcorder of Fig. 3 has an LCD viewfinder with 225-screen TV 16: 9 format. The decoder compressed video signal 24 is used for the formation decompressional video for schemes scanner viewfinder. During playback (or recording and playback) schemes scanner viewfinder can apply scan signals to the LCD viewfinder 225 in response to the signals Y, CR and b in discrete format 4:2:0, which are received from the decoder 24. During recording or preview the schema scanner viewfinder 226 can apply scan signals to the LCD viewfinder 225 in response to the signals Y, CR and b in discrete format 4:2:0, which are received from the input video processor 202. The scan signals applied to the liquid crystal viewfinder 225, as a rule, are of the scan signals R, G and B.

TV transmitter low power standard NTSC is used in a variant of the camcorder of Fig.3 to transfer video TV 16:9 format in a character block format. In this embodiment, the decoder compressed audio 23 remains.

In Fig. 4 shows a camcorder, which is different from the camcorder of Fig. is itoi tape so the coefficients of KDP zero frequency and other low frequency sequence blocks KDP each frame take the leading part of synchroblog. During the combined play these coefficients KDP zero frequency and other low frequencies are restored to the formation of the display low-resolution, and the coefficients of KDP high frequencies are not taken into account. When reading in parallel twenty tracks removing strips of combined play, which are traditionally used when recording to a digital video tape, increases the average speed of the data payload from 38.6 million bits per second up to 46 million bits per second.

Schema extract combined playback 204 are omitted in the case of the camcorder of Fig.4, and the device video compression 203 is replaced by device video compression 303, which does not require facilitating connection to the extraction circuits combined playback 204. In the case of the camcorder of Fig.4 assembler 6, kampanyasi data and frames is replaced by the assembler 106, kampanyasi data and personnel, which in its procedures of the Assembly of the transport stream skips synchroblog bands combined play and increases chelonoidis data and frames changes the order of the coefficients of KDP block sequence KDP each frame so that the direct ratio of the KDP or the ratio of the KDP zero frequency, as well as other low-frequency coefficients of KDP take the leading part of synchroblog. Encoder reed-Solomon with the function of error correction 9 and the reed-Solomon decoder with the function of error correction 13 are replaced by the encoder reed-Solomon with the function of error correction 109 and the reed-Solomon decoder with the function of error correction 113 respectively due to the increase in the number of sinhabahu video frame data when encoding with accounting errors. Inverse assembler 16, demontide data and frames is replaced by the inverse assembler 116, demontide data and frames, which takes into account that the reproduced transport stream skips synchroblog bands combined play and replaces missing synchroblog synchroblog containing more detailed information about video packets.

In versions of camcorders in Fig.2 and 4, when it is necessary to record a transport stream, the assembler 106, kampanyasi data and frames, works as follows. The transport stream is inserted into synchroblog from the 21st to the 155th each frame of data without entering data on a combined basis the playing is inserted into synchroblog from the 2nd to the 15th of each frame of data, which in a serial digital format employed audio data and external coding with accounting errors. Synchroblog from the 2nd to the 15th you can use for data about the combined play, because the audio data is transferred in packets of the audio signal included in the transport stream.

In Fig.5 shows a more detailed diagram of the video compression and the formation of a transport stream, which are used in the camcorder of Fig.1. Similar schemes are used in the camcorder of Fig.3. The input buffer memory device 30, diagrams, calculations KDP 31, schemes quantizer 32, diagrams, calculations activity 33, scheme selection quantization table 34, a decoder for entropy 35, the multiplexer 36 and the output buffer memory device of the encoder 37, shown in Fig.5, are elements of the device video compression 3 in Fig.1. In practice, the calculation scheme 31 scheme quantizer 32 and circuit calculations activity 33 can be realized by using a microprocessor. The linker compressed video signal 38 in Fig.5 is associated with the encoder transport stream 10 of Fig.1, the linker compressed video signal 39 in Fig.5 is associated with the assembler 6, companysm data and frames of Fig.1. The output buffer memory device kombinirovannij compressed video signal 41 in Fig.5 is associated with the assembler 6, companysm data and frames of Fig.1.

The input video signal composed of signals Y, CR and b in discrete format 4: 2:0, is loaded in the input buffer memory device 30, which remembers a few more than one frame of reference and allows for blocks of images of size 8x8 pixels brightness was considered one after the other. The scheme of calculation of the KDP 31 calculate the coefficients of KDP for the components Y, CR and b each sequentially addressed block images, normalizing the coefficients of KDP higher order with respect to the coefficients of KDP zero frequency and feeding the calculated coefficients of KDP in the order of zigzag scanning circuit quantizer 32.

The scheme of calculation of activity 33 assess the degree of activity in the image. First it calculates the average score of pixels in each block of the KDP. Next, the difference between the value of each pixel in each block of the KDP and the average score on the block, and these differences are squared. The squared differences are summed for each block, and the sum is normalized it by dividing by the number of pixels in the block. The normalized sum of all the blocks of the KDP in the frame are summed, and the result on this frame is multiplied by the first which is directly related to the estimate of the number of bits in the encoded frame of entropy. Measure activity in the frame arrives on scheme selection quantization table 34 that use this measure to select the first table of quantization values for coefficients of KDP, which circuit 34 serves on the schema of the quantizer 32. Schema selection quantization table 34 supply code that identifies the table of quantization values for coefficients of KDP, scheme quantizer 32. The coefficients of KDP after quantization proceed with schemes quantizer 32 is fed to the entropy encoder 35, sometimes referred to as "Huffman encoder for lossless encoding, including the phase encoding along the length of the run, and coding of arbitrary length.

The multiplexer 36 receives the results of the coding by the entropy of the entropy encoder 35 and also receives the codes that identify the table of quantization values for coefficients of KDP, which circuit 34 serves on the schema of the quantizer 32. Every time I am about to happen replacement table of quantization values which is used by the quantizer circuit 32, the multiplexer 36 inserts the code that identifies the table that should be used next in the code stream, which he gives as its output signal. The inserted code is a prefix of the results kodery the multiplexer 36 outputs as its output signal.

The output buffer memory device of the encoder 37 is a storage device FIFO type "first - come, first-served basis and temporarily stores the coded stream, the multiplexer 36 outputs as its output signal. The buffer storage device 37 has a capacity sufficient only for some part (e.g., one quarter) of the code, which is acceptable in videokate, and sends a signal to the circuit selection quantization table 34, when this capacity is a risk of overflow. In response to such signals, the circuit selection quantization table 34 selects a quantization table for use schemes quantizer 32 to reduce its speed framing bits. When the capacity of the buffer storage device 37 largely underutilized for some period of time, the scheme selection quantization table 34 select the table to use schemes quantizer 32 to increase its speed framing bits. Thus, decreases the probability that the buffer storage device 37 will not be completed and, therefore, it is possible to avoid the use of zero codes in the code stream received from the buffer C 38 parses the code stream, coming from the buffer storage device 37, the length of the payload of the video packets size is 184 bytes, and before each payload from videobachata introduces the title of the corresponding videobachata. The video packets are connected in a transport stream, which is supplied with the encoder transport stream 10 to the assembler 6, kampanyasi data and frames. In assembler 6, companyweb data and personnel, as part of the conversion procedure 2:5 video packets are inserted in the prescribed synchroblog each frame of the data collected for the entry, and then subjected to two-dimensional coding for reed-Solomon.

The linker compressed video signal 39 parses the code stream received from the buffer storage device 37, segment size is 77 bytes for direct insertion into the temporary storage device Assembly 6, companyseo data and frames, in the prescribed points synchroblog collect data frames. These segments size is 77 bytes in later procedures are two-dimensional coding for reed-Solomon in assembler 6, companyweb data and frames.

The output of the buffer storage device combined playback 40 is a storage device with arbitrary the SOR 36 supplies as their descriptions of every sixteenth frame image. Various portions of the contents of the output buffer of the storage device combined playback 40 are read at different times at the linker compressed video signal 41 for forming bytes and insert Assembly 6, companysm data and frames, in the prescribed synchroblog collected for each record of the data frame.

In Fig.6 shows a more detailed diagram of the video compression and the formation of a transport stream, which are used in the camcorder of Fig.2. Similar schemes are used in the camcorder of Fig.4. The input buffer memory device 30, diagrams, calculations BPC 131, schemes quantizer 32, diagrams, calculations activity 33, scheme selection quantization table 134, the decoder entropy 35, the multiplexer 36, the output of the buffer storage device encoder 1371 for the code stream, encoding the coefficients of KDP zero and low frequencies, and the output buffer memory device encoder 1372 for the code stream, encoding the coefficients of KDP high frequencies, shown in Fig. 6, are elements of the device video compression 103 in Fig.2. In practice, schemes of calculation BPC 131, schemes quantizer 32 and circuit calculations activity 33 can be realized by using a microprocessor. Com is about video 139 in Fig.6 is associated with the assembler 106, companysm data and frames of Fig.2.

The transport stream generated by the encoder transport stream 110 contains video and audio packets and is characterized by the fact that the video packets are generated codes describing the coefficients of KDP zero and low frequencies immediately after the headers synchroblog in order to facilitate the combined playback.

The scheme of calculation of the KDP 131 made in order to provide an INDICATOR of the ENCODING MODE indicating if the result of computing the coefficients of KDP low frequencies (including the zero-frequency coefficients or coefficients of KDP high frequencies. When the INDICATOR ENCODING MODE indicates that the calculation result obtained coefficients of KDP zero or low frequencies, the calculation results are stored in the buffer storage device 1371, and schema-selection quantization table 134 indicate the quantizer 32 to apply a quantization table for coefficients of KDP zero and low frequencies. When the INDICATOR ENCODING MODE indicates that the calculation result obtained coefficients of KDP high frequencies, the calculation results are stored in the buffer storage device 1372, and schema-selection quantization table 134 indicate quantiative 1371 is a storage device FIFO type first-come - first-served basis to store two parallel digital streams. One digital stream consists of code entropy and code quantization table that is associated with the coefficients of KDP zero and low frequencies. Another digital stream consists of labels that indicate the breaks between blocks of the KDP in the calculation of the coefficients of KDP zero and low frequencies. Labels facilitate the task of the builders of the compressed video signal 138 and 139 for the placement of codes describing the coefficients of KDP zero and low frequencies, digital ranges immediately after the headers synchroblog. These digital ranges last for prescribed intervals or a little longer. The linker compressed video signal 138 in the structure of the encoder transport stream 110 when linking makes the admission in accession header of the transport stream and additional temporary labels to the transport stream prior to its splitting into synchroblog in assembler 110, companyweb data and frames. The linker compressed video signal 139 used in the assembler 106, companyweb data frames and for recording the compressed video signal that is not converted to the format of the transport stream, builds, not making such a permit and without having the need. When the label is of IKI compressed video signal 138 and 139 ceases to link the code from the buffer storage device 1371 and instead begins to link the code from the buffer storage device 1372. Package code from the buffer storage device 1372 forth continues until the end of synchroblog. Schema selection quantization table 134 receive the first control signal from the buffer storage device 1371 and the second control signal from the buffer storage device 1372 which govern the choice of quantization tables, in order to be able to select a quantization table to hold the amount of data stored in each buffer memory device within predetermined limits.

In Fig.7 shows a device for obtaining a snapshot 50, which is suitable for use with the camcorder of Fig.1 or 2. A device for obtaining a snapshot 50 includes a decoder 51 signal in the IEEE 1394 signal in the IEEE 1394 standard, coming from the encoder 20, the decoder standard AGE-2 52 for decoding video packets received from the decoder 51, the capture mechanism of the frame 53 to the video format NTSC, and the printer 54 to produce hard copies of the captured frames in the format NTSC. The mechanism of capture frame 53 is a storage device for the drawing of a continuous stream of samples of the digital video signal of the data on the magnetic disk. A device for obtaining a snapshot 50 can be used a modified decoder standard AGE-2 only for I-frames.

In Fig.8 shows a device for obtaining a snapshot 55, which is suitable for use with the camcorder of Fig.3 or 4. A device for obtaining a snapshot 55 includes a decoder 56 of the signal in the IEEE 1394 signal in the IEEE 1394 standard, coming from the encoder 20, the decoder standard AGE-2 57 for decoding video packets received from the decoder 56, the capture mechanism of the frame 58 for video format KSPT, and the printer 59 to produce hard copies of the captured frames in the format XPT. A device for obtaining a snapshot 55 can be used a modified decoder standard AGE-2 only for I-frames.

Using the above description and accompanying drawings, the person skilled in the art can easily construct other embodiments of the present invention, which are equivalent to those that have been described specifically; it is believed that obvious variations of this development are also covered by the following further applications. For example, encoding components of the transport stream with the given error measure, decoding components of the transport stream taking into account the errors can be made, at least partially, after the dismantling of transport stream components. In the following claims, the term "decoding device standard AGE-2" refers to the full decoder standard AGE-2, which is capable of decoding P and B-frames, along with I-frames, as well as modifications of such a decoder, decoding only the I-frames.

Claims

1. Camcorder, characterized in that it contains a video camera for issuing signals corresponding to light images in Polyakova mode, circuit, responsive to the signals issued from the camcorder in frame mode, for forming segments of a compressed digital video signal that can be decoded decoding device standard expert group on moving images-2 (AGE-2), the compressed digital video signal issued from the schemes for the formation of segments of the compressed digital video signal that can be decoded decoding device standard AGE-2, used as input to the assembler, companyseo data and frames, and synchroblog, coming from assembler, IP the rotation to zero and is supplied to the recording device for electromagnetic records in the form of magnetic fluctuations along the surface of the magnetic recording media.

2. Camcorder under item 1, characterized in that it contains the encoder transport stream, responsive to the compressed digital video signal issued from the schemes for the formation of segments of the compressed digital video signal that can be decoded decoding device standard AGE-2, for forming a transport stream coming from the conversion of 2:5, and to write in assembler.

3. Camcorder under item 1, characterized in that the circuit for forming segments of a compressed digital video signal that can be decoded decoding device AGE-2, includes a device for compression of digital video I-frame encoding type "inside a frame" successive frames of video signals issued from the camcorder in the form of I-frames for conversion to a compressed digital video signal.

4. Camcorder under item 1, characterized in that the magnetic recording media is a magnetic tape.

 

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The invention relates to filter the data, in particular to the way the signal adaptive filtering for reducing blocking effect and noise trim, signal adaptive filter and a machine-readable medium for storing program

The invention relates to techniques for television, in particular to the means of decoding the image signal

The invention relates to television technology, in particular to the transmission of video signals over a narrow-band channels, and for encoding broadband signals to reduce their bandwidth when the loss of information does not distort the overall perception

FIELD: electrical communications; data processing including reduction of data redundancy.

SUBSTANCE: proposed process includes similar way of generation of random quadrature matrix measuring m x m items and k random key matrices measuring N x m and m x N items on sending and receiving ends. Then k matrices of quantum readings of motionless gray-level video picture measuring M x M items are formed from k motionless gray-level video pictures which are then converted into product of three following matrices: random rectangular matrix measuring N x m items, random square matrix measuring m x m items, and random rectangular matrix measuring m x N items; in the process items of rectangular matrix measuring N x m items are transferred to communication channel. On receiving end k matrices of recovered quantum readings of motionless gray-level video pictures measuring M x M items are formed around random matrix measuring N x m items received from communication channel, as well as around random quadrature matrix measuring m x m items, and random rectangular matrix measuring m x N items, and motionless gray-level video pictures are produced from mentioned k matrices of recovered quantum readings.

EFFECT: enhanced data transfer speed at desired quality of recovered messages.

4 cl, 24 dwg

FIELD: technologies for data filtering.

SUBSTANCE: when a frame is formed of blocks of preset size, following operations are performed: generation of blocking information for decrease of blocking effect and contouring information for decrease of contouring noise from coefficients of preset pixels of upper and left limiting areas of data block, when a frame, received by decomposition of image data in a stream of binary bits for inverse quantizing, is an inner frame, and adaptive filtering of image data, passing through inverse quantizing and inverse discontinuous cosine transformation, in accordance to generated information of blocking and information of contouring. That is why blocking effect and contouring noise can be removed from an image, restored from image on basis of blocks, to improve the image, restored from compression.

EFFECT: decreased blocking effect and contouring noise.

2 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: data filtration technologies, in particular, signaling adaptive filtration for lower blocking effect and contour noise.

SUBSTANCE: during forming of frame, following operations are performed: production of blocking information for decreasing blocking noise and production of contouring information for decreasing contouring noise of coefficients of previously given pixels of upper and left threshold areas of data block, when frame, received by decomposition of image data in the stream of binary digits for inverse quantizing is an internal frame, and adaptive filtration of image data passing through inverse quantizing and inverse discontinuous cosine transformation, in accordance to produced blocking information and contouring information. Thus, blocking effect and contouring noise can be removed from image, restored from image on basis of blocks, improving the image restored from compression.

EFFECT: decreased blocking effect and contouring noise of encoding with high compression level.

2 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: data filtration technologies, in particular, signaling adaptive filtration for lower blocking effect and contour noise.

SUBSTANCE: during forming of frame of blocks of given size, following operations are performed: production of blocking information for decreasing blocking noise and production of contouring information for decreasing contour noise of coefficients of previously given pixels of upper and left threshold areas of data block, when frame, received by decomposition of image data in the stream of binary digits for inverse quantizing is an internal frame, and adaptive filtration of image data passing through inverse quantizing and inverse discontinuous cosine transformation, in accordance to produced blocking information and contouring information. Thus, blocking effect and contouring noise can be removed from image, restored from image on basis of blocks, improving the image restored from compression.

EFFECT: decreased blocking effect and contouring noise of encoding with high compression level.

2 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: technology for encoding multimedia objects.

SUBSTANCE: method for encoding a multimedia object includes following stages: multimedia object is encoded for producing a bit stream and information about quality is added to bit stream, while information about quality denotes quality of multimedia object relatively to given position or relatively to given part of bit stream, while information about quality is provided in quality tags, aforementioned quality tag provides a values of quality tag, and value of quality tag characterizes distortion in encoded multimedia object being reproduced, when bit stream is truncated in point, related to quality tag.

EFFECT: development of improved and efficient method/system for encoding multimedia objects.

13 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: electrical communications; data digital computation and processing including reduction of transferred information redundancy.

SUBSTANCE: proposed message compression and recovery method includes pre-generation of random quadrature matrix measuring m x m constituents and k random key matrices measuring N x m and m x N constituents on transmitting and receiving ends, and generation of quantum reading matrix of fixed half-tone video pattern measuring M x M constituents. Matrices obtained are transformed to digital form basing on addition and averaging of A images, each image being presented in the form of product of three matrices, that is, two random rectangular matrices measuring N x m and m x N constituents and one random quadrature matrix measuring m x m constituents. Transferred to communication channel are constituents of rectangular matrix measuring N x m constituents. Matrix of recovered quantum readings of fixed half-tone video pattern measuring M x M constituents is generated basing on rectangular matrix measuring N x m constituents received from communication channel as well as on random quadrature matrix measuring m x m constituents and random rectangular matrix of m x N constituents, and is used to shape fixed half-tone video pattern.

EFFECT: enhanced error resistance in digital communication channel during message compression and recovery.

2 cl, 26 dwg, 1 app

FIELD: video communications, in particular, technology for masking decoder errors.

SUBSTANCE: in accordance to one variant of invention, system and method decode, order and pack video information to video data packets for transfer via communication line with commutated channels, due to which system conceals errors, caused by loss of video data packets, when system receives, unpacks, orders and decodes data packets. In accordance to another variant, system and method decode and pack video information so that adjacent macro-blocks may not be positioned in same data packets. Also, system and method may provide information, accompanying packets of video data for simplification of decoding process. Advantage of described scheme is that errors caused due to data loss are distributed spatially across whole video frame. Therefore, areas of data, surrounding lost macro-blocks, are decoded successfully, and decoder may predict movement vectors and spatial content with high degree of precision.

EFFECT: improved quality of image.

4 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: method for decreasing visual distortions in frame of digital video signal, which is encoded in blocks and then decoded.

SUBSTANCE: block type is determined in accumulator to encoding method for block, selected in accordance to given set of encoding type. For achieving technical result, i.e. decreasing visual distortions caused by limit of block, filtration is performed in the method, which is carried out depending on frame blocks types around the limit of block.

EFFECT: decreased visual distortions, increased reliability and efficiency.

9 cl, 6 dwg, 2 tbl

FIELD: radio engineering, possible use for digital processing of video signals, transferring the image.

SUBSTANCE: in accordance to the invention, the image being processed is divided on blocks with following transformation of each block using discontinuous quantum transformation, result coefficients are quantized and encoded, supporting points are computed and linear interpolation is performed, while before the stage of supporting point selection, one of the supporting points on edge limit of block is selected and a supporting point on opposite limit block is calculated using additional low frequency filters, after that linear interpolation is performed between thus computed supporting points.

EFFECT: improved quality of compressed video image with insignificant CPU resource costs.

2 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: engineering of systems for encoding digital video signals, in particular, indication of values of quantization parameters in video encoding system.

SUBSTANCE: method and device for encoding a digital video series are claimed, where indication of quantization parameter is given out in encoded bit stream for use during decoding. Indication of information concerning the quantization parameter is ensured by insertion of SQP value - series level quantization parameter value. In particular, instead of encoding absolute values of parameters of quantization of image/section, indication of difference ΔQP between series level quantization parameter SQP and QP of image/section, is given out.

EFFECT: increased efficiency when encoding digital video signals and reduced speed of data transmission in bits.

4 cl, 8 dwg

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