Method for processing concentrates containing non-ferrous and precious metals
The invention relates to the field of metallurgy of noble metals, in particular to the pyrometallurgical processing of concentrates containing silver and gold. Method for processing concentrates containing non-ferrous and precious metals, is that the concentrate is mixed with sodium carbonate and calcium carbonate, the mixture is melted and received the slag and metal alloy, collectively noble metals are cooled and separated. What's new is that the composition of the mixture to be melted add the calcium sulfate and carbonaceous reducing agent, the smelting of lead to obtain the initial matte. Received Stein primary then mixed with the metallic iron, sodium sulfate and carbonaceous reducing agent, the mixture is melted and received targeted condensed products Stein secondary metal and alloy - free - cool and share. The technical result is to reduce the residual metal content in atalina the slag and increase the selection of precious and non-ferrous metals. 2 C.p. f-crystals, 4 PL. The invention relates to the field of metallurgy of noble metals (BM), in particular to the pyrometallurgical processing of concentrates containing sesya flotation concentrate. The resulting flotation concentrates containing oxide components: 45-65% SIO, SIS2, 4-8% Al2About3, 7-10% Fe2About3, 10-12% of the amount of CaO, MgO, K2O, Na2O, and 6-18% of iron and non-ferrous metals - lead, copper and zinc, in the form of sulphides and sulphates. Gold in concentrates at an average contains 5-50 g/t, silver 6000-25000 g/soKnown methods of processing of silver-containing concentrates in the production of copper and lead, where concentrates are used as acid flux when converting copper matte or mine smelting of lead concentrates. In the process of refining precious metals collectorate in blister copper or lead and are extracted in the refining of non-ferrous metals . The disadvantages of the methods are significant losses of noble metals in multi-operational production of copper and lead.A method of refining of concentrates containing non-ferrous and precious metals, which is taken as a prototype, as the closest to the claimed technical solution .According to the method of the initial concentrate is subjected to oxidation-reduction fired at a temperature of 600oTo achieve the calcine mass ratio of sulfide and sulfate sulfur in ur of the by-products - the slag and the target metal alloy, concentrating silver and gold, after cooling, divided by the boundary.The disadvantages of this method are significant losses of precious and non-ferrous metals from slag - 1.6 to-2.4% of gold and silver and up to 70-90% of copper, lead and zinc.The challenge which seeks the invention is to improve the recovery of precious and non-ferrous metals in the target products in pyrometallurgical processing of concentrates BM, obtained by gravity-flotation enrichment of silver ores. The problem is solved by the technical result, which is to reduce the residual content of these metals in atalina the slag and the increase in the degree of selection of precious and non-ferrous metals.This technical result is achieved in that in the method for processing concentrates containing non-ferrous and precious metals, including the mixing of the concentrate with sodium carbonate and calcium carbonate, melting the mixture with obtaining slag and metal alloy, cooling and separation of the condensed products of melting, according to the invention in the mixture is further added calcium sulphate and carbon in the th Stein mixed with metallic iron, sodium sulfate and carbonaceous reducing agent and melt the mixture to obtaining a secondary matte and metallic forms, containing precious metals. When this concentrate, sodium carbonate, calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate and carbonaceous reducing agent are mixed in the following ratio of components in the mixture, wt.%: Sodium carbonate - 20-30 calcium Carbonate - 15-25 calcium Sulfate - 2-5 Carbon reducing agent is 0.5 to 2.0 Concentrate containing non-ferrous and precious metals - Other Primary matte, metallic iron, sodium sulfate and carbonaceous reducing agent are mixed in the following ratio of components in the mixture, wt. %: Iron metal - 4-6 Sulfate sodium - 10-12 Carbon reductant - 1-2
Stein primary - Rest
The difference of the proposed technical solutions from the prototype is the composition of the mixture to the beneficiation smelting of the concentrate and the introduction of the operation of collecting primary smelting matte.Concentrating smelting source of concentrate with the addition of slag-forming fluxes, sulfidization and carbonaceous reductant provides a high degree of concentration of non-ferrous and noble metals in the primary phase of matte and getting dumped slag low in the mix with iron, sodium sulfate and carbonaceous reducing agent with obtaining the secondary matte and metal alloy allows selection of precious and non-ferrous metals. In the secondary Stein concentrates iron, copper and zinc, and the metal phase - free - passes the main share of the lead and precious metals.Concentrating smelting source of concentrate mixed with fluxes and additives are to receive a fusible slag on the basis of Na2O-SIO, SIS2-CaO and polymetallic sulphide alloy - primary matte. Education matte phase flows due to the restoration of sulphates and melting of sulfides present in the original concentrate, and also due to additional sulfatirovnie metals for reactions 1-4
In the temperature range 1100-1200oWith all the volume of the molten mixture is coalescence and settling heavier than the slag drops sulphides of metals. When this is achieved a high degree of collectormania noble metals in the emerging matte phase.Physico-chemical affinity of iron to sulfur in comparison with gold, silver and lead and the limited mutual solubility in the liquid and solid state precious metals and lead and polysulfide system Na2S-MenSmwhere Me is iron, copper, zinc.When heated and primary smelting matte mixed with metallic iron, sodium sulfate and carbonaceous reducing agent, the reaction proceeds to the formation of sodium sulfide (Na2S) (5) and substitution reactions (6, 7)
Eye-catching precious metals and lead form a heavy metal phase, which is separated from a light matte phase boundary liquation separation. After melting and cooling of the melt of the target products are divided by the boundary liquation. The free on average contains up to 35% noble metal and about 60% of lead. Secondary Stein contains up to 3% silver and 25-30% of copper and zinc in total. These products are processed by specialized enterprises with the extraction of all valuable components.The upper and lower limits of the content of sodium carbonate and calcium carbonate in the charge to the beneficiation smelting ensure the formation of a fusible slag matched the E.Going beyond the content of sodium carbonate and calcium in the mixture leads to an increase in the residual content of precious and non-ferrous metals in the slag at a flow rate below the proposed limit due to its refractoriness. The increase in the content of sodium carbonate in a mixture of more than 30% and calcium carbonate more than 25% is impractical because the indicators melting does not improve.The upper and lower limits of the contents in the mixture of calcium sulfate and carbonaceous reductant, according to experimental data, provide a high degree of collectormania non-ferrous and precious metals in primary Stein, respectively at high and low levels of these metals in the original concentrate. When the content of calcium sulphate below 2%, and the carbonaceous reductant is less than 0.5% increases the residual content of noble metals in the slag due to insufficient collectormania their sulphides of non-ferrous metals and iron. The excess content of calcium sulphate above 5% and the carbonaceous reductant more than 2% does not increase significantly the recovery of precious metals in primary Stein and is a waste of reagents.When collecting primary smelting matte upper and lower limits of the content of iron in cm is Scam total content of silver and lead in the primary Stein. When the consumption of iron less than 4% reduced recovery of precious metals in the free, if they contain more than 6% increases the melting temperature of the secondary matte and reduces the degree of selection of precious and non-ferrous metals. In the present method as metallic iron is used in steel and cast iron chips or iron scrap allocated to magnetic separation in the scheme of gravitational enrichment of ores containing precious metals.The upper and lower limits of the content of sodium sulfate and carbonaceous reducing agent in the mixture provide smelting education necessary and sufficient sodium sulfide to its content in the matte at the level of 5-10%, which facilitates easy separation of the boundary liquation secondary matte and free after cooling. When the content in the mixture of sodium sulfate and carbon below the proposed limit is difficult to separate the cooled secondary matte and free. The excess content of sodium sulfate for 12% of carbon and more than 2.0% does not improve the performance of the operation.Comparative analysis of the proposed method with the prototype shows that the inventive method differs from the known to the introduction of new components in the mixture for about the first operation precipitation melting received primary matte. Thus, the proposed solution meets the criterion of "novelty".To prove compliance of the claimed invention, the criterion of "inventive step" was compared with other technical solutions known from the sources included in the prior art.The inventive method of processing concentrates containing non-ferrous and precious metals, to meet the requirement of "inventive step", as it provides a higher recovery of precious and non-ferrous metals in the target products pyrometallurgical processing source concentrates that are not obvious from the prior art.Examples of using the proposed method
For experimental verification of the proposed method used the fluxes and additives, crushed to a particle size less than 0.5 mm and silver flotation concentrates Dyatkovo GOK. The compositions of the concentrates with different content of the main components is given in table 1.Prepared seven charges, each a mass of 100.0 g, three of which meet stated and four incredible compositions. Each mixture was loaded into Szamotuly thelyme heaters. After melting crucibles were removed from the furnace and cooled. The products of melting - furnace slag and matte is knocked out of the crucible, were separated, weighed and analyzed for the constituents of the assay and chemical analysis methods.Data on the composition of the charge, yields concentrating smelting, their content of precious and non-ferrous metals are shown in table 2.The data obtained show that concentrating smelting of concentrates in the proposed method allows to effectively collectivity noble and non-ferrous metals in primary Stein and get the slag with a low residual metal content: silver level 0,012-0,018%, non-ferrous metals from 0.02 to 0,59%. The transition from the claimed (experiments 1-3) to incredible mixes for smelting concentrates leads to the deterioration process or as a result of increasing losses of precious and non-ferrous metals from slag, either because of irrational excess reagents.The primary matte obtained under the conditions of experiments 1, 2, 3, crushed to a particle size less than 2 mm and mixed with iron shavings and powder sodium sulfate and charcoal. Prepared five blends, each a mass of 100.0 g, three of which corresponded to the declared and the two ultimate compositions, olefinic melts in each crucible filled with 50 g of slag, from the experiments concentrating smelting of concentrates. The crucible with the mixture kept at a temperature of 1150oC for 60 minutes in crucible furnaces. At the end of the melting crucible was removed from the furnace and poured the molten cast iron round conical mold. Received target products - secondary Stein and free - after cooling, separated by boundaries, weighed and analyzed for metal content assay and chemical analysis methods.The results of the experiments collecting primary smelting matte is shown in table 3.The results of examples a-1 a-1, B-1-1-1-1 (table 3) show that precipitation smelting matte primary allows you to effectively divide the gold, silver and lead from copper, zinc and iron. When the content of additives in the mixture to be melted above or below the proposed limits of indicators selection of metals decrease in matte increases the residual content of silver and lead, decreases the release of free (examples a-1-2-1-2).An example of using the prototype method.To compare the performance of the proposed method and the method prototype spent experience processing concentrate "B" on the technology of the method prototype. Concentrate a mass of 100.0 g was mixed with the powder of charcoal mass is tropici at a temperature of 600oC for 40 minutes. The resulting calcine mass 103,7 g was mixed with the sodium carbonate - 60,0 g and calcium carbonate with 52.0, Smelting, separation and analysis of products was carried out according to the method described in the examples of the processing of concentrates by the claimed method.The fusion was obtained 2.8 g of the target metal alloy and to 158.4 g of slag. The target alloy contained 0,109 % gold, 61,26 % silver, to 8.41 % copper, 26,35 % Pb, 0.12 % of zinc. In the slag respectively contained 0.4 g/t gold, 232,0 g/t silver, and 0.61 % copper, 1,78 % lead, 3.09 % of zinc.Comparison of indices from the use of declared and known processing methods concentrate "B" are presented in table 4.Table 4 shows that the use of the inventive method improves the extraction of the target products Stein secondary plus free - gold and silver 0.76% and non-ferrous metals on 76,1 to 88.7%. By eliminating costly and time-consuming operation firing for about 10-15% reduced total cost of processing the original concentrate.For the proof of the criterion of "industrial use" the claimed method is tested in an enlarged scale, planned pilot tests on the basis of "Irgiredmet".Historicities. - M.: Nedra, 1973. - S. 134-160.2. RF patent 2162897 MKI122 IN 11/02. The method of extracting precious metals from silver-bearing concentrates./ S. B. Polonsky, V. I. Sedykh, I. M. Sedykh (Russia) 99125854/02; Statements. 07.12.22, publ. 10.02.2001,, bull. 4 prototype.
1. Method for processing concentrates containing non-ferrous and precious metals, including the mixing of the concentrate with sodium carbonate and calcium carbonate, melting the mixture, cooling and separation of the products of melt, characterized in that the mixture further added calcium sulfate and carbonaceous reducing agent, the mixture is melted to obtain the initial matte and slag dump, then the primary Stein mixed with metallic iron, sodium sulfate and carbonaceous reducing agent and the mixture is melted to obtain a secondary matte and metallic phase containing precious metals.2. The method according to p. 1 characterized in that the concentrate, sodium carbonate, calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate and carbonaceous reducing agent are mixed in the following ratio of components in the mixture, wt.%:Sodium carbonate 20,0-30,0Calcium carbonate 15,0-25,0Calcium sulfate 2,0-5,0The carbonaceous reducing agent 0,5-2,0Concentrain, metallic iron, sodium sulfate and carbonaceous reducing agent are mixed in the following ratio of components in the mixture, wt. %:Iron metal 4,0-6,0The sodium sulfate 10,0-12,0The carbonaceous reducing agent 1,0-2,0Stein initial Rest
FIELD: noble metal metallurgy, in particular method for gold content determination in natural solid organic materials such as divot, state coal, brown coal, and black coal.
SUBSTANCE: claimed method includes sampling the probe of starting material, grinding, mixing with massicot, smelting to form bullion, parting of gold-silver globule, weighting of gold sinterskin. Probe is sampled from starting natural solid organic material. Before smelting mixture is packaged in lead foil, established in full-hot scorifying dish, and padded with borax and table salt.
EFFECT: precise method for gold content determination in natural solid organic materials.
1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: waste treatment.
SUBSTANCE: multicomponent waste material is preliminarily impregnated with solution of salt of metal-collector in amount ensuring weight content of metal-collector in melt exceeding content of metallic components therein. Material is then calcined and melted in reductive atmosphere after addition of slag-forming flux based on metal fluorides. Melt is stirred and kept in liquid state over a period of time long enough to allow separation of slag and metallic phases. Resulting slag and metal are tapped and mechanically separated when solidified.
EFFECT: achieved high degree of recovering metals in collecting alloy at minimum expenses.
FIELD: secondary precious metal recovery.
SUBSTANCE: recovery of silver from waste, such as spent catalysts and ashes, us accomplished by charging waste into soda-borax melt taken in such proportions that weight of soda is by 2.0-3.5 times superior to that of oxide constituent of starting material and weight of borax constitutes 8-20% that of soda. Melting is effected at 1120-1350°C and melt is aged then for at least 15-20 min, after which products are separated and silver is recovered. Weight of charged waste (Pw) is found in dependence of content oxide constituent therein using formula (wt %): Pw = (11.5-16.7)MeO+(0.5-1.0)Na2B2O7+9SiO2 ( Me is Ca, Al, or 2Na).
EFFECT: achieved essentially complete recovery of silver.
1 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: gold mining.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to selective recovery of gold from gravitation and flotation concentrates of gold-recovery fabrics in the stage of adjusting gold-containing products to condition meeting affinity requirements. Method of recovering gold from gold ore concentrates into lead melt comprises dispersing molten lead at vigorous blade agitator-mediated mechanic stirring in common with gold-containing concentrate in presence of molten alkali (NaOH) at concentrate-to-alkali weight ratio 1:(1-3) and temperature 400-550°C depending on mineralogical composition of concentrate.
EFFECT: accelerated recovery process and increased fullness of recovery.
2 cl, 4 ex
FIELD: noble metal metallurgy, namely separation of platinum group metals and gold from materials on base of non-noble metal chalcogenides.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of treating material with nitric acid solution till oxidation-reduction potential 500-700 mV; extracting non-soluble residue; melting it at adding sodium-containing fluxes, carbon -containing reducing agent and copper- and(or) iron-containing industrial process product obtained at hydrolysis or cementation treatment of solutions of refining production; settling and cooling melt till its solidification. Solidified product is separated according to interface boundaries. Then separated bottom phase of heavy alloy is disintegrated to powder. Method allows to extract to target alloy up to 94% of platinum and palladium, more than 97% of rhodium, iridium and ruthenium. Disintegrated alloy may be processed as concentrate of refining production.
EFFECT: increased content of noble metal in bottom phase, lowered cost of next refining process.
2 cl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes reduction of silver chloride at heating and holding at heat in flow of gaseous hydrogen, bubbling of gas escaping from reaction chamber through water and obtaining aqueous solution HCl. Reduction is performed from silver chloride formed at refining of noble metals and ground to size of ≤100 mcm and located in reaction chamber at thickness of layer of ≤20 mm at temperature of 450°C±5°C by gaseous hydrogen heated to holding temperature.
EFFECT: increased degree of extraction of silver from silver chlorides.
1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: extraction of noble metals from materials containing such metals, for example sludge, used catalysts, ores.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method increases degree of extraction of noble metals into alloy at eutectic melting due to increased degree of extraction of micro-dispersed phases (nano-particles) and atoms of noble metals found in dislocations (linear defects) and micro-cracks of crystal lattices of initial materials. To this end, material from which noble metals are to be extracted is mixed with charge of alkaline composition and mixture is subjected to eutectic melting, thus obtaining alloy of these metals. Immediately before melting, mixture is subjected to mechanical activation continued for 0.0833-2 h at maintenance of ratio of delivered mechanical energy power to relative surface of mixture within 0.0133-25 W x kg x m-2. Eutectic melting of mixture is performed at temperature above 500°C. Ratio of mass of charge to mass of material is selected within 0.75-2; used as charge is mixture of sodium tetraborate with sodium carbonate, sodium tetraborate with sodium bicarbonate, sodium tetraborate and sodium carbonate and lead mono-oxide, sodium tetraborate with sodium bicarbonate and lead mono-oxide.
EFFECT: increased degree of extraction of noble metals.
4 cl, 12 ex
FIELD: nonferrous metallurgy; methods of detection of the noble metals in the mineral raw materials.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to nonferrous metallurgy, in particular, to the methods of detection of the noble metals in the mineral raw materials. The technical result of the invention is an increased trustworthiness to the results of the testing crucible melt analysis. The method is conducted in the following way. From the material of the laboratory test sample take out the analytical part of the filler, mix it with the calculated amount of the charge and the mixture is smelt according to the standard method. During the smelt visually control the height of the boiling layer of the melt slag and lead. On completion of the smelt measure the mass of the slag and lead and calculate an admissible height of the boiling layer of the melt according to the following formula:0,9·Hm≥Hc≥[1,9/tg2α/2·(Mш/ρш+Mc/ρc)]1/3, whereHcr - depth of the crucible in meters(m);Hsl - the height of the boiling gas-slag layer, m; α - an angle at the apex of the cone of the inner surface of the crucible, in degrees;Msl, Mla - masses of the slag and mass of the lead alloy accordingly, kg;ρsl, ρla - density of the slag and density of the lead accordingly, kg/m3. If the visual estimation of the height of the boiling layer of the melt exceeds the limits of admissible values, them one may draw a conclusion about the low quality of the testing smelt, make corrections in the composition of the charge and repeat the test analysis.
EFFECT: the invention ensures an increased trustworthiness to the results of the testing crucible melt analysis.
FIELD: noble metal metallurgy, in particular recovery of non-ferrous, noble metal and alloys thereof from debris of electronic devices and components.
SUBSTANCE: claimed method includes disintegration of radio-electronic debris, vibrating treatment with separation of heavy fraction containing noble metals, metal separation and recovery, wherein radio-electronic debris is sorted, and metal components are separated, remaining debris part is treated with separation of heavy fraction. Said fraction after separation is mixed with preliminary separated metal components and mixture is subjected to oxidative melting with feeding of air blowing in amount of 1.15-0.25 nm3 per 1 kg of mixture. Further obtained alloy is electrolitically refined in copper sulfate solution and noble metals are recovered from formed slurry. Method of present invention makes it possible to isolate 98.2 % of gold, 96.9 % of silver and 98.2 % of platinum.
EFFECT: method of increased noble metal yield.
2 dwg, 6 ex
FIELD: metallurgy of noble metals.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes selection of analytical weighted portions from ordinary samples of ore, analysis of weighted portions, forming and analysis of group sample before estimation of mass of weighted portion, estimation of mass of weighted portion, selection of weighted portion from sample at size of grain of 1-0.04 mm and final grinding of weighted portion to 0.2-0.04 mm. During analysis of weighted portions, approximate magnitude of content of gold Co.s. in ordinary samples is determined, group sample is formed from ordinary samples at minimum content of gold, analytical weighted portions are taken from group sample and content of gold Ci is determined, average content of gold in group sample Cg.s. is calculated, minimum mass of analytical weighted portion for group sample Mg.s.(g) is set at ratio Пi=2(Ci-Cg.s.)/(Ci+Cg.s.)≤Дg.s., where Пi is relative discrepancy between content of gold in i-analytical weighted portion and average content of gold in group sample; Дg.s. is permissible relative discrepancy between results of determination of content of gold in group sample during laboratory monitoring; then estimation of mass is performed for ordinary samples Mo.s. by the following formula: Mo.s.= (Mg.s..Дg.s./(Co.s..Дo.s.), where Дo.s. is permissible discrepancy between results of determination of content of gold in ordinary sample during laboratory monitoring.
EFFECT: enhanced rapidness and reliability; low cost of assay.
1 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex