A method of manufacturing forgings mainly of metals and alloys titanium subgroup and forging complex for its implementation

 

The invention relates to the processing of metals by pressure and can be used to obtain the forging of ingots and pre deformirovannykh billets for forging complexes. The ingot is heated and produce forging in the valid interval of the forging temperature on the press with one or two handles multiple passes through four-way compression in Mironovich forging devices. Forging is conducted with factor ukawa 2,0:1-32,0:1 for one heating of the ingot in two stages. First make a rough forging in one or more chetyrehpostovyh forging device for rough forging. Then perform the calibrating forging in chetyrehsetovom forging device for calibrating forging factor ukawa 1,05:1-1,8:1, and the coverage of the perimeter of the cross section of the workpiece at every single clamping each pair of sites known to 40-100%. The forging system designed to implement the method of manufacture of forgings, contains a forging press with top and bottom plates for fastening the forging tool and a movable tool table having several positions of the shift of the forging tool. Forging tool consists of two or more chetyrehpostovyh Cove is troist intended for rough forging and forging one device - for calibrating forging. Square free Mironovka space in the cross section of the forging device for calibrating forging close when the position of the heads of 1.1-1.4 times less space free Mironovka space forging device for rough forging. The working surface of each striker forging device for rough forging consists of a Central plane and adjacent to two sides of the two side planes. 2 S. and 3 C.p. f-crystals, 10 ill., table 2.

The invention relates to the field of metal forming, and in particular to methods produce forging of ingots and pre-deformed billets for forging complexes consisting of hydraulic forging presses with one or two handles and equipped chetyrehpostovye forging devices.

It can be used in machine-building and metallurgical industry for the production of forgings mainly of metals and alloys titanium subgroup (titanium, zirconium, hafnium), as well as the manufacture of forgings made of niobium, tantalum and their alloys. All these metals and alloys on their basis in common is that at high temperatures the heating deformation, and in the process go zirconium alloys, used in the manufacture of parts of the active zones of nuclear power reactor fuel element cladding /FE/ and other construction details [1] . Technology includes obtaining an ingot of vacuum-arc /or electron-beam/ smelting, forging the heated ingot for the press or hammer on the bars of a certain size, hot pressing rods, cold rolling with intermediate and final heat treatments. The most important element of this technology is a method of manufacturing forgings, including heating the ingot to a temperature ofphase and subsequent forging his hammer or a press at the temperature when the zirconium alloy isand+-phases. If necessary, carry out additional heat treatment of the workpiece.

Known technology for producing forgings forging presses and hammers provides high quality metal due to intense deformation study of cast metal structure throughout the cross section of the ingot.

However, the known method of producing forgings has the following disadvantages: low surface quality and low precision forgings, low temperatures, which leads to large losses of metal with scale formation. In addition, in the finished forgings require removal of the gas-saturated surface layer that reduces the yield of metal. However, the longer you are heating the ingot /billet/ and subsequent forging, the thicker the surface of gas-saturated layer of metal need to be removed to the quality of the metal is tailored to your requirements.

There is a method of forging ingots of titanium alloys, including pre-deformation in wire ingot for the press or hammer at temperature of 150-250oWith in excess of the temperature of polymorphic transformation of material ingot, heating and final forging semi-finished product by radial forging machine [2].

The use of radial forging machine /RCM/ after forging the hammer or press can significantly improve the surface quality forgings to obtain cross-sectional geometrically correct and accurate cross section of the forging.

The disadvantages of this method are the low productivity of the process and the yield of metal.

There is also known a method of manufacture of forgings including heating of the ingot and the subsequent forging it to the press with two manipulatability macro shifts of the metal in the transverse plane of the workpiece at each single compression, filing and kantowski workpiece [3]. Use chetyrehpostovyh forging devices can significantly improve the performance of the process, the accuracy of the forgings and the yield of metal compared to traditional manufacturing processes of forging hammers and presses.

However, this method also does not provide a sufficiently high efficiency of the process, the yield of metal, the surface quality of forgings, round and precision forgings.

Known for forging complex containing a forging press, equipped with a movable tool table having several positions of the shift of the forging tool, forging tool mounted on the tool table, and two manipulators, synchronized with the press [4].

Forging complex provides synchronous operation of the press and two manipulators in manual, semiautomatic and automatic modes, resulting in a high degree of mechanization and automation of the process. When the tool change is performed by moving the tool table at the specified position performed by the operator's commands from the remote control press.

The disadvantages of the known forging complex the walls also forging complex, containing a forging press with top and bottom plates for fastening the forging tool, equipped with locks to hold the tool, a movable tool table having several positions shift forging tools, forging tools, consisting of two or more chetyrehpostovyh forging devices strikers, positioned at the tool table, and two manipulators [3].

This forging complex provides significantly higher efficiency of the process compared to the use of automated forging complexes with traditionally used tool is flat and cut-out strikers.

The disadvantages of the known forging complex is not sufficiently high process productivity, accuracy and surface quality of the forging of circular cross section, and large losses of metal in scale, especially in the manufacture of forgings made of metals and alloys titanium subgroup.

The objective of the invention is to develop a method of producing forgings and forging complex with special chetyrehpostovye forging devices for its implementation, providing increased productivity, yield metal, precision is low and alloys of titanium subgroup.

The solution is achieved in that in the method of manufacturing forgings mainly of metals and alloys titanium subgroup, including heating of the ingot and its subsequent forging press with one or two handles multiple passes through four-way compression in chetyrehpostovyh forging devices with additional macro shifts of the metal in the transverse plane of the workpiece at each single compression, filing and kantowski workpiece, what's new is that the forging is carried out in the valid interval of the forging temperature coefficient ukawa 2,0:1-32,0:1 for one heating of the ingot, in two stages, first rough forging in one or more chetyrehpostovyh forging device for rough forging, and then calibrating forging in chetyrehsetovom forging device for calibrating forging factor ukawa 1,05:1-1,8:1, and the coverage of the perimeter of the cross section of the workpiece at every single clamping each pair of sites known to 40-100%.

The solution of the invention is also achieved by the fact that in the initial period of rough forging manipulator holding the ingot, perform one pitch of the ingot in the workspace chetyrehvalkovoj forging device for rough forging, after what pulation.

The solution of the invention is also achieved by the fact that before forging in one or more chetyrehpostovyh forging device for rough forging carry out the forging of the ingot two strikers.

In addition, the solution is achieved by the fact that in forging complex containing a forging press with top and bottom plates for fastening the forging tool, equipped with locks to hold the tool, a movable tool table having several positions shift forging tools, forging tools, consisting of two or more chetyrehpostovyh forging devices strikers, positioned at the instrument table and one or two manipulators, new is the fact that the positions of the tool table are one or more chetyrehpostovyh forging device for rough forging and one chetyrehballnoe forging device for calibrating forging with the strikers, the gnashing of which surfaces form in cross-section cross-sectional shape of the finished forging. The area of free Mironovka space in cross section chetyrehvalkovoj forging device for calibrating forging, close position Boykov 1.1-1.4 device for rough forging, having a minimum area of free Mironovka space in the cloistered position Boykov and the working surface of each striker in chetyrehsetovom forging device for rough forging consists of a Central plane that is parallel to the reference plane is brisk and the adjacent two sides at an angle 135-170otwo side planes.

And, finally, the solution is achieved by the fact that in chetyrehsetovom forging device for calibrating forging forging of circular cross section jaunty one pair have one job site, and jaunty other pair located in mutually perpendicular planes, two working site, and in relation to the longitudinal axis of the device working parts of one pair of strikers placed between two work stations other pair of strikers. While working areas of all of the heads have a concave curved surface with a variable radius of curvature in cross section Boykov, and the radii of curvature of the working areas Boykov, placed between two work stations other pair of strikers, more of 1.05-1.25 times the radius of curvature at these two work stations in the same areas of the working surfaces.

Patented method of manufacture of forgings is on a complex with two manipulators, top view of Fig. 2 is a front view on a forging press with four chetyrehpostovye forging devices; Fig.3 is a front view on a forging press in the position in which chetyrehballnoe forging device for calibrating forging installed in the working area of the press; Fig.4 - jaunty chetyrehvalkovoj forging device for rough forging in close position; Fig.5 - jaunty chetyrehvalkovoj forging device for calibrating forging in close position; Fig. 6 - jaunty chetyrehvalkovoj forging device for calibrating forging forging of circular cross section with a curved working surfaces; Fig.7 - cross section a-a in Fig.6; Fig.8 - section b-b In Fig. 6; Fig. 9 - section C-C in Fig.7; Fig.10 - section D-D in Fig.8. In Fig. 6 the dashed line shows the diameter forgings d after calibration, and Fig.9 and 10, the radii R1and R2working surfaces areas Boykov, located in mutually perpendicular planes.

Forging complex consists of a forging press 1, the arms 2, 3, rolling tool table 4 multiple /4/ position change of the forging tools, forging tools /chetyrehpostovyh forging devices/ 5-8, remote control 9 /Fig.1/. Chetyrehballnoe cocnah locks /Fig. not shown/ /Fig.2/. The number chetyrehpostovyh forging devices placed on the positions of the tool table, before forging is determined depending on the technological process. However, for any process should be not less than one chetyrehvalkovoj forging device for rough forging and one chetyrehvalkovoj forging device for calibrating forging 12 /Fig.3/.

The working surface of each striker chetyrehvalkovoj forging device for rough forging consists of a Central plane /aircraft/ and the adjacent two sides at an angle= 135-170two side planes /BK and cf/ /Fig. 4/.

Square free Mironovka space in cross section chetyrehvalkovoj forging device for rough forging /F/ close position of the heads indicated in Fig.4 letters abcd. Square free Mironovka space in cross section chetyrehvalkovoj forging device for calibrating forging /F'/ close position Boykov pokazanno in Fig. 5 letters a b s d'. The area of free Mironovka space in cross section chetyrekhvalentnogo Mironovka space in cross section chetyrehvalkovoj forging device for rough forging, having a minimum area of free Mironovka space in the cloistered position Boykov, i.e., maintained the ratio F/F'=1.1 to 1.4.

The way in forging forging complex is as follows. Initially prepared to work forging complex. To do this, before hammering on the position of the tool table, set the required chetyrehpostovye forging device for rough and calibrating forging with the right sets of strikers, and immediately before the issuance heated to forging temperature of the ingot /billets from the furnace, using instrumental table 4 serves in the working area of the press 1 of the forging device 5 for rough forging /Fig.2/. With the remote control press 9, the operator gives a command for fixing the upper movable part of the forging device to the top plate 10 of the movable beam press with special locks /Fig.1 and 2/. After performing these operations, forging complex is ready for operation.

Heated to forging temperature, the ingot of the metal or alloy subgroups titanium /titanium, zirconium, hafnium/ or niobium, tantalum or their alloys out from the heating furnace and using the pointing device 2 serves in a working zone of the press 1, which produces its forging in chetyrehvalkovoj compression submit the ingot or after each single compression submit and the casting-off of the ingot around its longitudinal axis, depending on the adopted technology of forging. When reaching a certain degree of extrusion ingot manipulator 3 captures his forged part and synchronously with the pointing device 2 carries out a filing or submission with Kontokali ingot /Fig.1/. Forging is performed in a valid interval forging temperature coefficient ukawa 2:1 - 32,0:1 for a single heating of the ingot without additional heating/. Forging is carried out in two stages, first draft in one or more chetyrehpostovyh forging device for rough forging, and then calibrating forging in chetyrehsetovom forging device for calibrating forging factor ukawa 1,05:1-1,8:1, and the coverage of the perimeter of the cross section of the workpiece at every single clamping each pair of sites known to 40-100%.

When forging ingots of large cross-sections of possible initial forging of the ingot two strikers, followed by forging received intermediate pieces in chetyrehsetovom forging device for rough forging. This is due to the fact that chetyrehballnoe forging device for forging ingots with large cross sections may not fit into the working space of the press.

Calibration forgings square and pramoedya - strikers, having a concave curved surface.

When crafting with large coefficients ukawa /Y>8:1/ advance-ingot perform a few chetyrehpostovyh forging device for rough forging. After forging ingot in chetyrehsetovom forging device for rough forging the workpiece 5 is removed from the working zone of the press, disconnect the movable part of the forging device 5 from the upper plate of the press 1 and remove this device from the working area of the press /Fig.1/. Then get chetyrehballnoe forging device for rough forging 6 in the working area of the press and fix it to the top plate of the press 1. Then continue forging billet forging device 6. If necessary, do the same operation with the installation of another chetyrehvalkovoj forging device 7 for rough forging. The final operation - calibration forgings 12, perform in chetyrehsetovom forging device 8 for calibrating forging, after you install it in a working zone of the press /Fig.3/.

The presence in the inventive design of the forging in advance prepared and installed on the positions of the tool table chetyrehpostovyh forging device for rough and calibrating forging and ispolzov: 1/ with one of heating the ingot in the interval forging temperatures. In the forging process is intense deformation heating the blank. When this part of the heat of the workpiece that are lost during its cooling, compensated by intense deformation heating the blank in the process of reductions in chetyrehpostovyh forging devices.

To perform forging factor ukawa less than 2.0:1 is irrational, as in the manufacture of products from metals and alloys titanium subgroup does not provide the required quality forgings.

To carry out the forging of the ingot with a coefficient ukawa more 32,0:1 is not possible, as the material is in this case cools below the permissible temperature forging, and heat produced by the deformation of the heat, not enough to compensate for the heat loss when it is cooling. During calibration coefficient ukawa less of 1.05:1 is not provided with a high surface quality and precision forgings, and when calibrating with ukonom of 1.8:1 significantly reduced the productivity of the process and the formation of the clamps on the surface of the forgings.

When you reach the perimeter of the cross section of the workpiece at every single clamping each pair of sites Boykov less than 40% not provided high quality power this design.

In those cases when it is required forging with large coefficients ukawa /Y>15:1/ ingot /billet/ take as short as possible, so that the length of the finished forging does not exceed the maximum allowable length for this equipment. Then, in the initial period of rough forging manipulator holding a short wedge, carry out one of its filing in the workspace chetyrehvalkovoj forging device for rough forging, and then perform several reductions and santovac ingot without innings to capture prokovanny part of the ingot to the other arm. Then forging carry out two manipulators.

The ratio F/F'=1,10-1,4 provides a transition from the forging in chetyrehsetovom forging device for rough forging to calibrating forging in chetyrehsetovom forging device for calibrating forging.

Where F, F' is the area free Mironovka space in cross section chetyrehvalkovoj forging device for rough and calibrating forging, respectively.

When F/F'<1,10 - not provided high surface quality forgings after calibration.

When F/F'>1,4 - reduced productivity of the process, possible Sakova on the surface of the forgings.

In chetyrehsetovom forging device for celebrati adjacent two side surfaces at an angle= 135-170. When<135you may receive sekulow on the surface of the forgings, and when<170 - does not provide a large ratio ukawa in one chetyrehsetovom forging device for rough forging.

To produce forging a circular cross section of diameter d /shown by the dotted line in Fig. 6) with high surface quality and high dimensional accuracy in chetyrehsetovom forging device for calibrating forging jaunty one pair have one job site, and jaunty other pair located in mutually perpendicular planes, two working area, and, with respect to the longitudinal axis of the device, the working parts of one pair of strikers placed between two work stations other pair of strikers /Fig.6-8/. Working areas of all of the heads have a concave curved surface with a variable radius of curvature in cross section Boykov /Fig.9, 10/. While the radii of curvature r2= 1/R2working areas Boykov, placed between two work stations other pair of strikers, having radii of curvature of the working surface /Fig.9 and 10/, ie kept the ratio r2=(1,05-1,25)r1.

This design is known for calibration can compensate for small /but with the broadening of the workpiece during its final calibration.

When r2<1,05 r1not achieved a significant increase in the accuracy and surface quality forgings.

When r2> 1,25 r1deteriorating the surface quality and reduced precision forgings.

Example. The ingot with a diameter of 450 mm of zirconium alloy E110 cut into three equal parts of length L=1165 mm, was heated these parts in an electric furnace to a temperature of 950oWith and protovale the automated forging complex containing hydraulic forging press with a force of 1250 i.e., two synchronously operating with each other and with the press, forging manipulator, and equipped with two chetyrehpostovye forging device for rough forging and one chetyrehochkovym forging device for calibrating forging. Weight of cast billets were 1205 kg In accordance with the patented invention, the area of free Mironovka space in cross section chetyrehvalkovoj forging device for calibrating forging, close position Boykov, was 1.2 R is knogo device for rough forging, i.e. device for rough forging, having a minimum area of free Mironovka space of two similar devices in the cloistered position of the heads. The working surface of each striker in chetyrehpostovyh forging device for rough forging consisted of a Central plane that is parallel to the reference plane is brisk and the adjacent two sides at an angle 135otwo side planes. Because of the ingot got round forgings diameter 113 mm for calibration used chetyrehballnoe forging device whose jaunty one pair had one job site, and jaunty other pair located in mutually perpendicular planes, two working section, with the concave curved surfaces. While the radii of curvature of the working areas Boykov, placed between two work stations other pair of strikers, amounted to r2= 1,15 r1.

Cast billet with a diameter of 450 mm forged scheme ingot450 mm --> 360360 mm --> 290290 mm --> 220220 mm --> 160160 mm --> 120120 mm -->220 mm (wkow of 3.28: 1) forging produced in the first chetyrehsetovom forging device for rough forging, and the cross-sectional dimension 120120 mm - second chetyrehsetovom forging device for rough forging. In the second phase, square billet with a cross-section 120120 mm forged in chetyrehsetovom forging device for calibrating forging the forging diameter 113 mm (wkow of 1.44:1). In the calibration process was carried out coverage strikers perimeter of the cross section of the workpiece at every single clamping each pair of sites known to 80-90%.

After forging obtained from forgings with a diameter of 113 mm by machining produced billets with a diameter of 109-0,5mm with a hole diameter of 28.50,5mm, length 190 mm

The performance of the forging process was 4681 kg/h, diameter tolerance is not exceeded1 mm, the yield amounted to 84.6%.

Next, from the specified preparations were made pipe 9,13110 mm with heating (or re-heating) the second half of the ingot. Then the billet is heated and forge the hammer with the weight of falling parts 3 t to diameter 117+10mm flat strikers. From the obtained forgings by machining to produce billets with a diameter of 109-0,5mm with a hole diameter of 28.50,5mm, length 190 mm

The performance of the forging process was 2036 kg/h, diameter tolerance forgings is5 mm, the yield - to 69.4%.

Therefore, the performance of the forging process in comparison with the method adopted for the base object, has increased 2.3 times, the tolerance on the size of the cross-section forgings decreased in 5 times, and the yield of metal increased by 15.2%.

In tables 1 and 2 shows experimental data that confirm the effectiveness of the claimed invention in parameters (method and forging complex).

Thus, the method of manufacture of forgings mainly of metals and alloys titanium subgroup and forging complex for its implementation, which is claimed to provide an increasing echnolo section forgings 2-5 times, as well as improving the surface quality of forgings when compared to the prototype and the base object.

Sources of information 1. Simovski A. S., Nikulin A. C., N. Reshetnikov.G. Zirconium alloys in nuclear power. - M.: Energoizdat, 1981, S. 51-71.

2. USSR author's certificate 1541867, CL 21 J/04, 1988.

3. Lizorkin C. A., Kushnir Y. N., Tyurin C. A., Zaluzhny Y. G., Kulikov C. A. , Degtyarev, T. C. improving the efficiency of the forging drawing blanks of special steels and alloys on the presses. - Forging and stamping production, 1994, 2, S. 3-5.

4. Relic S. I. , Lapin centuries, Y. Sobolev Century Ways of increasing the effectiveness of automated forging complexes. The overview. - M.: ozonation plants as well, in 1983, S. 2-13 /Ser. C-3, Forging machinery/.

Claims

1. A method of manufacturing forgings mainly of metals and alloys titanium subgroup, including heating of the ingot and its subsequent forging press with one or two handles multiple passes through four-way compression in chetyrehpostovyh forging devices with additional macro shifts of the metal in the transverse plane of the workpiece at each single compression, filing and casting-off of the workpiece, characterized in that the BSF ingot in two stages: first draft forging in one or more chetyrehpostovyh forging device for rough forging, and then calibrating forging in chetyrehsetovom forging device for calibrating forging factor ukawa 1,05:1-1,8:1, and the coverage of the perimeter of the cross section of the workpiece at every single clamping each pair of sites known to 40-100%.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that in the initial period of rough forging manipulator holding the ingot, perform one pitch of the ingot in the workspace chetyrehvalkovoj forging device for rough forging, and then perform several reductions and santovac ingot without innings to capture prokovanny part of the ingot to the other arm.

3. The method according to any of paragraphs.1 and 2, characterized in that, before hammering in one or more chetyrehpostovyh forging device for rough forging carry out the forging of the ingot two strikers.

4. Forging complex containing a forging press with top and bottom plates for fastening the forging tool, equipped with locks to hold the tool, a movable tool table having several positions shift forging tools, forging tools, consisting of two or more chetyrehpostovyh forging devices strikers, positioned at the tool table, and umineko chetyrehpostovyh forging device for rough forging and one chetyrehballnoe forging device for calibrating forging with the strikers, the gnashing of which surfaces form in cross-section cross-sectional shape of the finished forging, the area of free Mironovka space in cross section chetyrehvalkovoj forging device for calibrating forging close when the position of the heads of 1.1-1.4 times less space free Mironovka space in cross section chetyrehvalkovoj forging device for rough forging, having a minimum area of free Mironovka space in the cloistered position Boykov and the working surface of each striker in chetyrehsetovom forging device for rough forging consists of a Central plane that is parallel to the reference plane striker and adjacent to it from two sides at an angle 135-170two side planes.

5. Complex p. 4, characterized in that chetyrehsetovom forging device for calibrating forging forging of circular cross section jaunty one pair have one job site, and jaunty other pair located in mutually perpendicular planes, two workers of the site and in relation to the longitudinal axis of the device working parts of one pair of strikers placed between two working is with a variable radius of curvature in cross section Boykov, and the radii of curvature of the working areas Boykov, placed between two work stations other pair of strikers, more of 1.05-1.25 times the radius of curvature at these two work stations in the same areas of the working surfaces.

 

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