The method of forming the sensor element is a scanning probe microscope

 

The invention relates to a method of forming a sensor element of a scanning probe microscope. Consists in the application of the source material on the probe, silicon cantilever, the formation of a focused electron point in the immediate vicinity of the area of the beginning of the formation of the growth of the sensor element and the growth management tip by moving the probe relative to the focus of the electron beam, prior to the formation of the sensor element are surface modification of the cantilever with giving her the set values of wettability and roughness, material of controlled composition is applied from a steam environment, and regulation of the positive charge on the surface of the sensor element using an electronic beam. Technical result: exact reproduction of the geometry and composition of the sensor element. 1 S. and 4 C.p. f-crystals, 6 ill.

The invention relates to the field of scanning probe microscopy, and more specifically to a method of forming a sensor element of a scanning probe microscope (SPM).

Currently, there are various versions of cultivation technology on the surface of the silicon Canteleu generowania systems whiskers on a single crystal substrate, focused on the most Packed for this material crystallographic faces, by deposition of material from the vapor phase by heating, through the solvent particles, deposited on a substrate in a specific order. Does the growth mechanism of vapor-liquid-crystal [1].

However, this method has a drawback: the growing whiskers often branched, change the direction of their growth, etc.,

There is also known a method of controlled growing whiskers on the substrate, which enables the creation of regular systems of well-oriented whiskers over a large area [2]. In this way the cultivation oriented systems whiskers on a single crystal substrate, oriented on the most densely Packed for this material crystallographic faces, carried out by deposition of material from the vapor phase by heating, through the solvent particles, deposited on a substrate in a specific order. In parallel to the substrate placed source material for the growth of whiskers in the form of a solid with a flat surface facing the substrate, of the same composition that grown Crist is th perpendicular to the substrate and the source. Particles of solvent is applied onto the substrate or by deposition through a stencil mask, or with the participation of the photolithographic process.

Despite some advantages of this method, the proposed technology is not without drawbacks, the main of which is that the growth of whiskers or the so-called "whiskers" (whiskers) are possible only in the plane of the silicon. The "whiskers" will differ more brittle, as if the orientation of the plate plane of the easiest cleavage is perpendicular to the axis of the needle.

The closest in technical essence and the achieved effect is a method of forming a sensor element of a scanning probe microscope, including the application of source material on the probe, silicon cantilever, the formation of a focused electron beam in the vicinity of a zone of the beginning of the formation of the growth of the sensor element and control of the growth of the tip by moving the probe relative to the focus of the electron beam [3].

However, this technology grow "whiskers" on the tip of the probe of the cantilever does not allow strictly controlled qualitatively and quantitatively the composition of the original mater who is also the lack of ability to control the magnitude of the potentials on the surface of sensor elements and the limited possibility to control the growth of sensor elements and control their growth.

The objective of the invention is to create such a technology of forming a sensor element of a scanning probe microscope, which allows to reproduce the geometry generated by the sensor element. This technology allows you to grow dimensional structure of the complex and specified form.

This object is achieved due to the fact that in the method of forming the sensor element is a scanning probe microscope, including the application of source material on the probe, silicon cantilever, the formation of a focused electron beam in the vicinity of a zone of the beginning of the formation of the growth of the sensor element and control of the growth of the tip by moving the probe relative to the focus of the electron beam, before the formation of the sensor element are surface modification of the cantilever with giving her the set values of wettability and roughness, and the source material of controlled composition is applied from the vapor phase.

One of the embodiments of the invention is the use of an additional electron beam for regulating the magnitude of the positive charge on the surface of the sensor element, which, in turn, podrobnee [3]).

It is also possible to photostimulation surface of the sensor element for controlling the conductivity of its surface that allows you to drain the charges and to adjust the direction of growth with the adoption of the forces of interaction between them (see [3]).

It is feasible to also control the growth rate of the sensor element by applying ultrasonic vibrations to the growth zone. The "whisker" is a concentrator of ultrasonic vibrations, which leads to the stimulation of the growth of its end. This is due to the fact that the liquid at the end of the sensor element moves in the direction of propagation of the oscillations due to increased mobility of the molecules in this direction.

Regulation of the direction of propagation of ultrasonic oscillations can be realized by means of the vibration of an elastic element of the cantilever, which in turn results in a higher degree of orientation "viscera" relative to the growth axis. This is due to the fact that the plane of the elastic element of the cantilever perpendicular to the axis of the probe, its rigidity in this direction by at least an order of magnitude less rigidity in other directions, which leads, in turn, the selection frequency is about the direction of growth "viscera" is preferable to further use of the cantilever.

You can control the growth of the sensor element by measuring changes in the natural frequencies of the cantilever as a result of change of its mass, for example, through registration of the optical signal, the modified modified natural frequency of the cantilever.

The change in wettability and roughness required to obtain source material at the end of the probe in the desired number, carry out the deposition of thin films, for example, gold, tungsten carbide or titanium nitride, and etching the surface of the probe by means of ion bombardment, plasma processing, electric etching, etc.,

The invention is explained below using the drawings, which schematically: Fig. 1 - device for forming a sensor element on the end of a probe of the SPM cantilever; Fig.2 - tape to secure the number of cantilevers, a view in plan; Fig.3 is a side view according to Fig. 2; Fig. 4 cantilever made according to previously known technology, a top view; Fig.5 cantilever is shown in Fig. 4, a side view, Fig. 6 - cantilever sensor element formed by the proposed method.

In Fig. 1 in simplified form showing the vacuum chamber 1, in which Ustinov, mounted on the movable rail 5, the moving coordinate X. the Movable rail 5 mounted in turn on the guides (not shown) that represent the surface of a coordinate table 3, which is in contact with the guide rail 5 and the moving coordinates Y, z Vacuum chamber 1 contains the gateway 6 for rapid loading of objects. When the carriage 4 has a drive 7, mounted on the rail 5, which is equipped with actuators 8, 9 at the coordinates Y, z Lid 10 is made of optically transparent material (for monitoring) and mounted on the camera 1, for example, in the form of a hinged element.

In the manufacture of sensor elements on the carriage 4 is fixed to the cartridge 11, for example, by means of the spring 12 with at least one cantilever 13 and the probe 14. More cantilevers 13 with the probes 14 are described in EN 2124780 and EN 2121657.

Installation for the formation of the sensor element is not described in detail because it is not the subject of the invention.

However, alternatively, the method can be used, for example, the standard setting JEOL-840.

In Fig. 2-3 shows the cassette 15 with pedestal 16 and a spring 17 with the tabs 13, through which can be beamed 21, with fixed probe 22.

The process of forming the sensor element as follows.

The surface modification of the cantilever 19 (Fig. 5), as mentioned above, shall be implemented by, for example, deposition of thin films of various materials, such as tungsten carbide, gold, titanium nitride, etc., for stabilization properties, regulates the value of wettability. The roughness can be adjusted by carrying out the etching of the surface of the probe. Application materials from the vapor phase can be produced in the cell in which it is possible to adjust the concentration of the original substance, its temperature, pressure and so on, thus determining the structure and quantity of the source material. More surface modification and deposition of material from the vapor phase is described, for example, in [4, 5]. Moreover, the simultaneous application of source materials on a specified number of cantilevers. Then the cantilever 19 is fixed by means of the tabs 18 on the pedestal 16. Then, using the gateway 6, the cartridge 11 is fixed in the formation zone of the focused electron beam. Include electron gun 2 and the end of the probe 14 (Fig.1) form the focus of the electron beam. Then for a given program carried perform variants of the proposed method to the camera 1 can be docked laser 15, optically coupled to the photodetector 16 to the control unit 17. On the carriage 4 can be mounted piezoelectric transducer 18, is also connected to the control unit 17, and the camera 1 is installed an additional electron gun 19.

For a more complete understanding of the invention and in order to facilitate the illustration below is an example of its implementation. However, it should be understood that it may be various modifications, obvious to those skilled in the art, without changing the nature of the invention and are not beyond the scope of the invention defined by the attached claims.

Example 1 the Required number of cantilevers is fixed in the cartridge, which is placed in the installation application of titanium nitride, where the form of his film on the surface of the cantilever, followed by etching of the surface. Then transferred the tape in the camera, where a vapour-gas mixture of the desired concentration (see details in [4, 5]). After the formation of a given amount of source material on the tip of the probe transfer tape in a vacuum chamber of a scanning electron microscope (JEOL-840) and affect the substance of the focused electron beam. The diameter of the electron beam mo the e impact on the applied substance focused beam of electrons results in the decomposition reaction of this substance with the subsequent growth of the decay of carbon-containing compounds. Further, when moving the cantilever relative to the focus of the electron beam along the axis of the tooth cantilever with an average speed of 1 Mr 4 minutes is the growth of robust, compact carbon compounds in the form of a cone or the so-called "viscera", with a diameter ranging from 100 to 4 nm, the angle of the cone to less than 10 and the length of the cone to 1 MCR and more. Thus the axis of the beam perpendicular to the axis of the tooth. When the focus of the electron beam along a programmed curve the axis of the cone carbon compounds bends in the growth process and follows the trajectory of focus of the electron beam. At the end of the process geometry grown "viscera" is controlled in the same setup with the shift to the measurement mode. Read more the process of formation of the "whiskers" are described in [3].

Using additional electron gun 19, located in the vacuum chamber 1, it is possible to generate an electron beam for regulating the positive charge on the surface of the sensor element.

The photostimulation of the surface of the sensor element can be carried out by applying, for example laser radiation in the area of its formation through the window 10. By piezoceramic Proba in the growth zone, and you can control the direction of ultrasonic vibrations using elastic element of the cantilever 13, because it can represent a flat spring having a fixed direction of oscillation. The growth control of the sensor element is connected with the change of its mass, which consequently leads to a change in resonance frequency of the cantilever, which can be measured, for example using a laser beam directed on the vibrating element of the cantilever and a sensor 16 located in the area of the reflected optical signal. More equipment, implements the processes described in this paragraph is described in [6, 7, 8].

Electron-graphical analysis shows that the structure material "viscera" corresponds to amorphous carbon. From measurements of the dependences of the force of interaction of these probes with the surface, it follows that they are hydrophobic and rolling water adsorption layer not found.

The thickness of the "whiskers" can be 50-100 nm, the radius of curvature of up to 2-3 nm, length up to 3 μm and can be initially given with an accuracy of 20-30 nm, which makes the needle of this type is extremely promising for applications in analytical atomic force microscopy, and nanotechnology. CE opens the possibility of creating complex instrumental devices.

Thus, the proposed method allows for more accurate compared to the prototype to reproduce the geometry and composition of the sensor element.

References 1. U.S. patent 3535538.

2. International publication WO 97/37064.

3. Publication Microsc. Microanal. Microstruct., 3 (1992), S. 313-331.

4. Planar silicon technology devices. E. H. Mazel, R. P. Press, Meters , Energy, 1974.

5. Physics of the surface. E. Sengul, M., Mir, 1990.

6. A positive decision on the application of the RF 97100591.

7. Publication "Piezoresistive canitleverrs utilized for scanninning tunneling and scanning force microscope in ultrahigh vacuum", F. J. Gisseble and B. M. Trafas, Rev. Scl. Instrum. 65 (6), June, 1994.

8. Publication "Magnetic force microscopy with 25 nm resolution", Philip C. D., et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 55 (22), 27 November 1989.

Claims

1. The method of forming the sensor element is a scanning probe microscope, including the application of source material on the probe, silicon cantilever, the formation of a focused electron beam in the vicinity of a zone of the beginning of the formation of the growth of the sensor element and control of the growth of the tip by moving the probe relative to the focus of the electron beam, characterized in that before forming the sensor element is carried out modification of erial controlled composition is applied from the vapor phase, and for regulating the magnitude of the positive charge on the surface of the sensor element using an electronic beam.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that exercise photostimulation surface of the sensor element for controlling the conductivity of its surface.

3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the growth rate of the sensor element is controlled by applying ultrasonic vibrations in the area of growth.

4. The method according to p. 3, characterized in that the regulation of the direction of propagation of ultrasonic oscillations is realized by means of vibration of an elastic element of the cantilever.

5. The method according to p. 3 or 4, characterized in that the control of the growth of the sensor element is carried out by measuring changes in the natural frequencies of the cantilever using the registration of the reflected optical signal from him.

 

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