The method of thermal protection and modulation of aerodynamic resistance of the object, the descent from the spacecraft

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to heat engineering and can be used to protect spacecraft and launchable objects (from mechanical damage or overheating) both in space and entry into the dense layers of the atmosphere. The method of thermal protection and modulation of aerodynamic resistance of the object, the descent from the spacecraft, includes the formation of evaporated protective layer on the surface of the object before entering the atmosphere, in outer space, after cooling of its surface by the orientation of the object on the shadow side of the SPACECRAFT and the spraying of spray mixture of liquid coolant for cooling the surface of the object to the formation of the ice shell with an aerodynamic shape. In the process of applying the liquid coolant to it, and the cooled object surface charge of different electric charges. As the liquid coolant is water produced by the oxygen-hydrogen ECG placed on Board the SPACECRAFT, and produced when electricity is used to charge the liquid coolant and the treated surface of the descent of the object. As a gas in the gas-droplet mixture is Oding crystals.

The invention relates to heat engineering and can be used to protect spacecraft and launchable objects (from overheating or mechanical damage) in terms of flight in space, and when entering the dense layers of the atmospheres of planets.

Analogues of the proposed method are numerous passive methods of protection devices with the help of high-temperature coatings, which are formed on their surfaces in the manufacturing process of the apparatus on the Ground, and constitute an integral part hereof. Coverage usually are layered and formed on the surface of the apparatus by coating, followed by curing, coiling sheet material, stickers, thermal protection tiles, etc. as a material for the manufacture of heat-shielding coatings (SMI) are refractory oxides of metals, composite materials such as CFRP, organosilicon etc [1-3].

Characteristic of this method of insulation is that the inner layers have a high heat-shielding properties, and the outer - good ablative characteristics (low wear, high melting point).

The disadvantages of this method of thermal protection AC absotutely, and the heat leakage from the outside;

- made on earth thermal protection device has a specific, previously assigned resource, in which flight conditions increased already can't be;

to display the weight HRC returned object to orbit the necessary additional costs of fuel.

More sophisticated are the active thermal protection, when P KA is used for cooling its surface, or a special heat shield mounted on the device [4-7]. The closest in technical essence is a method of thermal protection and modulation of aerodynamic resistance of the object, the descent from the spacecraft, including the formation of evaporated protective layer on the surface of the object [5]. This technical solution is selected as a prototype of the proposed solution. In it the coolant P KA due to evaporation is used to create steam zone in front of the protective screen. The latter not only reduces thermal load on the AC and its screens, but also provides an opportunity to influence the aerodynamic resistance of the device.

The disadvantages of the prototype are:

- increase of energy consumption for operation P KA, the complexity of the design and weight of P;

- resource protection capabilities of the flight;

- creation of additional steam protection of the object causes the coolant flow.

Thus, the task of the new technical solution is to provide such a method thermal performance of the object, which would:

- create HRC in the specific conditions of space flight, for example, directly in front of the entrance of the object into the atmosphere;

to be able to vary the nature of the coating, such as thickness or configuration in accordance with the specific task of descent of the object;

to reduce the external temperature of the AC and the external heat gains to him;

- not to expend extra energy to be output in the special space of the cooler, to maximize the use of materials and equipment available on Board the SPACECRAFT.

The task is solved in that in the method of thermal protection and modulation of aerodynamic resistance of the object, the descent from the spacecraft, including the formation of evaporated protective layer on the surface of the object, before entering the atmosphere, in space, the object surface is cooled by its orientation on the shadow side of the spacecraft, and the formation of the protective coating is produced by filing a spray mixture of liquid coolant in the cooling gap is CE applying the liquid coolant to it, and the cooled object surface charge of different electric charges.

As the liquid coolant used water produced is placed on the spacecraft oxygen-hydrogen electrochemical generator, and generated from the electricity used to charge the liquid coolant and the treated surface of the descent of the object, and as a gas in the gas-droplet mixture using one of the gases emerging from the electrochemical generator.

The technical result of the method is that there is no need to bring a cooler into orbit from the Earth, it is synthesized on Board the SPACECRAFT in space during the electrochemical reaction between the components of the fuel ECG KA - oxygen and hydrogen. Electricity, which is also obtained in this reaction, can be used for applying ice HRC on the surface of the device.

Another important result of the proposed method is that the resulting ice HRC inherently low temperature. The object's surface temperature may not exceed low (especially at low pressures) the boiling point of water. This fact may be important in the delivery from the orbit of biological and medical goods that do not allow strong nareg, their number is exactly balanced with each other.

Besides, this coating further reduces the heat gain to the object due to the fact that melting and evaporating, the ice forms an additional protective steam wrapper around an object, and this affects the aerodynamic resistance of the latter. The creation of additional steam shell is common to the proposed decision and of the prototype, however, the proposed method uses not only evaporation but also the second phase transition is melting, and this increases the efficiency of thermal protection.

If we are talking about the AC, its ice shell can serve inter alia as an external storage of water, from which by electrolysis it is possible to synthesize oxygen and hydrogen to control the AC.

The essence of the proposed method in that the components of the fuel ECG KA (O2and H2) are not only used for its intended purpose, but also to create a low-temperature heat-protective coatings, if necessary, release the object in the atmosphere. For the synthesis of water it uses an electrochemical reaction of hydrogen oxidation, which ensures that the process is not only materials, water, and energy.

The nature of the coating (thickness, for the moment tasks. Due to the shape of the ice cover can affect the steam covering the SPACECRAFT and thereby its aerodynamic drag. The nature of the coating can be choose optimal with respect to a particular trajectory in the atmosphere of the planet. For example, it is possible to form various HRC for descent to the surface, or to work in an atmosphere with different penetration depth, etc.

The proposed method of SPACECRAFT thermal protection is performed in the following sequence.

1. Before entering the atmosphere, the surface of the object is cooled, for example, orienting it in the space so that the surface was not covered by the sun is transferred to the shady side of the SPACECRAFT.

2. Then in the space form a protective coating descent object, directing a spray mixture of liquid coolant for cooling the surface of the object to the formation of the ice shell, while in the process of applying the liquid coolant to it, and the cooled object surface charge of different electric charges.

As the liquid coolant used water produced by the oxygen-hydrogen ECG placed on Board the SPACECRAFT, and vyrastayuschemu object. At the same time as the gas in the gas-droplet mixture used one of the gas components, exhaust ECG.

List of abbreviations

HRC - heat-proof coating

KA - spacecraft

ECG - electrochemical generator

Do the propulsion system

P - thermal control system

References

1. Advanced coating with high heat resistance, France, application 2542278, 1984

2. Three-layer heat shield, France, application 2638709.

3. High-temperature insulation system, the Federal Republic of Germany, application 3741733.

4. The method of thermal protection, France, application 2542698.

5. The method of thermal protection and modulation of resistance KA, Germany, the application 3309688.

6. Design of composite material, the EP, the application 0133066.

7. Protective screen, EP, application 0073688.

1. The method of thermal protection and modulation of aerodynamic resistance of the object, the descent from the spacecraft, including the formation of evaporated protective layer on the surface of the object, characterized in that before entering the atmosphere in the space object surface is cooled by its orientation on the shadow side of the spacecraft, Adamou the surface of the object to the formation of the ice shell, having an aerodynamic shape, while in the process of applying the liquid coolant to it, and the cooled object surface charge of different electric charges.

2. The method of thermal protection and modulation of aerodynamic resistance of the object, the descent from the spacecraft, p. 1, characterized in that as the liquid coolant used water produced is placed on the spacecraft oxygen-hydrogen electrochemical generator, and generated from the electricity used to charge the liquid coolant and the treated surface of the descent of the object, and as a gas in the gas-droplet mixture used one of the gases emerging from the electrochemical generator.

 

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