The method of controlling the energy supply of growing pigs
The invention is intended for use in agriculture and relates to a method of controlling power supply growing pigs. The method comprises feeding the animal a diet with a given level of exchange of energy taking into account the results of feeding on biochemical parameters, namely the concentration of free amino acids in plasma and the concentration of the amino acids alanine group (alanine, glycine, threonine, serine, cysteine). Energy security is a growing pigs is the value of the ratio of the amount of free amino acids to total amino acids alanine group, taking into account the concentration of urea. Determination of biochemical parameters spend 4-5 days after feeding pigs diets with the set and the test levels of the exchange energy. Animals that are tested on the diet differed from controls significantly greater meat yield and protein concentration in the muscle, less Azerenergy Touche. The average weight gain in the experimental animals is significantly higher than the control. 3 table. The invention relates to the feeding of farm animals, in particular to methods of control power Pete is p>Well-known traditional methods of controlling energy supply C. farm animals (based on evaluation of the results of observations) on the increase in body weight and composition, feed intake, and metabolizable energy and expenses for the received products (Nutrition of the young pig by R. 6 Campbele, Australian Pig Manual, p.93-96, 1979).However, convincing results on these indicators could be obtained, as a rule, a large herd of animals in long-term experiments associated with considerable expenditure of labor and time. In addition, the data required for the relevant conclusions can often be obtained upon completion of the technological cycle of growing animals, i.e. when it is impossible to adjust the level of the power supply.To date not well developed and very little used biochemical control criteria energy supply growing pigs in the course of the experiments, as well as in the production environment.Offer for ruminant animals, the method of estimating the energy security of concentration in the blood taken before and after feeding every 3 hours, volatile fatty acids, ketone bodies, glucose and nonesterified fatty acids ("the Principle of assessment of the carbohydrate-what ielem for monogastric animals due to the peculiarities of the digestive and metabolic processes in them, which manifests itself in a small proportion of volatile fatty acids in the total energy balance. Closest to the claimed is a method of controlling power supply monogastric animals by analysis of enzyme activity of lipolysis and lipogenesis - trigliceridos (TTL) and lipoproteinlipase (LPL) in adipose tissue ("control Method of the power supply piglets" authorship 1233053, S. N. Yuri and others 1986, MCI G 01 N 33/48 (prototype).The aim of the present invention is to develop efficient and more simple and accessible way of controlling the energy supply monogastrics, in particular, growing pigs.This goal is achieved by the fact that the control power supply of animals is carried out on the concentration of free amino acids and urea in blood plasma after 4-5 days after feeding diets with a given level of the exchange energy and the test level of metabolizable energy in the diet.Distinctive features of the proposed method in comparison with the prototype are as follows: 1) in plasma determine the concentration of free amino acids and calculate the coefficient is the ratio of aminotic is a, threonine, glycine, cysteine through a stage pyruvic acid is primarily used as sources of energy in the body) to the total amount of free amino acids in blood plasma and also determine the concentration of urea; 2) the blood sample will be drawn from the tail, while the prototype for the study required a biopsy of adipose tissue is a time - consuming and require special qualification procedure. The positive effect of the proposed method is that its implementation allows to obtain biochemical data reflecting the efficiency of energy use for the main purpose of protein synthesis, which improves the efficiency of the method, the reliability of the results and the objectivity of the conclusions. In the prototype evaluation is carried out by the intensity of lipid metabolism, and increased deposition of lipids in the body may indicate a negative effect of energy supply due to violations of the ratio of the energy level in the diet to balance the protein and amino acids.The proposed method of controlling the energy supply of growing pigs is as follows.Experimental animals fed the study diet, and the other GRU is in the blood plasma (blood obtained from tail 2 hours after feeding) determine the full aminogram are determined free amino acids and the concentration of urea.From the obtained values of free amino acids in blood plasma calculate the corresponding factor (the ratio of the sum of the amino acids alanine groupAA, reflecting the amount of glucogenic Fund in the body, to the amount of free amino acidsCA - ratio =AA/CA, by changing this factor judge about the changes in the level of energy security of animals: 1) with equal values of the factor specified in the rations given (control) level and test level of the exchange energy is set relative compliance of the level of energy supply in animals of both groups; 2) decrease of this ratio in the animals on the diet with the test energy level compared to animals receiving the diet with a control level of energy, recorded reduced energy value of the test diet; 3) the increase in this ratio in the animals fed the diet with the test energy level, compared with animals fed the diet with the specified control level of the exchange energy, indicates the higher energy density of the test diets for young animals practical feeding young pigs conducted a series of experiments on pigs the three breed crossbred (large white x Landrace x Hampshire) in the period from 60 to 105 days of age. Two groups of pigs were fed the same amount isoproterenol feed: 1 (control) group feed with a given level of the exchange energy 12,41 MJ/kg, group 2 was fed the test diet with the level of the exchange energy 12,10 MJ/kg comparative studies of the concentration of free amino acids and urea in blood plasma, held four days from the start of consumption of feed, installed: 1) to test the feed (low energy) concentration of free amino acids changed in the direction of increasing the total amount for the account of the essential amino acids, and the level of essential amino acids decreased. The ratio of alanine amino acid group to the sum of free amino acids decreased by 17.8% (table. 1), indicating that the increased use of amino acids for energy needs of the organism in the test diet; this is considered as a deficiency of the exchange energy in the experimental feed. The concentration of urea in the blood plasma of piglets on the test diet was significantly increased from 3.240,10 to 4.080.10 mmol/l (25.9% compared to control), indicating that the increased use of amino acids for energy needs is howling weight of pigs from 60 to 105 days of age showed that the tested model feed (low metabolizable energy of 12.1 MJ/kg) it decreased by 40 g / day (39633,40 against 43632,5 g/day). The cost of feed per kg live weight gain over the whole period of observations was in the control (balanced exchange of energy) diet 2.92 kg, and the test 3,22 kg (table. 2).The results of the control of slaughter pigs in 105 days of age showed that animals that were tested on the diet differed from animals in the control group significantly greater meat yield and protein concentration in the muscles, as well as less Azerenergy Touche.The described changes of the amino acids alanine groups and free amino acids in plasma was confirmed in production (Kuznetsovsky pig") experiments on three breed cross-breed pigs 45 - 105 days of age due to variations of level of the power supply, which indicates the natural character of the adaptive reactions of metabolism in young pigs in response to changes in the level of energy in the diet (table. 3).According to the data table. 3, the level of the exchange energy in a given ration 12,81 MJ/kg is optimal for crossbred piglets, coefficiency level of metabolizable energy (12, 18 MJ/kg) was scarce, the coefficientAA/CA on this diet was significantly lower to 0.23, and the concentration of urea, indicating the increased use of amino acids in energy purposes has increased significantly. And, as shown by the results of the weighting, the average daily gain in live weight is requested for the period from 45 to 105 days of age was in groups 489,6558,78 and 4227746,96 g/day.
ClaimsThe method of controlling the energy supply of growing pigs, including feeding animals diets with the test level of the exchange energy and with the specified optimum for the given age level of the exchange energy, with subsequent consideration of the effects of feeding on biochemical parameters, characterized in that the determination of biochemical parameters exercise 4-5 days after feeding diets with the test and the specified level of the exchange energy, the biochemical parameters of growing pigs using the concentration of free amino acids "alanine group (alanine, glycine, threonine, serine, cysteine) and Konz is acid "alanine groups to the total amount of free amino acids in blood plasma, the value of the coefficient of 0.23-0.29 to indicates a low level of the exchange energy of the test diet and the value of the coefficient of 0.38-0,47 indicates elevated levels of metabolizable energy in the diet, and increasing the concentration of urea in plasma to 4.080.10 mmol/l indicates an increase in the use of amino acids for energy purposes.
FIELD: ball-shaped toy for dog.
SUBSTANCE: device has ball provided with at least one elongated grip indirectly connected to ball by means of intermediate embracing member arranged around ball or directly connected to ball so as to define continuation to outer casing of ball, to inner casing of ball or to member inserted between outer and inner casings. Such arrangement provides for resilient engagement between grip and ball and constant returning of grip to its radial position relative to ball center. Grip prevents ball from being bitten by dog during playing with it.
EFFECT: increased entertaining effect and provision for preventing ball from damage.
18 cl, 5 dwg