The cleaning method of the substrate material of the road surface from oil and oil products and device for its implementation
The invention relates to the protection of the environment, in particular to the cleaning of sand, soil, gravel and crushed rock from oil pollution, and can be used in all industries where used, transported or stored crude oil and petroleum products, as well as to clean sandy beaches. Cleaning of the base material of the road surface is carried out by suction air and load in the wash tank. Before collecting the contaminated solid material carry out his preliminary removal of debris, with windage, with its subsequent processing. The washing solution for washing serves upwards under pressure, with simultaneous supply of compressed air, and a part of the compressed air fed into the upper part of the washing vessel along the surface of the liquid. Oily emulsion before cleaning the filter, separating the solid particles. Cleaning and phase separation forming wastewater (oily emulsion and washing solution) is carried out in a multiple installation. The sludge after removal from the treatment unit is subjected to further separation by sedimentation or filtration, with subsequent direction of the liquid phase of re-treatment in the setting) which also made the appropriate changes and additions. The technical result consists in the creation of clean and waste treatment technologies and the creation of compact devices through the use of more efficient equipment. The use of the invention allows also to reduce energy consumption and save detergents. 2 C. and 14 C.p. f-crystals, 1 Il. The invention relates to the protection of the environment, in particular to the cleaning of sand, soil, gravel and crushed rock from oil pollution, and can be used in all industries where used, transported or stored crude oil and petroleum products, as well as to clean sandy beaches.Almost all of the above materials: sand, gravel, crushed stone and soil are the basis of the road surface industrial sites, roads, railroad tracks and embankments. These materials are contaminated during transportation, storage of oil and oil products, as well as in emergency situations - spills of oil and oil products in their production, processing or transportation.Cleaning of the base material of the road surface (hereinafter MODP) is an important task to the The solution of this problem is quite difficult, because over time pollution into solid bitumopodobnaya mass.For the elimination of petroleum product contamination currently widely used methods such as evaporation of the contaminant in the soil, biological treatment, storage of soil) followed by self-cleaning, excavation of contaminated soil and subsequent disposal or thermal treatment. Of all the technologies of liquidation of consequences of petroleum soil contamination with oil products the most gentle to the environment is bioremediation at the site of contamination. Its advantage is the relative simplicity of the technological implementation of installation and operation, and relatively low financial cost. It is widely used in many countries, successfully used for cleaning soil from gasoline, diesel fuel and other petroleum products.Currently in the process of bioremediation is used mainly aerobic bacteria. Studies have shown their ability to actively decomposing hydrocarbons, defined requirements for the conditions most conducive to their growth. Their metabolism studied in detail and it is shown that the products plumage is isdi has found wide application in agriculture and in the places of burial of contaminated soils, Sands, etc., because the time of a biological method is from three months to several years.In practice, however, the most interesting are quick cleaning methods, preferably implemented in areas of education such contamination.There is a method of biological purification of soil from oil pollution (RF Patent 2104248, publ. 10.02.98). The method involves the application of the preparation of hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms on neptunusstraat polluted area. Before applying the microorganisms of the drug is cultivated in a medium containing neptunusstraat polluted area. Neptunusstraat take in such a quantity that provides a symbiotic growth of hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms of the drug and neptunusstraat.Biological treatment requires regular inclusion in the contaminated material to the limited amount of biomass or bacteria capable of decomposing oil and produce substances that contribute to its rapid flushing (biogenic surfactants); substances necessary for their growth, as well as other activities to create the most favorable conditions. It is connected with additional costs of nutrient medium, additives, required>/p>Known treatment technology that combines a biological method with electrochemical. Thus, in the patent of the Russian Federation 2122905, publ. 12.10.98, in addition to the introduction into the treatment zone of a solution of oil-oxidizing microorganisms, yet impose electrodes - the anode and the cathode, then the water. Pass between the electrodes constant electric current to generate electroosmotic flow of fluid in the treatment zone. Remove the liquid with the dirt collecting at the cathode. Control the concentration in the treatment zone substances suppressing the activity of oil-oxidizing microorganisms. When the reduction of their concentration to values safe for the life of oil-oxidizing microorganisms, enter the containing solution in the cleaning zone.This method allows you to clean the capillary-porous medium from oil, in the presence of substances that oppressive living organisms, and somewhat reduces the cleaning time.With the same purpose and ensure complete processing of crude oil (petroleum products) the strain of microorganism of wymiany oil from the ground is water with the addition of surface-active substances (surfactants) with simultaneous vibration of the soil depth vibrators. Download wymiwyg solution is care, Publ. 27.05.1997,).However, these inventions cannot exclude the main disadvantages of microbiological purification.Known technology that can be used for cleanup of contaminated soils at oil fields, oil pipelines, beaches, industrial enterprises, as well as on the locations of oil Sands (Sokolova J. E. "an Environmentally friendly way to clean sand and soil from oil and oil products", collection of information sheets on scientific and technical achievements. VIMY. 1994).The technology consists in the use of intensive extraction using different extractants (oil, hydrocarbon, surfactant solutions) in a special extractor to extract the dirt from the subsequent separation of the pulp in the clean sand (soil) and extracted oil (oil products).Used in technology the way vibrocavitational extraction provides a high degree of purification of the soil (residual concentration of impurities is not more than 0.2 wt. %) at high process performance and compactness of the equipment.However, cleaning MODP from the heavy, viscous oil, when pollution represent a single, homogenous, viscous mass, normal a, publ. 20.01.99 for treatment of chronic pollution type extractant - diluent (kerosene) in combination with cavitation effect.This complicates the cleaning liquid effluent and requires additional costs for cleaning and regeneration of diluent.In the patent of the Russian Federation 2173223, publ. 10.09.2001, the technology of cleaning materials (soil, soil, sand, sludge and so on) from petroleum products. The cleaned material is served in the reaction zone of a processing unit, is heated in an environment of steam at a mass ratio of water vapor - oil" not less than 1:15 to varying between 250 and 600oC. the Resulting gas progresterone the mixture is cooled in the cooler - condenser to a temperature higher than the temperature of condensation of water vapor, the largest part of the condensed oil is collected in a team capacity, a certain portion of non-condensable progresterone return mixture to the reaction zone site, steam treatment, and the remainder is directed into the furnace, which serves also from team capacity petroleum products. Gases of combustion from the furnace is directed into the heating zone of the site steam treatment.The advantage of this method is the high degree of purification, but it is not treatment, and disposal of petroleum products, puttnam efficiency of this method is questionable, such recycling of oil is not direct their purpose, i.e., the burning of valuable raw materials, it is difficult to understand. Moreover, this method requires a control of the gas phase on the content of toxic components and technology requires a significant investment of thermal resources.The closest technical solution to the proposed method of cleaning the substrate pavement (MODP) is the best way to clean the sand from oil and oil products by the patent RF 2049871, B 34, 1995, which can be used not only when cleaning the sand of the coastal zone, but also other material contaminated with oil (soil, road material, etc.) accidents transport oil and money.The method consists in the following set of operations: - pick up the sand and its treatment with an aqueous solution using water from a reservoir through sand washing first warmed up to 20-100oWater from the reservoir, followed by the separation of oil by means of exfoliation; - processing of sand countercurrent aqueous solution with the addition of such a large number of surface-active substances (surfactants), which separates the oil from the surface of the solid particles with the formation of water-in-oil emulsion; - separation of solids is otdelnyh layers of oil and water, containing a demulsifier and a surfactant; - the separation of these layers, emitting from them demulsifier by distillation with return on the operation of the destruction of the water-in-oil emulsion formed in the further processing of contaminated material; - an aqueous solution containing a surfactant, is directed to additional washing of the sand, the correction in it surfactants and use to clean a new batch of contaminated material, as well as rinsing to remove surfactant water from the reservoir, which is then sent to the cleanup operation to compensate for water losses.The cleaned sand is unloaded at the point of collection.Thus, an aqueous solution containing surfactant and demulsifier, circulates in a closed loop long enough without discharge into the environment.However, in this way there and waste of the water discharged into the reservoir, which is impossible to be completely cleaned of surfactant, and this leads to excessive growth of aquatic plants.In addition, according to the invention the washed oil contains small fraction of sand and other small particles. The technology includes a significant number of operations, which increases the cleaning time and requires a large amount of clean water from a reservoir.The technical objective of the proposed isopreference cleaning oil from solids, to reduce the consumption of clean water, to eliminate the use of demulsifiers and significantly reduce cleaning time MODP through the use of more efficient equipment.The technical result is achieved due to the fact that in the known method, including the collection of contaminated material, loading it into the container for washing, wash water detergent solution containing surface-active substances (surfactants), removal of oily emulsions and contaminated cleaning solution, and their subsequent purification by separation of the phases, the Department selected oil and purified cleansing solution with re-using it for washing material, removal of oil and sludge, discharging the cleaned material and use it for its intended purpose, has been amended.Distinctive features of the proposed method of cleaning the substrate pavement (MODP) are the following: - before collecting the contaminated solid material carry out his preliminary removal of debris, with windage, with its subsequent processing; - the washing solution for washing serves upwards under pressure, with simultaneous supply of compressed air, and a part of the compressed air fed into vernouillet solids;
- cleaning and phase separation of wastewater (oily emulsion and washing solution) is carried out in a multiple installation;
- sludge after removal from the treatment unit is subjected to further separation by sedimentation or filtration with subsequent direction of the liquid phase of re-treatment in the installation.In addition:
as the washing solution used 2-4% solution of technical detergent containing nonionic surfactants and active component with a temperature of 40-55oC, and as the active component use soda ash or composition with partial replacement for sodium salt of phosphoric acid;
- contaminated cleaning solution before cleaning is passed through an additional filter that removes solids;
the concentration of the washing solution support within the specified limits by periodic supplements in purified cleaning solution clean water and dry detergent;
- pre-treatment of contaminated material from waste and subsequent collection of material for flushing carried out by one and the same apparatus by changing the thrust force (suction);
- remove refined petroleum products from the zone of separation remaut to reduce their viscosity.Pre-cleaning contaminated MODP from garbage, with increased windage (paper, leaves, feathers, etc.,), is caused to reduce the flow of washing solution to the washing of the target material, which in the future is to reuse. In addition, this solution increases the loading capacity of the target material in the flush tank and reduces the amount of generated sludge. Collected debris is pressed and sent for incineration.The supply of the washing solution in the washing tank under pressure from the bottom up contributes to the quality of cleaning MODP due to mixing of contaminated material, especially when cleaning the gravel, gravel, not giving them a chance to settle to the bottom. The bubbling of the washing solution by filing in the flush tank of compressed air contributes to the quality of washing, and the washing of the soil and sand washing is done in pseudhirundo layer. The pressure of the supplied washing solution picked specifically for each type of contaminated MODP (sand, gravel, soil, soil, gravel).Supply part of the compressed air in the upper part of the washing tank (in the area of the upper liquid level) due to the fact that on the surface of the oily emulsion to form a continuous plait is and may further contaminate loaded into wash tank MODP.Oily emulsion before cleaning is subjected to pre-filtration for separating solid particles, which contributes to the quality of the subsequent cleanup.Final cleaning and the phase separation of the two separate threads (oily emulsion and contaminated cleaning solution) in one multicell installation allows you to combine threads, reducing the amount of equipment intended for such purposes, and contributes to a more complete separation of petroleum products, which contain both threads.Additional phase separation removed from the installation of the sludge through the sludge or filter also contributes to the fullness of the allocation of petroleum products and the purification rate of the washing solution.Use as a cleaning solution 2-4% solution of TMS, which includes a nonionic surfactant and sodium carbonate or composition with partial replacement of soda on a sodium salt of phosphoric acid, which helps to eliminate the use of special demulsifier and, accordingly, the stage connected with his Department. The specific composition of the used detergent depends on the type of contamination and the period of its formation.Technical cleanser (TMS), including various combination is mivka various parts, tanks, vaults, etc. from hydrocarbon contamination.The range of concentration of the washing solution in the range of 2-4% is explained by the form of polluting MODP oil. Given that these contaminants accumulate over a long period and have different properties, when using a concentration of less than 2% of the possible dangers of improper cleaning MODP from contamination and the concentration of more than 4% significantly increases the cost of the cleanup process without visible improvement of its quality.Practice the use of the TMS with a temperature of 40-55oWith confirmed the validity of the specified range to clean off any oil.The use of additional filtering of the contaminated cleaning solution before it enters the treatment plant allows to separate it from the solid inclusions. This is especially important when cleaning the sand and soil.The need for heat collected during the cleaning of oil before transporting it from the purification helps to reduce the viscosity and reduces the requirements for transfer pumps.Pre-treatment MODP from oil and oil products from waste and subsequent collection of contaminated MODP one apparatus by regulating Socrates the circulation of the washing solution concentration is reduced and/or quantity is reduced, usually, after a certain number of cycles to produce the adjustment of the washing solution by adding certain amounts of fresh water and dry TMS. In addition, it is sometimes necessary to change the composition of the washing solution. This allows all the time to maintain a sufficiently high cleaning efficiency and output of petroleum products.When developing a device that implements the proposed method of cleaning MODP from oil and oil products were used for information about known devices of similar purpose, in whole or in part only decisive individual stage of the cleaning process.Known installation for the continuous purification of rubble railway (RF Patent 2053326, publ. 27.01.1996 g), containing frame supported on the undercarriage. On the frame are mounted a device for cutting stone, crashing to clean it, drive clean crushed stone with a hole to load it with clean gravel and unloading the body to reset it on the road or ground surface and the device for transportation of clean rubble from the crash to the drive.In this setting almost separates the gravel from the smaller particles, such as sand, soil, debris, PTS but the service device, but the site collection rubble made in the form of a suction pipe with a hole for the reception of gravel, which can move vertically and horizontally with the help of actuators.This device does not have the ability to clean MODP from oil or oil products.A device for cleaning a sandy soil from petroleum products (RF patent 2027825, publ. 27.01.1995,). The device includes a hopper located in the first tank and the second tank full of hot water with a temperature of 70-90oC. In the bunker there is a stirrer. In the hopper load of contaminated soil or sand and washed with hot water jets with simultaneous stirring. The device has the capacity to separate the solution and petroleum products. Oil collected in the collection, and the solution comes in repeated washing. Sand, soil, settled at the bottom, unloaded and sent to the original location from which they were taken.A disadvantage of the known device is the presence of a gravitational settler, because the time separation of the oily solution is long enough. This device can be cleaned only sweetharmony soil low-viscosity oil.A device for cleaning soils and soil pollution is paired parts. The case contains a separator for separating the coarse fraction in the form of an inclined spiral mesh classifier for the separation of contaminated material in the form of columns, washer with clean water and catcher particle fraction for washing, means located between the load and the washer. The device is provided with polycaprolactam with Pulckerrimi attached to the washer and the bottom of the hull, providing a hydrodynamic mode of mixing of the soil, as well as dispensers of contaminated soil and recycled water. The device has the capacity to collect large fraction and raspolirovyvayut soil. Fine fraction after purification discharged through the device, and the intermediate fraction withdrawn from the bottom of the hull and sent for re-processing water.The disadvantages of this device should include inability clean gravel, crushed stone from petroleum products, because they will be separated on the grid separator before the stage of leaching. The device no node separation of oily water, which was formed after leaching of contaminated sand and soil, as well as collection of refined petroleum products and water from their subsequent use. On the basis of this mod is to the saints.The closest technical solution for the proposed solution is a mobile unit for cleaning soil from petroleum products, made on the basis of universal mobile washing station (UMPS), protected by a utility model certificate 13333, publ. 10.04.2000,The unit is housed in a chassis, and the frame is mounted a device for collecting contaminated material, similar to that described in the application 95100791, i.e., the fan drive and equipped with a suction pipe or hose. The contaminated material is loaded into wash tank, which is fed under pressure wash solution with a temperature of 50-65oC. the Tank is provided with nozzles to enter the cleaning solution and output oily emulsion, lower hatch for output of the solid phase. Oily wastewater is purified by settling or separation to light (oil) and a heavy phase (purified solution in the tank is equipped with nozzles for removal of the purified cleaning solution, oil and sludge. The purified solution by means of the pressure pump return in the rinse cycle of the contaminated material and the purified oil is decanted and transported to a collection or storage for later use. Ø the second valve.To implement the proposed method of cleaning MODP from oil and oil products in the known device, containing a vehicle with a mounted thereon node collect contaminated material, is arranged to move vertically and horizontally and having a hole for suction of air, the capacity to load and wash contaminated MODP, equipped with nozzles for supplying cleaning solution, a nozzle for outputting the contaminated solution and device for unloading of solid purified material, a reservoir for cleaning and separation of oily waste, respectively provided with connections for input and output purified cleansing solution and sludge, proceedings of petroleum products supplied by the heater, as well as valves and pumps for selected products, made some changes and additions.Distinctive features of the device that implements the proposed method of cleaning MODP from oil and oil products from the prototype are the following:
- bootable part of the washing tank is made in the form of a funnel, in the lower part of which is installed around the perimeter manifold, equipped with a pipe for input of compressed air;
- in the lower part ptroblem to output oily emulsion;
- the bottom of the washing vessel has hinged to unload the washed MODP;
- installation cleaning and separation of drains, made in the form of paired separate sections, sequentially forming a damping input streams, two-piece separator with nozzles and collections of refined petroleum products and cleaning solution;
in the upper part of the chamber blanking installed funnel with mesh for trapping solid particles;
- output connections for the output of the sludge from the purification device is connected to the input of an additional clarifier or upstream of the filter, the output of which is connected with additional pump for supplying filtered fluid in the damping.In addition:
- collector for refined petroleum products is located between the two connecting sections of the separator;
in the first section of the separator, in the area of separation of the oil, installed meterorological containing movable cholesteremia disks and provided with a drive;
- nozzles installed in both sections of the separator and is made in the form of the block parallel plates;
in the lower part of the collection of the purified cleaning solution has a cylinder forming a glass to adjust the concentration of the detergent restudy particles from contaminated washing solution;
as a site collection of waste and contaminated MODP used the fan connected to the suction hose equipped with a drive device for adjusting thrust forces.It should be noted that the fabrication of the proposed device is not straightforward, because the main parts have been tested in other developments, in particular meterorological protected by RF patent 2017891, and the separator used auth. mon. 1001961.The device shown in the drawing, on which the transport device not shown, because as it can be used platform, when cleaning cloths or the railroad embankment, the car or other vehicle.The device includes a site collection polluted MODP, including the fan 1 with the hose 2 (the arrows indicate the possibility of horizontal and vertical movement), the flushing tank 3 from the feeding hopper 4, the nozzles enter the cleaning solution 5, compressed air 6, output oily emulsion 7 and contaminated cleaning solution 8, the air manifold 9 with the nozzle 10 to the input of compressed air, the folding plate 11 for discharging the washed mopd, installation, cleaning and phase separation of threads 12 (Netease solution 13, camera blanking 14, two-piece separator 15 with a nozzle 16, a collection of refined petroleum products 17 at the inlet chamber of the damping set funnel 18, and inside the grid 19, the first section of the separator 20 is installed meterorological 21 with the actuator 22 and the movable disks 23. The unit is supplied through the suction inlet 24 and outlet nozzles 25 (clean washing solution), 26 (sludge) and 27 (mineral oil). In the collections of the cleaning solution and oil products installed heaters 28, 29, and inside of the collection of the washing solution - cylinder 30, which forms the Cup 31.The device also includes a sump 32 and the filter 33, the pumps 34, 35 and 36, the valves 37 (valves, piping). The drawing shows a measurement location temperature (thermometers 38) and the supply line of compressed air, fresh water (water) and dry TMS ("BIS"). The level indicator 39 is installed in the second section of the separator and in the collection of purified cleansing solution.Let's consider a device that implements the proposed method of cleaning, for example cleaning MODP from oil and oil products railway and/or mounds, because they contain almost crushed stone, gravel, soil and sand, i.e., different materials, which is the basis of the road surface.The platform on which the (possibly by accident oil spill from a tanker, or in accordance with routine cleaning). Naturally, on the railroad tracks there is garbage (paper, leaves, plastic bags, etc), not to wash together with the main material, the fan 1 to include the power required for their collection through a flexible hose 2. The collected debris is collected in a special container (not shown), compressed and sent for further processing. Perhaps the burning of collected waste at the collection site. After collection of the lung, it is sometimes said waste with windage increase the capacity of the fan 1 and collect the main floor cloth or embankment. Crushed stone, gravel, sand and soil particles are loaded into the washing tank 3 through the hopper 4. This form of the boot node is the most convenient and allows you to load in the capacity of the scattering material. At the same time through the pipe 5 countercurrent bottom serves 3% detergent solution technical detergent ("BIS"), consisting of the following components, in weight. %: nonionic surfactants - 3%; sodium carbonate - 97%, and through the nozzles 6 - compressed air. The cleaning solution served in the flush tank of a collection of 13 pure cleaning solution located within the unit 12 treatment and phase separation of threads that poshout on thermometer 38. The cleaning solution flowing under pressure in the flushing tank 3 together with compressed air, bubbling fluidised bed solution, intensively stirred downloadable contaminated material, separating the fine and coarse fractions. Due to the impaction of large particles and the presence pseudovirions layer of fine particles is effective cleaning from oil, and light fraction POPs up and when you reach the level of the overflow pipe 7 oily emulsion is discharged into the treatment unit 12. For removing a film formed on the surface of the oily emulsion, and the preliminary allocation of the fine fraction in the reservoir 9, located on the perimeter of a feed hopper 4 at the level of the surface of the liquid (oil) through the fitting 10 serves compressed air, under which the drops of oil blown off in the pipe 7. The compressed air is carried out of the cylinder or compressor.The washing process continues until, until through the pipe 7 will not begin to flow weak vodenitsa emulsion or cleaning solution. Contaminated cleaning solution containing silt and fine solid particles, through pipe 8 is led into the installation of 12 treatment and phase separation flows. After osnovnom, crushed stone and gravel.Generated in the process of cleaning oily emulsion and the contaminated cleaning solution fed to the purification by phase separation in the plant 12, and oily emulsion is fed into the funnel 18 which is installed grid 19, so this thread must be cleaned of solid particles and is in the upper part of the chamber blanking 14. At the same time from below through the pipe 24 into the chamber blanking 14 enters the contaminated cleaning solution, which has passed the preliminary removal of solid impurities from the filter 33 (possibly none). Contaminated wash stream entering the damping bottom doesn't drop the lighter oil fractions, so it is doing in a two-piece separator 15, accumulates in the upper part, and the main stream of the contaminated washing solution containing petroleum products, in the form of large oil droplets or thin-dispersed emulsion is fed to the first section of the separator 15, more precisely in its nozzle 16, representing thin-layer module, is made of individual vertical parallel spaced cholesterolic plates, which form between them slotted channels. The upper edges of the plates, vystupum slot channels. Due to the fact that the flow enters the upper part of the first section of the separator, and goes in the opposite lower diagonal corner, in this section, a zone of thickening, in which there is an accumulation of silt. During the passage of oil flow through the slot channels is a natural process of coalescence, i.e., the enlargement of the oil droplets, and by the difference in density of the washing solution and the oil they come to the surface in the upper settling zone of the first section of the separator, which plays the role of a storage layer of oil.In addition, cholesteremia plate capture small drops of oil products, while adhering to the surface of the wafer drops merge and become larger, forming a solid film, which is under the effects of Poiseuille flow rises up in the same area. Since the external wall of the first section performed slightly below the sides of the case, the result is a discharge threshold, through which low-viscosity oil flow into the collector 17 of the accumulation of spin-off products. However, high viscosity oil can not flow into this chamber, therefore, to remove them use meterorological 21 with the actuator 22 and attached to the cover korpusu oil. The rotation of the drum is made from the actuator 22 through the coupling of the shaft with the shaft of meterorological belt or chain transmission. The rotation of the drum is carried out in such a direction that the impending film of high-viscosity oil was atakovali descending half of the movable disk 23. Under these conditions, the bulk of the oil is pressed against the movable disks, moistening the surface, and forms on her well-held film. This film is removed from their surface scrapers and gravity through the chute by gravity into the chamber 17 of the accumulation of oil.Freed from oil cleaning solution from the output of the first section of the separator is fed from below to the input of the second section 20 of the separator 15, which also placed the nozzle 16 and thin-film module, consisting of vertical parallel spaced cholesterolic plates forming the slotted channels. In these slot channels is separated from the water more dense solid particles. This is because due to the parabolic velocity distribution in the slot channels updraft pushes more dense particles to the plates forming the walls of narrow channels (the effect of Poiseuille flow). Pushing the solid particles to a surface the ONU. About the presence of stagnant zones, where there is an accumulation of sludge, can be judged by the pipe 26, through which the sludge is removed from the unit 12. The clarified water through the second discharge threshold, made with the possibility of changing its height (signal level indicator 39) relative to the total partition of the second section of the separator and collector 13 clean the cleaning solution enters the collector 13 and is further used for cleaning contaminated MODP, as already above described. The condensed product (sludge) from the separator 15 and the camera blanking 14 installation 12 purification and separation of the effluent is directed into the sump 32, where the sludge settles (possible replacement sump on namioty filter), and separated the cleaning solution diaphragm pump 35 is directed for further treatment in the damping 14, and directly through the hopper 18 with net 19 or through the filter 33 (if any), and the slurry is used for the purpose.Transportation of released oil from the collector 17 of their accumulation is carried out through pipe 27 diaphragm pump 36, but in order to reduce the viscosity of high-viscosity oil in the lower range of this camera is the heater 29. The oil can be directed to storage or neposredno its concentration or composition carry out correction of the washing solution by adding fresh water and dry technical detergent (TMS) "O-BIS" or "ON-BISM". The correction is carried out in the Cup 31 is formed by a cylinder 30 mounted in the collection of clean washing solution.This is almost the cleaning process and return MODP at the same place over and the platform moves to the next contaminated area of the railroad tracks.The advantages of the proposed method of cleaning mopd and device implements are:
- the creation of clean and waste treatment technology;
- an exception to the application of emulsifiers and their separation from cleaning solutions;
- increasing the effectiveness of treatment by increasing the output of oil products;
- create a compact device through the use of more efficient equipment;
- energy savings and detergents;
the versatility of the device, because it can be used to clean soil, soil, sand, crushed stone and gravel without making changes to the design.Currently, the device passes the pilot operation and during 2002 it is expected wide industrial application.
1. The cleaning method of the substrate material of the road surface from oil and oil products, including the collection zag is a thief, containing surfactant, removal of oily emulsions and contaminated cleaning solution with subsequent purification by separation of the phases, the selected oil and purified cleansing solution with re-using it for cleaning, sludge removal and unloading of containers washed material with the use of it on purpose, characterized in that before collecting contaminated material carry out a preliminary cleaned of debris with windage, simultaneously washing with detergent solution serves compressed air in counterflow downloadable material, and a part of the compressed air fed into the upper part of the washing vessel along the surface of the liquid, oily emulsion before cleaning the filter, clean, and phase separation of wastewater is carried out in a multiple installation, and sludge after removal from it is subjected to an additional phase separation and subsequent direction of the selected liquid phase in the installation of re-cleaning.2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the washing solution used 2-4% solution technical detergent containing nonionic surface-active homestasis fact, as an active component used soda ash or composition with partial replacement for sodium salt of phosphoric acid.4. The method according to any of paragraphs.1-3, characterized in that the contaminated cleaning solution prior to cleaning is passed through an additional filter.5. The method according to any of paragraphs.1-4, characterized in that the cleaning of debris and collect contaminated material basis of the road surface is realized by one and the same apparatus by changing the thrust.6. The method according to any of paragraphs.1-5, characterized in that formed in the separator, the oil is heated in the collector before transport.7. The method according to any of paragraphs.1-6, characterized in that the concentration and/or composition of the washing solution is supported by periodic supplements of dry detergent and fresh water.8. The method according to any of paragraphs.1-7, characterized in that the separation of the remote sludge carried by sludge or filter.9. Device for cleaning from oil and oil products of the basis material of the road surface containing the vehicle, mounted on it the site collect contaminated material made with the possibility of moving on berteknologi material, equipped with nozzles for supplying the cleaning solution and to output the contaminated oily waste, cleaning device and phase separation, equipped with nozzles to enter the contaminated wastewater and the removal of refined petroleum products, cleaning solution and slurry, United with shutoff valves and pumps for pumping liquids, characterized in that the boot portion of the wash tank made in the form of a funnel, in the lower part of which is installed around the perimeter of the collector nozzle to enter the compressed air, the lower part of the washing tank is further provided with nozzles for supplying it with compressed air and the bottom of the vessel has hinged to unload the washed material, treatment plant and the wastewater division is made in the form of paired separate sections forming a chamber blanking input streams, two-piece separator with nozzles and collections of refined petroleum products and cleaning solution, and in the upper part of the chamber blanking installed funnel with a grid for pre-treatment of contaminated water from the solid particles, output connections for the output of the sludge from the plant is connected to the inlet side of the additional tank outlet to the under item 9, characterized in that collection for refined petroleum products is located between the two connecting sections of the separator and provided with a heater.11. Device according to any one of paragraphs.9 and 10, characterized in that the first section of the separator in the area of separation of petroleum products installed meterorological with movable coalescing disks supplied with the drive.12. Device according to any one of paragraphs.9-11, characterized in that the lower part of the collection of the purified cleaning solution has a cylinder forming the glass to add detergent.13. Device according to any one of paragraphs.9-12, characterized in that the nozzle separator is installed in both sections and is made in the form of a block of parallel plates.14. Device according to any one of paragraphs.9-13, characterized in that at the outlet of the flush tank cleaned, the cleaning solution has an additional filter to trap fine particulate inclusions.15. Device according to any one of paragraphs.9-14, characterized in that site collection of waste and contaminated with oil products material applied to the fan contains a device for regulating the thrust force on the fan inlet.16. Device according to any one of paragraphs.9-15, characterized in that the sump removed
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to environment protection, in particular to purification of rubble and/or asbestos rail ballast from pollution with oil and can be used on rail transport. Installation contains receiving reservoir for supply of polluted ballast siftings for processing, device for washing, connected with pipeline for detergent supply. Device for washing is made in form of closed tub, is equipped with worm, loading device and device for joined removal of ballast siftings and polluted detergent solution. Installation includes unit of vibration sieves for separation of polluted detergent solution from ballast siftings and for sieving it into fractions, precipitation tank of centrifugal type with nozzles for supply of polluted detergent solution, pipelines for separate removal from precipitation tank of separated oil products, detergent solution and sludge, belt filter-press for sludge dehydration, reactor for chemical sludge neutralisation, galvanic coagulator for removal of heavy metal salts and residual oil products from detergent solution. Galvanic coagulator is connected by pipelines to device for washing and pipeline with reactor for chemical sludge neutralisation.
EFFECT: high degree of ballast siftings purification is achieved with simultaneous efficient phase separation, reduction of dangerous wastes formation and energy consumption for the process.
SUBSTANCE: : invention relates to environment protection, in particular to purification of rubble and/or asbestos rail ballast from pollution with oil and can be used on rail transport. Siftings of rubble and/or asbestos rail ballast are loaded into device for washing. Washing of ballast siftings is carried out by mechanical mixing with detergent solution. After washing ballast siftings and polluted detergent solution are removed together and separated. During separation ballast siftings are separated into fractions and removed in order to be used in proper way. Separated polluted detergent solution is supplied through nozzles into precipitation tank of centrifugal type for pollution by separating phases. From precipitation tank separated oil products, detergent and sludge are removed in separate flows. Sludge is dehydrated and after that neutralised using chemical reagents. Detergent solution is subjected to purification from heavy metal salts and residual oil products. Formed deposit of heavy metal salts is periodically removed to the stage of sludge neutralisation. Purified detergent solution is supplied again to the stage of mechanical washing of ballast siftings. Before supplying detergent solution to the stage of washing, technical detergent which does not require water heating is introduced into it.
EFFECT: high degree of ballast siftings purification is achieved with simultaneous efficient phase separation, reduction of dangerous wastes formation and energy consumption for the process.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: plant comprises a base vehicle 1 with a platform and equipment installed on it. Equipment comprises a reservoir 2 charged with water, a hydraulic manipulator with an ejector pump 4, a facility of mechanical removal of contaminants 3 and a facility of cleaned material discharge 5 in the form of a scraper conveyor. The reservoir 2 is made with windows in the upper part and side compartments for collection of contaminants. In the bottom of the reservoir 2 there are facilities of mechanical cleaning 3 in the form of acoustic radiators, which are connected to a power generator. The generator is installed on the base vehicle 1. The scraper conveyor is installed in the cavity of the reservoir 2, having a window for discharge. On the platform of the base vehicle 1 there is an expansion tank 7 with water and a transfer pump 6. The base vehicle 1 is equipped with a subsystem of automatic control, which controls level of reservoir 2 filling with water. The transfer pump 6 connects the expansion tank 7 with the reservoir 2. The automatic control subsystem comprises water level sensors 8, an input device 9 connected to sensors, an output device 10 and a control unit 11. Level sensors 8 are installed in the reservoir 2. The input device 9 converts an analogue signal into a digital one. The control unit 11 is connected to the input device 9 and the output device 10. The output device 10 converts a digital signal into an analogue one and is connected to the transfer pump 6.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of the process of soil cleaning from oil.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ecology and environmental protection. For cleaning filtering system is erected and used on soil slope surfaces. Filtering system is composed of the slope soil top layer processed with aqueous solution of polyelectrolyte complex. The latter comprises the mix of hydrolysed polyarcylonitrile and polyethylene polyamine at the ratio of 1:3.5-1:4.5, wt %. Processed soil sorption capacity saturated, said soil is removed and disposed or recovered.
EFFECT: simplified cleaning, higher erosion resistance of run-off surfaces.
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a technology of mechanical-thermal purifying surfaces, for example, based on concrete, clay, sand and gravel chips, from residues of hydrocarbon impurities, in particular, such as fats and oils, oil products, stick chewing gum, paint, and can be used in the housing and utilities sector. Purifying method comprises selection of the type of impurities, preliminary mechanical purification, heating, mechanical purifying and final washing with weak solution of soap water. Contaminated points are being heated by direct flame burning at temperature in the range from the ambient temperature to 600 °C untill ash or soot is being formed, and then heating points are being cooled to the ambient temperature.
EFFECT: method provides higher quality of purifying and versatility of using the method to various types of hydrocarbon compounds.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to off-road vehicles using an air cushion, for instance, in open pits after blasting works. Vehicle comprises a body, a bottom, a flexible barrier of the air cushion cavity made along the perimeter of the body bottom, nozzles to supply compressed air, a suction air intake of an air blower, relief pipelines, a cargo container. Besides, outside the perimeter of the flexible barrier of the air cavity, the bottom is equipped with a looped elbow with nozzles to suck in loose material. Besides, the looped elbow by means of relief pipelines is equipped in series both with the cargo container to collect loose material and to clean air from it, and an air intake.
EFFECT: invention provides for collection and transportation of dust generating loose material from soil surface.