The system of underground mining of minerals from the returned device tab
The invention relates to mining by underground methods, namely for testing massive deposits using bookmarks bulk material. The system includes a breakdown of the deposits at steeply inclined layers, sequential extraction of ore from each layer from the bottom up and the mined-out space not hardening material. Each layer is divided into sectoriality blocks with the angle at the vertex, calculated mathematically. To the top of each block down haulage drift, the ore within the block produce long benches, moving the front stope towards the top of the block, at the end of each Zachodni produce the filling of filling material on the bottom of the cleaning formulation, the capacity of the sub-calculated mathematically. Labour productivity. 4 Il. The present invention relates to the development of mineral deposits underground.Known layer systems development (1) used in the extraction of minerals from powerful bedded deposits or ore deposits, presents a massive deposits. When atomo in a specific order.The separation of the individual layers are produced by a set of mutually parallel planes. The location of these planes in space and determines the arrangement of the layers, which can be either horizontal or inclined.In General, the development of horizontal layers less time-consuming than inclined. However, when the systems development with the mined-out space sloping layers with more technological point of view the production of filling operations. In horizontal layers is very difficult, and often impossible to carry out high quality tab. At the junction of bookmarks to the roof even during the manufacturing operations remain voids that over time, significantly increase due to the shrinkage of the filling material. Thus, provoked the development of deformation of the overlying array of minerals and, as a consequence, additional difficulties arise when it is working. Thus the probability that a certain volume of ore cannot be removed and must be left in the subsurface in the form of losses.The use of steeply inclined layers allows the use of bulk materials for technological production quality bookmarks.The known system is the developing reservoir of small capacity are horizontal layers from the bottom up with the mined-out space after testing each layer of ore.The disadvantage of this system is the low productivity. Cleaning the face connected with haulage and ventilazione drifts through itself, through which people have access, the ore and delivery of backfill material. In this case, the treatment space is not available for large mining equipment, and therefore the organization's performance.The aim of the invention is to develop a massive deposits of minerals from the mined-out space of bulk material and application of high-performance mining equipment.This goal is achieved as follows. The Deposit is shown in schematic vertical cross section of Fig.1, is divided into steeply inclined layers with normal power “and” tilt and. Anglemust be greater than the angle of repose of granular backfill material, which avoids the formation of voids at the boundary of the ore - tab” as during filling operations and in the future, when will be the shrinkage of backfill material. Only in this case the movement is by its plateau to the angle of repose.The extraction of ore produced in each layer from the bottom up and carry the mined-out space. Cross-section of the cleaning formulation 1 in the ideal form is represented by a rectangular triangle, even though it may be another configuration, more convenient for operation. The parameters of the notches and tabs are interconnected geometric dependence of:h-power we pour a layer of backfill material;b - power excavated ore or transverse movement of sewage generation per cycle;-the angle of the working layer;To provide direct long-term relationships haulage drift with ochistnym the bottom layer is divided into blocks having a shape of a sector (sectoriality blocks). This is shown in Fig.2 in the form of a projection of the working layer on the horizontal plane. The top of each block adjacent to the haulage drift, and this Association remains inextricably the whole period (unit) testing. Since the linear dimensions of the block are determined by the size of the ore body, the main raschetnym parameter is the angle at the top, which is limited predelegated on the basis of the calculation scheme, presented on Fig.3.FromBDE have ED = BD*sin/2;ED = BC, andABC have BC=AB/sin. ThusAB/sin= BD*sin/2, where sin/2 = AB/(BD*sin).FromAD have BD = AB/sin.After substitution and transformation obtainedsin/2 = sin/ sin.The longitudinal slope of the treatment formulation i have tg. For conditions limit slope have imax=tg; or= arctan imax.The final dependence is expressed by the formula=2arcsin [sin (arctanimax) /sin]. (2)Development block consists of a set of elementary cycles, each of which includes ore blasting, loading, transportation and mined-out space.Ore blasting is done either by drilling and blasting operations (drilling and blasting), or mechanically, for example, using a digging machine.Noah scheme 2 (Fig.2), characterized by the variability of the thickness of the tape thump of hands ore within each zagadki and the change in longitudinal slope (- imaxto +imax) sewage generation in each subsequent cycle of treatment works;b) scheme of the parallel movement 3 (Fig.2), characterized by parallel lines faces the upper boundary of the working unit, the constancy of the thickness of the ore thump of hands, except in areas adjacent to the inclined threaded development, and persistence of the longitudinal slope of the treatment formulation, is equal to + imax;b) scheme of a parallel move 4 (Fig.2), characterized by parallel lines Stopes the bisector sectoralised block, the constancy of the thickness of the ore thump of hands, except in areas adjacent to the inclined threaded development, and the horizontal treatment workings.In all cases, as the rifle is mine, passed along the bottom of the beam sector. For the lower block, she passed specifically for other blocks rifled output becomes the top at the same time the development of the underlying block.After blasting the ore shipped and transported to the transshipment point, and at the sole treatment 1).Serial testing of blocks formed in the refinement layer, and development of layers in the mining operations.The practical implementation of the invention.Since the proposed system development are not orthogonal shapes, as is commonly the case in practice, mining, and oblique, many parameters, in particular mark drifts, directly depend on the size of the ore body. Therefore, consider as an example the vertical ore body of circular cross section has a specific radius of 100 metersThe ore body, presents a vertical cross-section in Fig.4 shared inclined layers with a normal capacity of 2.8 m and a slope angle of 45°.The separation of the resulting layers that intersect the ore body as a full cross-section, and incomplete. The latter confined to the upper and lower limits of mining. Mining those and other similar, so as an example we consider the development of one full layer.By the formula (2), based on the marginal slope of the treatment formulation, in this case taken to be equal to 0.1, the calculated anglesectoralised block, which is equal to 16°. The layer is divided into blocks with supplies sectoriality blocks.Before beginning cleaning work are inclined rifled 6 production (Fig.2). In order to avoid loss of the mineral it is located in the host rocks along the bottom edge of the bottom block. Production takes place using a digging machine. The size and shape of the cross-section generation is shown in Fig. 4, POS. 8.It is then breaking the ore in the same sinking combine. For convenience, the cross-section of the treatment formulation is made in the form of a rectangular triangle with cut sharp corners. The absence of sharp corners makes any point of the perimeter framing is available for cutter harvester. Based on the shape of the treatment formulation is obtained and the configuration of the stope 9 (Fig. 4), which has a “g” shape, i.e., within each Zachodni removed the tape minerals from the wall of the treatment formulation and tape from PetroChina. Power removable tape is determined by the combination of various factors inherent in the development of a specific field, in this example equals 1 M. After blasting the ore is loaded into trucks and delivered to the transshipment point. This transport is delivered backfill material, which ukladyvaetsya accepted testing parameters equal to 1 M. In nature the power of the sub-crust corresponds to the height of the exposed slope bookmarks underlying waste layer. This ever-present guide simplifies the manufacture of the filling operations.On this first basic cycle of treatment works ends, starts the next, and so on, until full repayment of the block, while at the same time the development will dock with the haulage drift, progrnm to the top of the next overlying unit. From this moment begins the development of the next sectoralised unit through its haulage drift and so on, until full testing of the layer.The most recent (top) at the same time production remains open until the end of the testing of the overlying layer. This allows, in case of shrinkage of the filling material to fill the lack. With the approach of the stope of the overlying layer to the upper limit of the underlying production subatomically backfill material.To ensure the emergency exits of the stope and implementation of ventilation along the contact of the ore body, in the plane of the overlying layer is formed of a ring generation 7 (Fig.3). It does not require special insulation, and is implemented using the same digging machine. When the harvester dost is childbirth. Then this recess is covered by a wooden ladder into the plane of PetroChina working layer. As production filling operations this wooden ladder podvorovyvaet backfill material and becomes the sole form of output.Mining of partial layers, confined to the lower part of the Deposit is the same as the above works. The only difference in the cross-sectional shape threaded openings 10 (Fig. 4).Sources used1. Nekrasov J. E., Belowyou A. C., Lokshin B. C. and other mineral deposits. - M.: Nedra, Moscow (1966). -S. 161-164.2. Nekrasov J. E., Belowyou A. C., Lokshin B. C. and other mineral deposits. - M.: Nedra, Moscow (1966). -S. 390-394.
ClaimsThe system of underground mining of mineral resources, including the division of deposits on steeply inclined layers, sequential extraction of ore from each layer from the bottom up and the mined-out space not hardening material, wherein each layer is divided into sectoriality blocks with the angle at the vertex,where-the tilt angle of the layer; andi shall Yat haulage drift, the ore within the block produce long benches, moving the front stope towards the top of the block, at the end of each Zachodni produce the filling of filling material on the bottom of the cleaning formulation, the capacity of the beddingh in each section is determined by dependenceh =btg,wherebthe transverse movement of sewage generation per section.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes use of screw-drilling machine for driving of several first ventilation shafts in ore body and driving several second shafts, while second and each second shaft crosses, at least, one matching first shaft, forming first support walls, supporting ceiling. First supporting ceilings consist of ore body zones between neighboring second shafts, each first support wall has portion of at least one first shaft, passing horizontally through it. Horizontal channels are formed, each of which is placed transversely to matching second shaft between appropriate portions of first shaft, formed in adjacent support walls, for forming of group of continuous ventilation shafts. Second shafts are filled for forming second supporting walls, supporting well ceiling, and first supporting walls are extracted. First ventilation shafts can be made parallel to each other. Second shafts may be directed perpendicularly relatively to first ventilation shafts. In ore body air-outlet and air-inlet ventilation mines can be formed, placed at distance from each other along horizontal line, while first or each first ventilation shaft passes through portion of ore body between air-inlet and air-outlet ventilation mines. Driving of second or each second shaft can be performed by cutting machine, or by drilling or explosive mining.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
7 cl, 11 dwg