Composite material for tribological coatings

 

The invention relates to polymeric materials and can be used in mechanical engineering for production of tribological coatings for friction units operated as with lubrication and without lubrication. The task of the invention is to improve the tribological characteristics of coatings based on polyamides and ensuring a high level of adhesion characteristics of the coating on unmodified metals. The problem is solved in that the composite material based on polyamide matrix and carbon filler as polyamide matrix contains the modified polyamide powder product cryogenic grinding thermomechanical combined mixture of polyamide 6 and polyethylene in a ratio of 10:10,1, and as a carbon filler is a mixture of carbon components graphite-like and diamond-like modifications and carbon-graphite fibers in a ratio of 1:1:201:1:40. table 2.

The invention relates to polymeric materials and can be used in mechanical engineering for production of tribological coatings parts of friction units of machines and mechanisms of various functional the crystals, made of various coatings, including anti-wear and anti-friction. These coatings are designed based on polymer matrices of different composition and structure of the polymer, polyolefin, polyester, etc. In the composition of the polymer matrices impose various modifiers - powders dry greases, oxides, metals, silicates and other substances that alter the strength, adhesion, tribological, thermal characteristics [1] . The content of dispersed fillers in the polymeric matrix is from 1 to 40%, which allows a wide range to adjust the performance characteristics of composite materials. However, the introduction of a large number of filler hinders the ability of the composite coating to form a homogeneous maldetect coatings on metals. At low content of traditional fillers not achieved the desired effect.

Known anti-friction coatings based on polymer matrices, mainly polyamide, the composition of which is as functional additives introduced powdered polyolefin [2]. When the temperature in the friction zone polyolefin having a lower melting temperature than the polyamide forms on the heels of the Yu wear resistance of friction, operated without lubrication and with external lubrication. However, the presence in the composite material of the polyolefin in the form of isolated phase dramatically reduces the strength of the adhesive connection with the metal substrate. Therefore, special methods are necessary surface preparation of metal parts to ensure the required level of adhesion of the coatings. This significantly complicates the process of coating and increases their value.

The prototype of the invention is a composite material based on polyamide 11, which introduced anti-friction and anti-wear additives [2]. To provide the necessary strength adhesive compound coating to the metal substrate, the latter is treated with a solution of a special adhesive - based primer oligomer epoxy resin. After heat treatment, the adhesive in the temperature range 280-350oC for 5-20 min sublayer is formed, which provides the chemical interaction of the macromolecule nylon and metal substrates. The disadvantage of the prototype is: - lack of domestic production of polyamide 11, which leads to the necessity of imports component;geologicheskogo of the coating process and increased environmental hazard, due to the used solvents and degradation products of the primer in the process of heat treatment; - low tribological characteristics of the coatings, especially when friction without external lubrication.

The task on which the invention is directed to: - the improvement of tribological characteristics of coatings based on polyamides; - ensuring a high level of adhesion characteristics of the coating on unmodified metals.

The task is solved by the fact that as the matrix of the coating using a modified polyamide, representing a powdery product cryogenic grinding thermomechanical combined mixture of polyamide 6 and polyethylene in a ratio of 10:10,1, and as a carbon filler is a mixture of carbon-containing components of different modifications - GLn-like, carbon-graphite fibers in a ratio of 1:1:201:1:40 with the following content, wt.%: The carbon filler - 0,11 - 10,5 Modified polyamide - the Rest is up to 100 Compounds of composite materials for tribological coatings according to the prototype [1] and the invention are shown in table 1.

As polyamide 11 use the deposits used powdered product Caplan (Russia).

As high-pressure polyethylene used the polyethylene produced Novopolotsk "Polymir". As high molecular polyethylene used Hostalen Gur (GUR 4120) production company Voeg.

Product cryogenic grinding on the basis of polyamide 6 was prepared as follows. A mechanical mixture of pellets of polyamide 6 (Grodno ON Khimvolokno) and polyethylene was subjected to thermo-mechanical mixing in the extruder screw type at temperatures 240-280oWith subsequent granulation. The obtained pellets were subjected to cryogenic grinding in the mill, rotary type, using as a cryogenic agent liquid nitrogen. Received a mechanical mixture fractions were selected to obtain a product with a particle size of 80-100 μm. As carbon-graphite fiber used fiber brand "Viscum" Svetlogorsk production "Khimvolokno". The fiber was ground in the mill dismembrator type to obtain a fraction with the size of 50-80 μm. As components of the carbon filler used industrial product brand UDAG, manufactured by CJSC "Cinta". The ratio of diamond-like and graphite-like fraction in the product UDG is 1:1. If necessary, the composition of UDAG of Mukta UDAG amounted to 310 nm.

To obtain compounds of composite materials used polymer powders with a particle size of not more than 100 μm. The components were mixed in a drum-type mixer to obtain a homogeneous composition. The coating was applied using a fluidized bed method of air suspension composite material. As the substrate used samples of steel 60 PP, pre-fat and heated to a temperature of 250-280oC. the Prepared samples were placed in a mechanical suspension, resulting in the observed precipitation of particles of the composite melt with the formation of the coating. The obtained samples were investigated after 24 hours according to standard techniques. Tribological tests were carried out on a pin-on-disk sliding velocity of 1 m/s and a load of 510 MPa. The coating was applied to the mechanical part of the metal sample of steel 45. The tests were carried out without lubrication with grease oil MS-20, which was filed in the friction zone with wick. The adhesion strength of the coating was evaluated by the method of peeling angle 180o.

Tribological and mechanical properties of coatings obtained from composite materials for prototype and declared with whom mponents (compounds II-IV, VIII, IX) exceeds the prototype for strength and tribological characteristics. The excess of the stated content (composition V) does not provide any additional effect, and a reduction in the content (composition I) reduces the effect. Use instead of the product cryogenic grinding thermomechanical mixture of HDPE+PA6 mechanical mixture PE and HDPE (part VII) or a mechanical mixture of PA6 and HDPE (part VI) leads to a sharp decline in strength and adhesion characteristics. The absence of nanosized carbon particles (composition X) and replace them with particles of conventional graphite (composition X) reduces the mechanical and tribological characteristics of coatings on metals.

Thus, the claimed compositions in the stated ratio of the components exceed the prototype of the complex physico-mechanical, tribological and adhesion characteristics.

The invention consists in the following. Thermomechanical combination of polyamide 6 and polyethylene leads to the formation of copolymer product, which has a higher thermodynamic compatibility in comparison with a mechanical mixture of the components in the same proportions. The introduction of the polymer matrix of carbon particles provide the personal force fields. Orientation leads to the formation of quasi-crystalline structures in the amorphous part of the polymer matrix, which increases the strength of the composition and the adhesive interaction of the coating with the metal substrate. Additional introduction to composite carbon fiber strengthens and increases its tribological characteristics as the friction with lubrication and without lubrication. High performance adhesive characteristics of the claimed compositions not only when applying them to the modified surface of the metal, but also on raw. This allows to form the coating in one process cycle and dramatically reduces energy consumption of the process.

Thus, the claimed composition is characteristic of the invention according to the criteria of technical and technological effect.

Sources of information
1. Dovgalo C. A. , jurkiewicz O. R. Composite materials and coatings based on dispersed polymer. - Minsk: Science and technology, 1992 - 256 S.

2. Designing for Rilsan coatings. ELF ATOCHEM, Paris, 1999. -P. 18. - prototipo


Claims

Composite material for tribological coatings based on a polyamide matrix and a carbon filler, characterized in that it contains as is melcene thermomechanical combined mixture of polyamide 6 and polyethylene in a ratio of 10:10,1, and as a carbon filler mixture of carbon components graphite-like and diamond-like modifications and carbon-graphite fibers in a ratio of 1:1:201:1:40 in the following ratio, wt.%:

Carbon filler 0,11-10,5

The modified polyamide Rest to 100

 

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