Drum brake with automatic adjustment of the gap and a device for selectively blocking and blocking

 

The invention relates to the automotive industry and can be used in drum brake systems of vehicles. Drum brake with the spacer element (6) adjustable length allows you to adjust the clearance of the brakes as they wear his pads by turning the toothed wheel (7), driven by the regulating plate (51) mounted on a swinging lever (5). The swinging lever (5) has a plate (52), which disables and locks the clearance adjustment mechanism and which is in danger of possible oscillations of the gap of the brake is engaged with the toothed wheel (7) and at the same time, until that moment, until there is no danger of the possible oscillations of the gap brake prevents further rotation of the gear wheel under the influence of the regulating plate (51). The technical result of the present invention is to improve the reliability of the brakes and reduce the impact on its performance braking in extreme conditions. 3 C.p. f-crystals, 3 ill.

The invention relates to drum brakes with automatic adjustment to compensate for wear of the friction lining.

Izobretalnosti and facing to the inner surface of the drum pads with the appropriate friction lining, installed between the pads actuator (or hydrocylinder), which when braking pushes the pads, moving them in the direction of the axis brakes to the inner surface of the drum, the spring, which pulls the pads and when not operating the hydraulic cylinder moves them apart pads to each other in the direction towards the axis of the brake, the swinging lever regulating plate, which makes angular displacement back and forth, turning in two opposite directions, correlated with the movements of the shoes from the axis and to the axis of the brake, the spacer element of adjustable length, mounted between the blocks and restricts their movement to the axis of the brake and which consists of having two threaded elements forming a screw connection type of the screw-nut and allowing by unscrewing the screw from the nut to adjust as wear of the friction lining the length of the spacer element, and a toothed wheel which is fixed on one of the elements of the screw connection type of the screw-nut and which can rotate the regulating plate during rotation of the tilting lever in the first direction, the regulating plate, which is stretched in the longitudinal direction perpendicular rotation of the tilting lever, when turning the swinging of the lever in the first direction acts on the toothed wheel essentially at a tangent, and not on the radius.

Drum brake of this type are well known and described, for example, in patent US 4502574, which is included in the present description by reference.

In brakes of this type, which have a number of advantages associated with their simple design, with too much braking force generated by the hydraulic cylinder, sometimes jamming the brakes, especially when braking in extreme conditions and high temperatures brakes.

Based on the foregoing, the present invention was based on the task to improve the brake of the type indicated above in such a way as to minimise the impact on its performance braking in extreme conditions in comparison with the known brakes.

For solving this task, the invention essentially proposes to use in the brake rocker lever with breaking and locking mechanism of the gap adjusting plate, which, at the time of occurrence of the risk associated with possible preregulatory gap, engages with the toothed wheel, and outputs from engagement with him handling is at least as long until there is no danger of the possible oscillations of the gap.

Proposed in the invention is a drum brake, which in its other characteristics correspond to brake, presented in the beginning of the description, differs essentially from the fact that on lever fixed tripping and locking mechanism of the gap adjusting plate, which is stretched in a longitudinal direction parallel to the regulating plate and is located on width in a plane essentially perpendicular to the Central plane of the regulating plate, and has a ductility in a direction perpendicular to its plane, in which it is in a free position, from which it can elastically be deformed to a limited extent in the direction of its width and to enter into engagement with the toothed wheel, and the fact that the movements of the control plate is repeated deformation, breaking and locking mechanism of the gap adjusting plate so that the toothed wheel after engagement with them is breaking and locking mechanism of the gap adjusting plate disengages from the regulating plate.

In a preferred embodiment, tripping and locking the adjustment mechanism is ndikumana its plane in the direction of the toothed wheel.

The lever may also, for example, to have a shoulder, which is perpendicular to the regulating plate and connected to the common base and which can be rotated, on the one hand, the hinge formed by the axis fixed on one of the pads, and far from the base end of the arm, and on the other hand, the hinge is formed by one end of the spacer element and the middle to the base end of the arm, with astringent pads spring connected with the lever arm at a point between its ends.

In addition, the lever preferably has a bent region, located near the base, which is common for regulating plate and lever arm parallel to the plane breaking and locking mechanism of the gap adjusting plate forming one with it.

Other distinctive features and advantages of the invention is described in more detail below, the example does not limit the invention variants of execution with reference to the accompanying drawings, which depict: Fig. 1 is a simplified front view described in the aforementioned patent drum brakes, which can be used in the present invention, Fig.2 - the picture in economet such a brake from the known brake according to Fig.1, in Fig. 3, consisting of individual species 3A-3E are diagrams illustrating different operating positions of the individual parts proposed in the invention of the brake.

The invention relates to a drum brake made the type shown in Fig. 1 brake, which consists of the following main elements: braban 1, two having the shape of an arc of a circle pads 21 and 22 with the respective friction plates 21A, 22A, the actuator (or RAM) 3, a spring 4, a rocking lever 5, the spacer element 6 with adjustable length and a gear-wheel 7, which depending on the wear of friction pads 21A and 22A accordingly (selectively) turns, increasing as wear pads the length of the spacer element 6.

Both pads 21, 22 facing the inner surface 1A of the drum 1 and are drawn together by the spring 4.

Cylinder 3 located between the blocks 21, 22, under braking moves the pads in the direction of M1 from the axis brakes to the inner surface 1A of the drum, and the spring 4, which pulls the pads 21, 22, in the absence of pressure in the cylinder 3 moves them in the opposite M1 direction M2 to the axis of the brake.

The swinging lever 5 with the regulating plate 51 when moved the first direction, and when approaching pads and move them in the direction of M2 to the axis of the brake is rotated in a second direction, opposite the first.

Between the blocks 21, 22 is located spacer element 6, which limits their movement to the axis of the brake and consists of having two threaded elements 61, 62, forming a screw connection type of the screw-nut, which allows you to adjust as you wear plates 21A, 22A of the length of the spacer element by unscrewing the screw from the nut with a gear wheel 7, which is fixed on one of the elements (in particular, item 61) threaded connections and appropriately (selectively) rotates the regulating plate 51 during rotation of the tilting lever 5 in the first direction.

Regulating plate 51 shown in Fig.2, which also explains the invention depicted coordinate system XYZ is stretched in the longitudinal direction along the X-axis, i.e. perpendicular to the plane YZ gears, and the width is located in the Central XZ-plane parallel to the plane in which around the corresponding axis rotates the swinging lever 5.

The location of the adjusting plate 51 provides for the rotation of the lever 5 in the first direction, the possibility of its EOI known brakes of this type are sensitive to certain limiting their opportunities working conditions, thus, in particular, heavy braking may cause jamming of the brake, the deformation of the drum and is usually unacceptable temperature rise.

To address this shortcoming in the invention proposes a brake, which differs significantly from the known brakes, first, the presence of the lever 5 tripping and locking mechanism of the gap adjusting plate 52, which in the longitudinal direction is parallel to the regulating plate 51, and the width is in the XY plane essentially perpendicular to the Central plane XZ regulating plate 51, and which has a ductility in a direction perpendicular to its plane XY, in which it is in a free position, from which it can elastically be deformed to a limited extent in the direction of its width and to enter into engagement with the toothed wheel 7, and secondly, the fact that movements of the control plate 51 is repeated deformation, breaking and locking mechanism of the gap adjusting plate 52 so that when moving the regulating plate 51 tripping and locking mechanism of the gap adjusting plate 52 which is in engagement with the toothed wheel 7, adjusting the brakes invention, and in this connection we should mention another significant from the point of view of achieved benefits, although not a principal feature consists in the fact that tripping and locking mechanism of the gap adjusting plate 52 is made in the form of a bimetallic element and when the temperature moves in the direction of the gear wheel 7, i.e. in the direction perpendicular to its plane XY.

Below in the description for convenience uses some of the terms listed below.

Under "the brake pads when not expanded" means a brake, which is in a free state, and his pads 21 and 22 under the action of the spring 4 are as close to each other the distance.

Under "brake apart blocks" means a brake, which under the action of the braking effort produced by the hydraulic cylinder 3, the pads 21 and 22 are moved apart and pressed against the inner surface 1A of the drum 1.

Under "interactions with the tooth" or "gearing" means the action by which, when the brake is returned to the free state (the state with the pads when not expanded), the regulating plate 51 moves from one gear tooth to its next tooth.

"J" oboznachaya pads are in a free condition of the brakes.

"J0" denotes the nominal (or current) running clearance of the brake or the working gap, which is designed brake.

The terms "normal" and "high" refer to the temperature at which the bimetallic element, which is shown in Fig.3 specific embodiment, the invention features a plate, which disables and locks the clearance adjustment mechanism is in the original (flat) or in a deformed state.

Shown in Fig.3 types 3A-3E correspond to the following States brakes.

Type 3A: Brake pads when not expanded. A high temperature. Regulating plate 51 is engaged with the tooth, "and". The plate 52, tripping and blocking the clearance adjustment mechanism, deformed and pressed against a tooth "b".

Type 3B: Brake apart pads. A high temperature. Regulating plate 51 is moved by a distance corresponding to the clearance "J". When moving the regulating plate 51 and the rotation of the gear wheel 7 of his teeth "b" lifts up the plate 52, tripping and blocking the clearance adjustment mechanism. At the same time with the plate 52 is lifted up and repeating its movement regulating plate 51.

Type 3B: Brake with extended wheel 7 in the vertical direction by the plate 52. As we ascend, the regulating plate 51 disengages from the tooth "and" gears 7.

View 3G: Brake apart pads. A high temperature. J>J0. Regulating plate 51 is raised up tripping and locking mechanism of the gap adjusting plate 52 is moved along the tangent to the gear wheel 7 and slides over the top of the tooth and the gear with which it came to this (type 3B), without this tooth no effect.

View 3D: the Brake pads when not expanded. A high temperature. J>J0. Regulating plate 51 is returned to its original free position. The plate 52, which disables and locks the clearance adjustment mechanism, rests in the tooth "b", preventing engagement of the regulating plate 51 with the tooth "c".

Type 3E: Brake pads when not expanded. Normal temperature. When the cooling plate 52, which disables and locks the clearance adjustment mechanism that disengages from the tooth "b". However, when the gap J<Jregulating plate 52 disengages from the tooth "a", and the gear wheel 7 is not rotated so that its tooth "with" engages with returning to the original free position regulating plate 51 further interacts only with the tooth "with" gears 7.

In addition to the above the preferred option for disabling and locking of the clearance adjustment mechanism used record that when the temperature moves perpendicular to its plane, the invention contemplates the possibility of using for this purpose and a more simple design of the plate 52, which is not deformed by temperature changes in order to avoid possible oscillations of the brake associated with an unacceptable deformation of the drum 1 under the action of increased braking effort.

With too much braking force in the known brakes at a single actuation of the brake clearance adjustment is usually accompanied by rotation of the gears to several teeth, which often leads to jamming of brakes, even at normal temperatures.

The above description makes it easy to develop such a design of the brake, in which the plate 52, which disables and locks the clearance adjustment mechanism, would at normal temperature to move simultaneously with the regulating plate as it is moved in the above construction, when the temperature increases, and echanism clearance adjustment, regulating plate 51 is released from engagement with one of the teeth of the wheel 7 and with the increased gap went into engagement with another tooth and the plate 52, which disables and locks the clearance adjustment mechanism, kept the gear from further rotation, thereby eliminating the possibility of regulatory impact plate 51 to the next gear tooth.

In accordance with another variant of the invention proposes a brake shown in Fig.2 lever 5, which has, for example, the shoulder 53, which is located perpendicular to the regulating plate 51 and United with her common base 54.

The shoulder 53 has two points of support and can be rotated, first, relatively fixed on the pad 21 of the axis 8, which rests its remote from the base 54 end 55, and secondly, in relation to one of the ends 63 of the spacer element 6, which rests against its closest to the base 54 of the end 56.

At the midpoint 57 located between its ends 55 and 56, the shoulder 53 of the lever is connected with the spring 4, which tightens with each other pads 21 and 22, and the brake pads 21 and 22 under the action of the spring is followed as with all brakes of this type (see Fig.1) relevant povorot common and for regulating plate 51 and the shoulder 53, parallel to the XY plane breaking and locking mechanism of the gap adjusting plate 52 forming one with it.

Claims

1. Drum brake having at least the drum (1), two having the shape of an arc of a circle and facing to the inner surface (1A) of the drum (1) pads (21, 22) with the appropriate friction plates (21A, 22A), installed between the blocks (21, 22) of the actuator (3), which when braking pushes the pads, moving them in the direction (Ml) from the axis brakes to the inner surface (1A) of the drum, the spring (4), which pulls the pads (21, 22) also at idle actuator (3) moves them apart pads to each other in the opposite direction (Ml) direction (M2) to the axis of the brake, swing arm (5) with the regulating plate (51), which makes angular displacement back and forth, turning in two opposite directions, correlated with the movements of the shoes from the axis and to the axis of the brake, the spacer element (6) adjustable length, which is installed between blocks (21, 22) and restricts their movement to the axis of the brake and which consists of having two threaded elements (beat as wear of the friction lining (21A, 22A) the length of the spacer element and the gear wheel (7) which is fixed on one of the elements (61) screw connection type of the screw-nut and which can rotate the regulating plate (51) when the rotation of the tilting lever (5) in the first direction, the regulating plate (51), which is stretched in a longitudinal direction perpendicular to the plane of the toothed wheel and is located across the width at the mid-plane (XZ), parallel to the first direction of rotation of the swinging arm by rotating the swing arm in the first direction acts on the toothed wheel (7), essentially, on a tangent, and not on the radius, characterized in that the lever (5) is fixed tripping and locking mechanism of the gap adjusting plate (52), which is stretched in a longitudinal direction parallel to the regulating plate (51) and is located across the width in the (XY) plane essentially perpendicular to the Central plane (XZ) of the regulating plate (51) and has a ductility in a direction perpendicular to its plane (XY), in which it is in a free position, from which it can elastically be deformed to a limited extent in the direction of its width and to enter into engagement with the toothed krasoiuski gap plate (52) thus, what gear wheel (7) after the engagement with him is breaking and locking mechanism of the gap adjusting plate (52), disengages from regulating plate (51).

2. Drum brake on p. 1, characterized in that the shut-off and locking mechanism of the gap adjusting plate (52) is designed as a bimetallic element, and when the temperature moves perpendicular to its plane (XY) in the direction of the toothed wheel (7).

3. Drum brake under item 1 or 2, characterized in that the lever (5) has a shoulder (53), which is perpendicular to the regulating plate (51) and connected to the common base (54) and which has a possibility of rotation about fixed on the pad (21) axis (8), which rests its remote from the base (54) (55), and on one end (63) of the spacer element (6), which rests against its closest to the base (54) end (56), and astringent pads spring (4) is connected with the shoulder (53) of the lever (57) located between its ends (55, 56).

4. Drum brake on p. 3, characterized in that the lever (5) has a bent edge (58), located near its base (54), which is common for regulating plate (51) and shoulder (53 him one.

 

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