A reinforcing unit for coastal or shore facilities and the method of its installation
The invention relates to the field of hydraulic engineering construction and relates to reinforcing blocks (AB) for coastal or coastal structures and ways of laying these blocks with a hydraulic resistance of the surface slope and economical construction cost. AB includes a housing (K), forming an octagonal column with rectangular lateral sides and a perforated hole (ON) in the center of the bearing (O), made in one piece and alternative attached to each side and To the protruding sole (P) made in each of the lower and upper parts of O. Every angle and l is the slant. Can be made in the shape of a square, with each side parallel to the side To not having these Acting For laying these blocks AB incline at a certain angle, and each side of a support block comes in contact with the other side supports adjacent block around the direction of the series. When placing the battery under artificial AB weight ratio of AB to the weight of the artificial AB is 1:3-1:10. AB according to the invention provides a simplification of the mounting structures of the type breakwaters by creating a multi-layered structure of the standard elements. 2 S. and 3 C.p. f-crystals, 8 ill., table 1. Mainly coastal structure located within the harbour or on the leeward side, is established to protect berthing facilities from exposure to wave energy. When coastal construction built for a breakwater or seawall, for the bottom layer of the coastal structures used breed of natural stone providing hydraulic resistance of the surface of the slope, and the top layer of coastal structures using artificial reinforcing units as supplied by coating units, as, for example, the shaped blocks type of tetrapod, dolosa or concrete tetrahedron, Acropora, for damping of wave energy. More specifically, in the method of construction of the breakwater is widely used mound of riprap to install artificial reinforcing structures to the front surface of the slope. Recently on the draft Caisson (Caisson) is the composite type of construction of the breakwater.Due to the increase of trade and volume of cargo ships poyavilas coverage, protecting the structure from large waves. For the design of new and expanding marinas to consider more than the strong sea waves and the magnitude of the waves compared to the usual harbour.To protect the most important technical means, located on the leeward side, you should take into consideration the design of breakwaters for a period of time, spanning over 100 years.According to the standard method of constructing section, in the case of the construction of the harbour is large in size, or breakwater with conventional bulk of riprap and levees, the ratio of the weight of the top layer of the coating materials and the lower layer of natural stone will be 1:1/10 (Research Center Coastal Construction, army Corps of engineers U.S., 1984, Handbook of coastal protection, page 7-228) (Coastal Engineering Research Center, US Army Corps of Engineers, 1984, Shore Protection Manual, pp. 7-228). We can provide the necessary weight of the coating material as the coating materials can be produced by artificial casting. But not just to provide a sufficient amount of the corresponding mass of the lower layer of natural stone, natural stone rock for the bottom layer of natural stone usually get near the construction site.For decisions about isoamsa normal artificial reinforcing block or slightly modified type of unit. In this case, it is clear that obtaining a stable hydraulic properties of the whole section is not possible if the lower layer is not protected during construction and is not installed with a protective block layer of the front slope.On the other hand, the sea level on Grovely (Grovel) rises according to the phenomenon Lanier (Laninor). Due to the expected damping of wave energy may not happen, because in the zone of insufficient depth is the destruction of the wave. However, the latest design of coastal structures does not take into account sea level rise.Known reinforcing unit for coastal and onshore structures, comprising a housing having the shape of an octagonal columns with rectangular lateral sides, with the specified case has a perforated hole in the center for the passage of water and reduce hydrostatic lifting force (US 3096621 But, 1963).The disadvantage of such a reinforcing block are not stable hydraulic properties.The objective of the invention is to eliminate the above disadvantages and to create an artificial block that replaces natural stone.Another object of the invention is the creation of a new form of reinforcing unit to improve p the tion in the construction of reliable way of laying a reinforcing block together with the coating material of the front layer of the slope.The task is solved by creating a reinforcing unit for coastal and onshore structures, comprising a housing having the shape of an octagonal columns with rectangular lateral sides, with the specified case has a perforated hole in the center for the passage of water and reduce hydrostatic lifting force, and which contains four pillars having the shape of a rectangular column, alternative fixed with four sides on the side of the case and made in one piece with the housing, and the protruding sole made in each of the lower parts of the supports, each of the corner supports and serving soles is slanted.A reinforcing unit for coastal and onshore structures may contain protruding sole, made in the upper part of each of the pillars.Possible also is the implementation of the perforated holes for the passage of water in the shape of a square, with each side of the perforated holes parallel to the side of the chassis, do not have these supports.The task is achieved also due to the fact that in the method of laying a reinforcing blocks for coastal and onshore structures shall tilt blocks and introduction into contact with the left or pru direction of the rows.When placing reinforcing blocks under artificial reinforcement design of the blocks, the ratio of the weight of each reinforcing unit to the weight of artificial reinforcement unit may be 1:3-1:10.Other objectives and features of this invention are explained below with reference to the drawings, which depict: Fig.1A and 1B - reinforcing block in the implementation examples of this invention.Fig.2 is a top view and a front reinforcing block one example implementation of this invention in figure 1A.Figure 3-5 is a method of placing a reinforcing block example implementation of this invention.Figure 6 is a graph representing the relationship between the stability factor of the Hudson and the degree of damage depending on the laying of reinforcing block.Figure 7 is a graph representing the relationship between the stability factor of the Hudson and the degree of damage for laying reinforcing block, shown in figures 3-5.Figure 8 is a graph representing the relationship of stability depending on the size and weight of reinforcing block.A new form of reinforcing block example implementation of this invention shown in figures 1A and 1B. Basically reinforcing block consists of building is a hole 12 in the center of the upper surface. Perforated hole 12 has the form of a rectangular or preferably square. The four legs 14 are made in one piece and alternative fixed on the side of the case 10.In addition, at the bottom and/or top of the support 14 completed serving the sole 16. Serving the sole 16 is located in the upper or lower direction in each of the upper and lower parts of the supports. Each corner of the bottom and top of the support 14 and bottom 16 are chamfered.Perforated hole 12 in the center of the housing 10 is designed to pass water up or down, to relieve hydrostatic lifting force. Perforated hole 12 has a square shape. Each side of the perforated holes 12 parallel to the side of the hull, which has no support. Perforated hole 12 is located in the center of the upper part of the body to prevent stress concentration. Each sole 16, made in the upper part or the lower part of the support 14 fixed in the upper and lower layers, provided with a coating of stones of the breakwater or seawall to reduce slipping. This will improve the reinforcement of the upper and lower plating layers of stones and increase the stability of the hydraulic properties. In addition, the corners of the supports 14 have bevels shown in figure 2.The maximum length of the reinforcing block is shown in figure 2, i.e., the size, measured from the outer side of the support 14 to the opposite side of support 14, which is taken at 100. Appropriate size of the reinforcing block is the thickness of the support 14 to about 20, the width of the support 14 to about 40, the thickness of the body 10 of about 30 for the necessary stability and opportunity. It is also advisable to size the length of one side of the perforated holes 12 is approximately 20, and the protrusion of the sole 16 of the housing 10 is approximately 5. (The unit having the above dimensions, is called the "block I").For convenient building block as an alternative example of implementation of the reinforcing unit without the top of the sole, as shown in figure 1B, is considered a modified form of reinforcing block, which at the time of casting unit charged upper protruding sole 16 of support 14 (hereinafter referred to here the unit without the top sole is called a "block II").The volumes of these blocks using a scale of "C" for standard size, are V=0,2134With3(Unit I) V=0,19145With3(Unit II) (1) (volume V) an Important factor in return the military depends on the degree of mutual fixation and porosity of the reinforcing block.Therefore, in figures 3 and 5 of the present invention shows how the location for various types of styling.The type of piling on the figure 3 (hereinafter referred to here as the "Type I") shows how mutual half commits. In this way half the fixing blocks feature so that each outer, front-side support 14 of one unit came in contact with each outer rear side support 14 adjacent block on the serial line, and the left outer or right outer side of support 14 blocks in the second serial line came in contact with the right outer or left-hand outer side of the support 14 of the block in the adjacent serial line, located inside the concave section, formed by the serial line to create a coating blocks.Located by way of politically blocks look like a honeycomb. Located in front of and behind the external side supports adjacent blocks are in contact with each other in a consistent direction, perpendicular to the left side or the right outer sides of the supports 14 blocks in the second serial line, forming a zigzag Raspadsky, shown in figure 4 ("Type II"), the beveled sections of the supports block come into contact with the beveled sections of the supports adjacent blocks all blocks. Blocks of type II are separately without mutual communication with one another and have a high porosity.In one method of installation shown in figure 5 ("Type III"), the side supports of the block tilted and brought into contact with the side parts of the poles of the neighboring blocks in the series.In figures 3-5 shows the ideal location for this type of installation. In actual practice on the construction site, there are limitations to the ideal location, type of installation. However, in reality, the structure should not deviate from the selected location, location, location type of styling.Using block polovictory figure 1, we can calculate the required number of blocks, based on a given construction site and, depending on the selected type of installation (Type I, Type II, Type III). The porosity can be calculated by counting the height of the top and bottom blocks.Using the above-described types of installation, you can conduct an experiment on sustainability in action, which can be used in a real construction. Data sustainability in action patio waves.Experimental section the model is based on parameters regarding the size of the unit required stability, size and source of the waves and the reservoir. In the table shown above parameters based on experimental data.Each of the above parameter can be calculated weight of reinforcing block, then can be computed wave height corresponding to the size of the planned stability conditions of the experiment. The amount of reinforcing block can be calculated from equation 1 using the main scale. After determining the amount can be calculated corresponding to the weight of reinforcing block.Significant wave height H1/3can be calculated on the basis of the stability factor of the Hudson ToD(coefficient of resistance HudsonDrefer to "Laboratory studies of the breakwater with the bulk of the riprap" 1969, ACSE, vol 85). ("Laboratory Investigation of rubble mound breakwater" 1969 ACSE, vol. 85). Hudson suggests an equation for the stability factor of the Hudson, below KD=(H1/3)3/W(Sr-1)3cot(2) where W is the weight of a reinforcing block;- unit weight of concrete;
cotis the slope (the cotangent).For values of KDthe limits are 3 to 12. This range of values is taken from the blocks used in the other cases, as data relating to examples of the use of secondary reinforcing block no. Unit X, which is used as coating all sides of a slope, or a solid block, developed by a Japanese company TETRA has a value of KD10. Hydraulic resistance is difficult to estimate, since the degree of porosity differs depending on the types of styling. For a shallow slope value is estimated to range from 4 to 5 on the basis of the value of theD10 block X as the default value. This reinforcing unit is designed to use the unit on a slope with a ratio of 1:1.5. Therefore, KDis in a stable limits for a shallow slope. From table 1 the value of H1/3is in the range from 9,60~13,03 seeThe equation that establishes the relationship between the maximum wave height Hmaxand significant wave height H1/3introduced in "Chaotic seas and design of Maritime structures", 1990, 16 section (Yoshimi Goda). ("Random Sea design of Maritime structures"). Equation soothes (2[InN0]1/2)} (3)
where N0- is the frequency of the wave and is used by 1000 waves.The water depth at the breakwater is determined by calculating the Hmax(Max. wave height) using equation 3, so that the wave was not extinguished. In this experiment, the possibility of extinction wave standing wave and uses the value of DS(the water depth at the front surface of the slope) = Nmax/0,61 instead of the values shown in the article "solitary wave" Mack Cowan, "Philosophical magazine, 5th series, volume 32, 194, pages 45-58 ("On the Solitary Wave, Mc Cowan, Philosophical magazine 5thseries, vol 32, 194, pp. 45-58) that applies to limit the damping of waves solitary waves and water depth.Also the height RU(tumbler of water) to determine the height of RL(freeboard). The value of the height RUtaken from the report "Station hydraulic experiment Wallingford, 1970 "Report on tests on the breakwater type dolos in Hong Kong" ("Hydraulic Experiment Station", 1970, "Report on Tests on Dolos Breaker in Hong Kong', and the experimental data of the height of the forward water for dolosa, "the Definition of random and reflected waves in experiments chaotic excitement" 1977, section "Port and Oceana engineering, report 12/77, Technical University of Norway, Trondheim (Gunbak A. R, "Estimation of incident and reflect the 2.5 seconds. The cross-section model and the wave height will ultimately be determined after checking the amount (to 95.91 cm) height of block DS+RU=74,41 cm) and the height of the mound of riprap (21.5 cm), which is less than the height of the water reservoir (120 cm).Selected water depth from the front surface of the slope DSfor the experimental model, component 43, and the front slope of 1:1,5, which is widely used for the construction of the breakwater with a floor slope of the tetrapod type. The selected thickness of the front slope, component 2.16 cm, which corresponds to 40% of the C=5.3 cm, and the weight ratio of the first lower layer and second bottom layer of 1:20. The thickness of the standard cross-section of the lower layer corresponds to the thickness of the second lower layer. On the basis of this relationship used by the model is a natural rock formations, having a thickness of 1.4 cm, corresponding to the average diameter and height of the freeboardL32 seeThe width of the top model layer is determined experimentally, as the model is not a real unit, and there are no data on the proportional modeling. The objective of this experiment is the determination of the weight ratio and the creation of a reinforcing block instead of using natural viburnum Wr=lr3. Obtained is proportional to the ratio of 1:28,85 calculated based on 77,29 g block, 0.7 m3natural stone and 1,855 tons respective weight (2,65 ton/m3specific volumetric weight is used for counting). By this time the top of the unit provides space 6 m (3 m2 way) for two-way traffic. Therefore, the size of the model will be 20,8 see the Width of 3.0 m is used according to the standard project of the port hardware.The reinforcing block is provided with a double coating material, if the upper layer unit is coated in front of repose of the material, such as TTP. The ratio of the rear slope is 1:1,5, as well as the ratio of the front slope. In this experiment, natural stone rock is used exclusively for testing for the absence of overflow.There are two types of wave generators: position type generator and an absorption-type generator, which are used for experiments. For this experiment used an absorption type wave generator.According to the test for the absence of overflow with significant wave heights (H1/3and wave spectrum produced according to theoretical value of the sledge from the table. T1/3(time) test is the range of 1.0~2.5 seconds with a growth time of 0.5 seconds, for a range from 6~14 cm wave height to water inflow 2 see the Experiment is performed in General for 20 types of waves, with a fixed water depth (43 cm) from the entire surface of the DSslope, and variable values of T1/3and H1/3.Fixing and moving the reinforcing block mainly observed continuously, increasing the wave height for each period of the experiment. The experiment is repeated with increasing wave height for each period will not occur until after the damage model of the breakwater or the lower part of the Sandstone. It then registers the height when the model gets hurt.Calculating the extent of the damage is the total number of blocks divided by the number of installed units, which corresponds to a stability factor of the Hudson and the significant wave height H1/3. The equation will be
where D is the degree of damage;
n is the number of installed units to the highest wave;
N is the total number of blocks.The figure 6 shows the resistance obtained from experiments for Block I and Block II. According to the result of the experiment shown in figure 6, the Block more I Usto the children to be 4%. It turns out that the Unit I coated Type I has the highest degree of damage. In addition to the Type I all other models have a value of KD(coefficient of resistance Hudson) approximately 11.0 in. Unit II under construction easier, but has a smaller resistance than the Block I. Therefore, the Block I has the advantage in stability and prevent slipping when the entire unit is equipped with a floor slope is set on the top layer.The figure 7 presents the test results obtained in the tests for Unit I, Type I, Type II and Type III. According to the test Type I and Type III are the degree of damage to 1 percent, which corresponds to 4,96Dwave height. Type II has no damage to it until the wave has not reached the value corresponding 11,38 KDwave height.Each porosity, component 33,3%, 37% and 33% for Type I, Type II and Type III, are analyzed and compared with one another. The test result shows that Type III is the most stable type of styling.In addition to sustainability, which depends on the type of laying a reinforcing block, another important factor is to calculate the weight of a reinforcing unit for the coating material of the lower layer.According to regular standartalbums for a block of material covering all sides of the slope. In this invention the weight ratio determined in an experiment to determine the resistance unit of the coating material to all sides of the slope.To determine the ratio of the weight was carried out an experiment on the stability of the unit covering all sides of the slope, using the Type II, which is the most stable type of installation, and Type III, which is the least shift type and easily constructed. The reason for selecting the Type III is that it retains the highest stability and rigidity to the reinforcing block and the lowest porosity type styling. When the block offset deteriorates the stability of the blocks cover all sides of the slope.A tetrapod is used to block covering all sides of the slope. According to this invention, the weight ratio of reinforcing block coated amount 3,36, 5,25, 6,70 and 10. Figure 8 presents the test results for the four examples without destruction, andD-10,2 for the stability factor of the Hudson corresponding to 150% of the highest waves on the basis of normal waves.As shown in figure 8, all four types of ratios are weight stable. The graph of figure 8 shows that, for example, in the Group 2 test surge tetrapod and the lower part of romirowsky cycle of 2.5. After the test, each wave during the experiment exceeded 1000 waves. The breakwater is usually subjected to impacts 1000 waves 3-4 hours of the storm. Therefore, the experiment was selected stable state four examples based on exposure to at least 1800 waves and cycles, comprising 2.0 to about 2.5.Reinforcing unit according to the invention, which has a floor unit type tetrapod with a weight ratio of from 3 to 10, is in a stable position.According to the results of the test block with type coating reinforcing unit according to the present invention can replace natural stones that are commonly used in the breakwater with the slope. Block type coating reinforcing unit according to the invention can improve the efficiency and to provide a standard type of stacking blocks covering the lower layer and the upper layer and method of construction.A reinforcing block with a coating according to the present invention can solve the problems of conventional breakwater with a slope, with the calculated resistance depending on the type of installation, and to provide a new solution to a coastal or shore facilities.The scope and essence of this invention is not limited in this invention. Specialist in this field has come gn:center; margin-top:2mm;">
Claims1. A reinforcing unit for coastal and onshore structures, comprising a housing having the shape of an octagonal columns with rectangular lateral sides, with the specified case has a perforated hole in the center for the passage of water and reduce hydrostatic lifting force, wherein the unit includes four support having the shape of a rectangular column, alternative fixed with four sides on the side of the case and made in one piece with the housing, and the protruding sole made in each of the lower parts of the supports, each of the corner supports and serving soles is slanted.2. A reinforcing unit for coastal or shore protection structures p. 1, characterized in that it contains a protruding sole, made in the upper part of each of the pillars.3. A reinforcing unit for coastal or shore protection structures p. 2, characterized in that the perforated hole for the passage of water has a square shape with each side of the perforated holes parallel to the side of the chassis, do not have these supports.4. The method of placing reinforcing blocks for coastal or coastal structures, characterized in that Khujand the adjacent side supports the other one of the blocks around the direction of the series.5. The method according to p. 4, characterized in that when placing reinforcing blocks under artificial reinforcing blocks the ratio of the weight of each reinforcing unit and weight of artificial reinforcement unit is 1:3-1:10.
FIELD: building, particularly hydraulic structure reinforcement.
SUBSTANCE: method is performed in two-stages. The first stage involves forming vertical elongated flat ground massifs secured by hardening material. Massifs are created in crest embankment area and in upper area of embankment slope so that massifs are spaced minimal available distance from crest and pass through embankment body, including land-sliding upper embankment slope area. Massifs are anchored in mineral bottom by lower edges thereof and are arranged at least in three rows and there are at least three massifs in each row. Method for massifs forming involves driving double-slotted injectors directly in embankment ground or in wells formed in embankment and having plugged wellhead; orienting injector slots perpendicular to hydraulic pressure head vector direction in embankment area to be reinforced; injecting hardening material under increased pressure across horizons from top to bottom or in reverse direction, wherein injection is initially performed under 5-15 atm pressure and at minimal rate in each second injector of one outermost row beginning from extreme ones; feeding hardening material in previously missed injectors in this row; supplying injectors of another extreme row with hardening material in the same way; feeding hardening material to ejectors of medium rows under 10-20 atm pressure; performing the second reinforcement stage as material hardens to obtain 70% strength. The second reinforcement stage involves forming vertical elongated flat massifs of secured ground anchored in mineral bottom by lower edges thereof and arranged at least in three rows, wherein each one includes at least three massifs. Massifs extend at the angle exceeding embankment slope angle to horizontal line. Massifs are formed with the use of double-slotted injectors in remainder embankment area. Injector slots are directed perpendicular to hydraulic pressure head vector direction in embankment area to be reinforced. Hardening material is ejected in above succession, wherein hardening material pressure is equal to design process pressure enough for direction of feeding hardening material through injector slots and lesser than hardening material injection pressure of the first reinforcement stage.
EFFECT: increased reliability of structure reinforcement; prevention of land-slide on structure slopes.
3 cl, 3 dwg