The gasifier, cryogenic liquid
The gasifier includes a vessel for cryogenic liquid pipelines filling cryogenic liquid, drainage and its delivery to the evaporator. The locking bodies are located on the pipeline and in the form of valves with remote control. The gasifier is equipped with automatic control system shut-off valves. Piping drainage and delivery of liquid is made rigid and fixed, with the possibility of linear movement of vacant parcels when the temperature changes. These areas are connected by mechanical connections with the switches of the automatic control system shut-off valves. The gasifier may be provided with a second vessel for cryogenic liquid. The mechanical connection can be made flexible. The outer surfaces of the pipes can be provided with heat conducting fins. At the entrance to the evaporator can be installed in the flow regulator. The use of the invention will reduce the cost and operating costs, to increase the operating pressure of the produced gas emissions, increase reliability and automation. 4 C.p. f-crystals, 6 ill., table 2. The invention relates to installations for the gasification of cryogenic liquids, advantages is nasty, using cryogenic liquid.The purpose of gasification cryogenic liquid is receiving high pressure gases. The pressure of this gas is determined by the consumer and is usually in the range from 5 to 420 bar. The greatest interest for the industrial use of the present device to obtain directly from cryogenic liquids, including liquid hydrogen, technical gases with a pressure of from 150 to 300 atmospheres. These pressures correspond to the operating pressure range of the existing fleet of gas compressors and cylinders. Thus obtained using gasifiers technical gases high pressure superior in purity gases received by komprimirovannom as gas compressors, as a rule, make a steam-contamination.Known gasifier, cryogenic liquid containing vessel for cryogenic liquid pipelines filling, drainage and delivery of liquid to the evaporator with manual shut-off valves on them (see , page 207). This gasifier has a working vessel low pressure and provides for periodic receipt of low-pressure gases. When the lowering of the level of cryogenic liquid in the working vessel of the gasifier to the bottom mark ol the spine of the vessel is carried out using a manometric sensor representing a differential pressure gauge that measures the hydrostatic pressure of the liquid column in the vessel of the gasifier. The control level of the cryogenic fluid with low density, such as liquid hydrogen in the vessel is difficult. The hydrostatic pressure of the column of liquid hydrogen, the density of which is about 70 kg/m3in the gasifier vessel so small that the sensitivity and accuracy of the existing differential pressure gauges used in gasifiers, insufficient to reliably measure and maintain the level of liquid hydrogen. In case of increase of the operating pressure of the gasifier vessel inevitably also increase the working pressure differential pressure gauge that still lowers its sensitivity and accuracy. Current electric sensors of various types, such as ultrasonic, capacitive, for cryogenic liquids roads, complicated and not reliable, which is revealed by their long-term intermittent operation in vessels with pressures up to 8 MPa. At pressure of about 12 atmospheres and above liquid hydrogen changes to a critical state characterized by the absence of a phase boundary in the cryogenic vessel. The use bronemotrisa devices for cryogenic vessels gasifiers liquid nitrogen, argon, oxygen is also challenging due to the need to establish a reliable cryogenic sensor with greater resource efficiency, tight output node of an electrical signal from the cryogenic pressure vessels, fire safety electrical systems in vessels with liquid oxygen. For these reasons, the use of gasifier described in , page 207, does not solve the problem of obtaining technical high pressure gases.The closest to the technical nature of the claimed invention is known gasifier, cryogenic liquid containing vessel for cryogenic liquid pipelines filling cryogenic liquid, drainage and its delivery to the evaporator shut-off bodies on them (see , page 208). The gasification apparatus consists of a vessel low pressure cryogenic liquid, two evaporators placed in the vessel of the cryogenic high-pressure pump with electric drive, and also has a control unit and the control Board.The main disadvantages of the prototype are significant costs of manufacture and operation of the cryogenic pump for receiving high pressure gas, a limited range of working environments and the difficulties of the relevant devices, have a scarce resource and require a considerable amount of electricity to drive. Properties currently used pumps limit the range gasified environments liquid products of air separation. The use of pumping gasifiers for cryogenic liquids of low density, such as liquid hydrogen, it is impossible for the cause of the failure of existing piston pumps in the liquid hydrogen. Loop suction in the working cylinder of the pump liquid hydrogen leads to its boiling inlet valve. The working cylinder filled with steam, and the capacity of the pump drops to zero. The use for these purposes pumps of other types, such as centrifugal, is difficult because of the higher complexity and cost of multi-stage centrifugal pump for liquid hydrogen, which is confirmed by the existing experience in the creation and testing of turbopump assemblies for liquid rocket engines using liquid hydrogen. The prototype gasifier cannot operate in automatic mode due to the lack of it consists of reliable controls and automatically maintain the level of the cryogenic component in the vessel, insufficient reliability of cream, is to reduce the cost of the gasifier and operating costs, increasing operating pressure of the gases obtained without the use of cryogenic pump, increasing the reliability and automation of the gasifier, cryogenic liquids of low density, primarily with liquid hydrogen.This is achieved by what is known in the gasifier, cryogenic liquid containing vessel for cryogenic liquid pipelines filling cryogenic liquid, charge drainage and its delivery to the evaporator shut-off bodies on them, according to the invention, the locking bodies are made in the form of valves with remote control, while the gasifier is equipped with automatic control system shut-off valves, pipelines, drainage and dispensing liquid from a container to the evaporator is made rigid and fixed, with the possibility of free linear movement of vacant parcels when the temperature changes, and the said sections are connected by mechanical connections with the switches of the automatic control system shut-off valves piping refills, drainage and delivery of cryogenic fluid from the cryogenic vessel.In addition, the gasifier may be provided with a second Sosua valves on them, connected to the automatic control system, and the piping of the drainage and delivery of cryogenic liquid from a container made of a hard, fixed at one end with the possibility of linear movement of their free sites when the temperature changes, and each segment is connected by a mechanical link with the appropriate switch of the automatic control system shut-off valves on pipelines filling, drainage and delivery of cryogenic fluid from the second vessel and piping the filling, drainage and delivery of cryogenic fluid from the second vessel connected respectively with pipes filling, drainage and delivery of cryogenic fluid to the evaporator from the first vessel, the pipeline pressurization of both vessels with shut-off valves connected to the outlet of the evaporator.And mechanical connection free of pipeline sections with switches of the automatic control system is flexible, and the outer surfaces of the pipes of the drainage and delivery of cryogenic component of both vessels equipped with external heat conducting ribs.While the input of the cryogenic liquid in the evaporator is installed a flow regulator.the EMA unit generating control commands, in Fig. 3 is an electrical diagram of the control system shut-off valves carburettor of Fig.4 shows a graph of the temperature change of the real drainage piping cryogenic vessel during filling and discharge of cryogenic liquid; Fig. 5 - dependence of the coefficient of linear expansion of metal (steel 18CR10NITI) from temperature (T) of Fig.6 is a pneumatic diagram of the gasifier for a continuous supply of cryogenic fluid, consisting of two cryogenic vessels.The vessel 9 (Fig. 1) for cryogenic liquids with screen-vacuum insulation fixed stationary support 8. Highway refueling vessel 9 cryogenic fluid includes pipeline 4 with screen-vacuum thermal insulation, the check valve 2 and the shut-off valve 5 with remote control. The pressurization of the vessel 9 is carried out via the pipeline 18 and the remote-controlled valve 22. Drainage of vapor and liquid from the cryogenic vessel is on the drain pipe 24, having a remotely operated valve 21, the output of which the pipe section 24 has a rigid support 23. After the supports 23 of the pipe section 24 is made without thermal insulation and has the opportunity to freely move when ismen with valve 7 with remote control, at the outlet of which there is fixed a support 6, with the flow regulator 11, an evaporator 12 and check valve 13. After the supports 6 of the pipe section 10 is made without thermal insulation and has the possibility of free movement when changing its temperature. The flow regulator 11 is designed to set the speed of emptying of the cryogenic vessel 9. While the flow regulator 11 has a knob to adjust the duration of the emptying of the cryogenic vessel 9. The check valve 13 provides automatic pipe overlapping the issuance of the liquid to the consumer, if the working medium pressure in the cryogenic vessel 9 is lower than that of the consumer.The supply pipeline gas from the evaporator 12 is connected by a pipe 18 with the valve inlet 22 of the pressurization system of the vessel 9 (Fig.1 connecting pipe 18 is depicted by the dotted line) and provides an equalization of pressure in the evaporator 12 in the gas cushion vessel 9. Supply of cryogenic fluid in the cryogenic vessel 9 occurs under the action of excess pressure source 1 cryogenic liquid (Fig.1 source of cryogenic fluid conventionally not shown). Discharge of cryogenic liquid from a cryogenic vessel 9 to the evaporator 12 occurs by gravity under the action of the difference of the hydrostatic urealiticum in the evaporator 12 last feature below the minimum level of cryogenic liquid in the vessel 9.To intensify heat exchange with atmospheric air, the outer surfaces of the drain pipe 24 and pipe issuance of the liquid 10 is supplied with heat conducting fins. In order to save expensive cryogenic liquids draining vapor through conduit 24 is in the gas tank low pressure, where the gaseous component is stored for reuse (Fig.1 and 6, the gas tank is conventionally not shown). The presence of a rigid supports 23 and 6 in drainage pipe 24 and the supply pipeline cryogenic fluid 10 provides a free longitudinal (along their axis) moving sections of the pipeline by the amount of thermal linear elongation change their temperature. These pipeline sections 10 and 24 is rigidly fixed to the brackets 14 and 27. Using the links 15 and 28 of the brackets 14 and 27 are connected with an electric switch blocks the formation of teams of 16 and 29 rigidly mounted on supports 17 and 30, respectively. The purpose blocks the formation of teams of 16 and 29 (see Fig.2) - convert linear displacement of pipe sections 24 and 10 by means of links 15 and 28 into electrical signals and supply these signals to the control system shut-off valves filling, pressurization, trenirovochka device will consider it on the example of the block 29. The set of commands 29 has a movable frame 31. To the frame 31 of the block 29 attached link 28 and return tension spring 33. When driving connection 28, the frame 31 is free to slide along the guides 32, fixedly mounted on the housing 29. The electrical contacts of the switch CD (and KB - forming unit 16 teams), mounted on the cross beam 35 that is included in an electric circuit of the control system (see Fig.3). The electrical contacts of the switch CD (and switch KB) closed by pressing lightly with the side of the frame 31, at the termination of the pressing contact opens the inner springs of the switches. Yoke 35 with switch KD can move relative to the housing 29 only when the rotation of the adjusting screw 34. The housing 29 of the block formation is closed by a cover 36 that provide security in areas with hydrogen and protection unit forming teams from mechanical damage. For convenience of installation and operation connection 15 and 28 can be made flexible, for example, of thin steel cables, which under the action of springs 33 are always in a tense position. Blocks the formation of teams of 16 and 29 are electrically connected to the control system. Diagram of the system control dressing and magnitnykh relay P1, P2, P3 and four electroneurography APK, APK, APK, APK (see Fig.3). Electroneurography serves to relieve the pressure of the control gas to the pneumatic actuators of the valves 5, 7, 21, 22 to electrical commands from the control system.The control system is based on the latch circuit with two stable positions, which has relays P1 - enabled "mode 1" - dressing, or off - mode "2" - issue). In the wiring diagram of the control system there are two manual buttons KO and K1, providing force switching trigger and switches K2, K3 off ("mode 0"). When you turn off the power to all the valves in the closed vessel (in standby mode for protection of the vessel with cryogenic liquid from its destruction in case of excess pressure in the vessel from the evaporation of the cryogenic liquid it is supplied with a spring loaded safety valve, on the drawing, it is conventionally not shown).The gasifier with one vessel provides for the periodic issuance of cryogenic liquid with breaks for filling cryogenic vessel. For a continuous supply of cryogenic fluid to the evaporator 12 of the gasifier is supplied to the second vessel for cryogenic fluids 37 (Fig.6). The second vessel 37 also sabipak vessel 37 includes a pipe 38 with screen-vacuum thermal insulation, valve 39 with remote control and connected after the check valve 2. The pressurization of both vessels 9 and 37 carried by pipeline with remotely controlled valves 22 and 42 by selecting gasified component from the output of the evaporator 12. Drainage of vapor and liquid from the cryogenic vessel 37 is on a straight-line drain pipe 25 with a drain valve 43. The pipe section 25 after the valve 43 has a rigid support 44 and is provided with heat conducting fins and the second end of the bracket 26 is connected by a link 45 with the block formation 46. Highway issuance of cryogenic liquid from the vessel 9 and 37 on the evaporator 12 include, respectively, the valves 7 and 41, straight pipeline sections 10 and 50 with the heat conductive fins, which are connected to a common flow regulator 11 with flexible sections 51 and 52 connected after installation locations of the brackets 14 and 47. Flexible sections 51 and 52 allow the pipes 10 and 50 independently to lengthen when the temperature changes of each of them. The pipe 50 has a bracket 47 is connected by a link 48 with a block formation 49. The blocks 46 and 49 are identical to blocks formation 29 and 16 and secured in pairs on the fixed bracket 30 and 17.Com and also provides three modes - mode 1 "charging" mode 2 "issue", "mode 0" - power supply is turned off. The difference is that in mode 1 one of the vessels dressed cryogenic liquid component, and the second gives the cryogenic fluid to the consumer, mode 2 - vessels change their roles.The amount of movement of the end sections of the pipeline 10, 24, 25 and 50 with brackets 14, 27, 26 and 47 can be estimated by the calculations below for liquid hydrogen. Let the initial state all the elements of the gasifier have the same temperature equal to T0close to the ambient temperature, for example, K (0oC), if the temperature T1equal to 3040K (-243-233oC).Will make the assessment of the magnitude of the displacement of the end of the pipe 24 by cooling it to a temperature T1.For this task it is important that during operation of the gasifier drainage piping 24 and the issuance of the component 10 to the consumer, who had in the beginning of the operation of the device temperature0which cyclically cooled to a temperature T1and then quickly heated to a higher temperature T2. Periodic cooling and heating of the drain pipe 24 and truboprovodov on the value of linear expansionL. Here signdepending on the direction of change in temperature of the pipeline.Calculate the magnitude of the longitudinal displacement of the free end of the pipeline, provided that the other end thereof is fixed and the temperature of the walls varies in the range T1...T2. From  it is known expression for the temperature coefficient of linear expansion of solids at the temperature change:where- temperature coefficient of linear expansion of the material of the pipe, L is the length of the pipeline; T - temperature, K.It is known that the temperature coefficient of linear expansion of the material depends on the temperature T, that is,=(T). Then for the magnitude of thermal elongation (shortening)L pipeline will receiveFor structural steel 18CR10NITI used for the manufacture of cryogenic equipment, known, for example,  the dependence of the coefficient of linear thermal expansiontemperature in the range of 20....300 K. the Dependence given in table 1.P temperature t of steel 18CR10NITI with sufficient accuracy can be approximated by the expression106-0,0002T2+0,1201T-1,25, (3) where T is the absolute temperature steel 18CR10NITI.An approximate dependence of the coefficientfrom the temperature calculated by the formula (3) shown in the graph of Fig.5 solid line; selected points correspond to the values of the coefficienttaken from table 1.Substituting the expression ratiofrom the expression (3) in equation (2) and executing calculations, will provide estimates of the quantities of movement of the end of the drain pipe 24. The results of calculations of displacements for arbitrary values of the lengths L of steel pipes 18CR10NITI and temperatures of the wall are summarized in table 2. The sign in frontL reversed by heating the drainage pipe of length L in the same temperature range of T1to T2.Analysis of the data of table 2 it follows that: 1. Periodic flow of cryogenic fluid through a pipeline with one fixed end causes movement of the free end of the pipeline. The reason for the move is a fundamental property of the material of construction (in the aqueous end of the pipe, through which drained or is issued to the consumer cryogenic liquid, is measured in millimeters and sufficient to provide for the closure and opening of electrical contacts forming unit commands. For any cryogenic liquid and the specific design of the device specified amount of movementL, required for operation of the device, can be achieved by proper choice of the length L of the drainage pipe.3. The sign before the amount of movementL reversed when changing over of the extreme values of the interval in which to change the temperature of the pipeline.Before you begin gasifier pre-set the flow regulator 11 to the nominal rate of gas consumption by the consumer, and configure the blocks forming teams of 16 and 29 (49 and 46) at a particular temperature of operation T1depending on the cryogenic liquid.Configuring each block formation (Fig.2) 16 and 29 (49 and 46) is to install the beam 35 in a fixed position relative to the stationary frame 31. At the time of configuration blocks formation of cryogenic liquid in the gasifier missing the adjustment screw on the corner, define preliminary calculation. The control circuit electrical contacts of the switch being in electrical appliance, such as an ohmmeter, temporarily connected to the contacts KD or KB.Configuring the processing unit 29 teams.Let the length of the drain pipe 24 from the support 23 to the bracket 27 is L m, and the position of the frame 31 corresponds to the initial temperature T0where are the setting unit. Pre-calculation by formula (2) determine the amount of movementL24bracket 27 for temperature T0. ..T1. Here T1the temperature of the drain pipe 24 at the beginning of the course through him cryogenic liquid component. The angle of rotation of the adjusting screw is determined by the formula
= 360L24/s (4)
where- the angle of rotation of the screw 34, the angular degrees,
s - thread pitch of the adjusting screw 34, mmL24- estimated change in the length of the drain pipe 24, mmOpen the cover 36 forming unit 29 teams. By turning the adjusting screw 34 lead tra is mportant frame 31. The control circuit contacts KD are using, for example, temporarily plug-ohmmeter. Then, rotate the screw 34 in the opposite direction to the angle, push the yoke 35 with switch KD from the frame 31 by the value ofL24so while the future movement of the frame 31 from the action of temperature T1the frame is pressed on the stock switch KD. In the found position of the yoke 35 is fixed, the block is closed by a cover 36. In this setting the block 29 is completed.Configuring the processing unit 16 teams.Let the length of the drainage pipe 10 from the support 6 to the bracket 14 is L m, and the position of the frame 31 corresponds to the initial temperature T0where are the setting unit. Pre-calculation by formula (2) determine the amount of movementL10bracket 14 for the temperature T0. . . T1. Here T1- temperature pipe 10 when the current through the liquid cryogenic component. The angle of rotation of the adjusting screw unit 16 is determined by the formula
= 360L10/s (4)
where- the angle of rotation �//img.russianpatents.com/chr/916.gif">L10- estimated change in the length of the drainage pipe 10, mmConfiguring the processing unit 16 teams and other units 46 and 49 is the same setting unit 29 described above.The gasifier, cryogenic liquid from one vessel (see Fig.1) works as follows.In the initial position management system gasifier is included and is in one of two possible modes. For example, the selected mode 1 (refill) at which the vessel 9 is included in refilling of cryogenic fluid, and the pipe 10 dispensing liquid into the gasifier 12 is blocked. Open valves 5, 21, closed valves 7, 22.The outlet check valve 13 is connected to the backbone of the consumer, which has a pressure medium, is set by the program. In the initial position, the check valve 13 is closed by the pressure in the main line of the consumer.Pre-configure the controller 11 at a nominal rate of gas consumption by the consumer.When charging from a power source of cryogenic liquid in the vessel 9, for example liquid hydrogen begins cooling the walls of the vessel, followed by bubbling hydrogen-intensive evaporation. The resulting pairs out of the cryogenic vessel drain piping OK from the ambient air. The wall temperature of the drain pipe 24 is installed in the counter external heating ambient air and internal cooling moving in the pipe pairs cryogenic component. As filling of the cryogenic vessel of the cryogenic fluid, the temperature of the released vapors and pipeline 24 is gradually reduced. At the time of filling of the vessel 9 into the drain pipe 24 with pairs gets cryogenic liquid, which is more intensive than pairs lowers the temperature of the walls. It was established experimentally that the temperature of the wall of the drain pipe 24 at this moment decreases rapidly to a temperature T1exceeding the boiling point of the cryogenic fluid Ts only 10...20 degrees, and in the future remains unchanged. For liquid hydrogen at atmospheric pressure the boiling temperature Ts is equal to 20, 16, and the temperature of the wall of the drainage tube T1becomes equal to 30...40 K. however, due to the cooling pipe 24 its length is further reduced in the longitudinal direction, it causes movement of the bracket 27 with the link 28 and connected with the frame 31 of the processing unit 29 teams. Frame 31 will be shifted to the left, stretching the return spring 36, to the settlement in the signal will be transmitted to the system control device and will cause tilting in the opposite position of the trigger in the control system, which issues a command for closing the valves 5 and 21, as well as the opening 7 and 22, the device switches from mode 1 "charging" mode 2 "issue".After filling and closing the drain valve 21 of the liquid hydrogen from the drain pipe 24 relatively quickly, within a few seconds, evaporates due to the absence of thermal insulation and outer heat conducting ribs. The pipeline 24 begins to heat the surrounding air, and within 5-7 minutes, its temperature increases to a temperature T2that 20-40 degrees higher than the temperature T1(see Fig.4). Due to thermal expansion of the material of the end portion of the pipe 24 as its length increases, which causes movement of the bracket 27 and connected to it through the connection 28 of the frame 31 to the right, thus opens the switch contact KD, and the block 29 will be ready for the beginning of the next mode 1. Thus, the use of a mechanical connection drainage pipe cryogenic tanks with switch control system gasifier allows simply and reliably, without the use of internal controls liquid level to perform the completeness of the filling capacity of the cryogenic fluid and automatic PE is that time is drained from the vessel 9 to the evaporator 12. This increases the pressure in the evaporator 12 to work, the check valve 13 opens, allowing the vaporized component to flow to the consumer. As emptying of the vessel 9, the temperature of the pipe 10 is reduced to some minimum value of T110... 20 K higher than the temperature of the component when the pressure in the vessel 9, i.e., T1=30...40 K. This will cause a linear reduction in the length of the pipeline 10 and the movement of the bracket 14, and also connected with him by ties of 15 frames block formation 16, which causes the closure of the electric contacts of the switch KB. At this command, the control system begins to monitor the status of the closed switch KV. After emptying the cryogenic liquid vessel 9 component ceases to flow in the pipe 10 and the temperature of the pipeline 10 begins to rise due to heat exchange with the ambient air due to the presence of thermally conductive fins on its surface. This causes a lengthening of the pipeline 10, the movement of the bracket 14 to the right and break the electrical contacts of the switch KV. After receiving this signal, the control system issues a command for closing the valves 22 and 7 and the opening 5 and 21. The gasifier passes from mode 2 "output" mode 1 "Sapa the gasifier enables simple and reliable switching operation of the gasifier by means of electric signals.The gasifier has fulfilled the duty cycle of charging-discharging cryogenic liquid and returned to its original state.Further, during the operation of gasifier operating cycles repeat.Action gasifier with two vessels 9 and 37 (see Fig.6) is similar. The principle of operation of a control system similar to the gasifier with one vessel, however, for each of the two vessels modes 1 ("filling") and mode 2 ("emit") shifted in time. When one of the vessels, such as 9, is mode 1 - "refill" for vessel 37 is mode 2 - "issuance" of liquid in the evaporator 12.Control system gasifier with two vessels provides this logic switching tanks, which eliminates the simultaneous inclusion of the same modes on both tanks gasifier. This filled the vessel does not switch to the immediate issuance of the liquid in the evaporator, and open the drain valve is waiting for the completion of the issuance of the previous capacity.To stop the operation of the gasifier with one vessel 9 (Fig.1) it is enough to turn off the circuit breaker short circuit at the beginning of the cycle "refills". At this time, the vessel 9 does not already contain a cryogenic liquid, all electroneurography control system closes. Postanovka work gasifier with two vessels 9 and 37 (Fig.6) you must first prevent the filling of the next vessel by turning off the corresponding electroneurography in the control system and wait for emptying previously filled vessel. Then you can completely disable the control system, which will lead to the closure of all valves carburettor. The use of gasifier with two tanks provides continuous issuance of cryogenic liquid in the evaporator and evaporated gas to the consumer.Thus, the use of mechanical linkages cryogenic piping drainage and delivery component of the consumer switches of the automatic control system provides:
1. switching to the filling and draining of the cryogenic vessel of the gasifier in automatic mode without the use of special sensors the level of cryogenic liquid, and it is ensured irrespective of the kind and thermophysical properties of fluids;
2. the possibility of increasing the working pressure of the cryogenic vessel of the gasifier to the desired level of gas pressure at the consumer, because the automatic control system of the gasifier does not use devices whose operation depends on the pressure in the vessel;
3. improving the reliability of the gasifier, the gasification of cryogenic liquids of low density, such as liquid hydrogen, helium, because the control valve is used for a fundamental property of the material of construction to resize podeh chains of cryogenic pressure vessels also improves the reliability and fire safety gasifiers of hydrogen and oxygen due to avoid possible leakage component;
4. to simplify the design of the gasifier compared to the prototype, as it excludes the use of cryogenic high-pressure pump and gauge level gauge.Sources of information
1. Okonski I. S. and others. Processes and devices of oxygen and cryogenic production. M., Engineering. 1985.2. Physical quantities. Directory./ Edited by I. S. Grigoriev, E. H. Malikova. M, Energoatomizdat. 1991.3. Novitsky L. A., N. Kozhevnikov.G. Properties of materials at low temperatures. M., Engineering. 1975.
1. The gasifier, cryogenic fluid, primarily liquid hydrogen containing vessel for cryogenic liquid pipelines filling cryogenic liquid, drainage and its delivery to the evaporator shut-off bodies on them, characterized in that the locking bodies are made in the form of valves with remote control, while the gasifier is equipped with automatic control system shut-off valves, pipelines, drainage and dispensing liquid from a container made of rigid and fixed, with the possibility of linear movement of vacant parcels when the temperature changes, and mentioned lots of oedipoda refills, drainage and delivery of cryogenic fluid from the cryogenic vessel.2. The gasifier under item 1, characterized in that it comes with a second vessel for cryogenic liquid pipelines filling, drainage and delivery of cryogenic fluid with stop valves on them, connected to the automatic control system, and the piping of the drainage and delivery of cryogenic liquid from a container made of rigid and fixed, with the possibility of linear movement of their free sites changing their temperature, and each segment is connected by a mechanical link with the appropriate switch of the automatic control system shut-off valves on pipelines filling, drainage and delivery of cryogenic fluid from the second vessel, and pipelines refills and delivery of cryogenic fluid from the second vessel connected respectively with pipes refills and delivery of cryogenic fluid to the evaporator from the first vessel, pipelines pressurization of both vessels with shut-off valves connected to the outlet of the evaporator.3. The gasifier under item 1 or 2, characterized in that the mechanical connection is made flexible.4. The gasifier under item 1 or 2, characterized in that the outer powerbrake.5. The gasifier under item 1 or 2, characterized in that the inlet of the cryogenic liquid in the evaporator is installed a flow regulator.
FIELD: storage and gasification of liquefied gases.
SUBSTANCE: gasifier comprises tank-storage connected with the evaporating system through the cutoff valve and pipeline for liquid phase. The evaporating system is provided with tubular evaporators and heater. The evaporators located at the outlet of the evaporating system are interconnected via the other cutoff valve mounted in the pipeline whose one end is connected with the gas pipeline and the other one with the consumer pipeline system.
EFFECT: simplified structure and reduced power consumption.
FIELD: storing or distributing of gas or liquids.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises filling the underground storage with liquefied natural gas, storing the gas, and supplying the gas to the consumer maintaining an excess pressure inside the storage. The reserve underground storage is positioned in the vicinity of the consumer. The gas evaporated from the storage is directed to the consumer through an additional gasifier.
EFFECT: reduced heat influx to the storage.
1 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: heat engineering.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus comprises heater composed of fire pipe and burner and evaporator provided with branch pipe for supplying liquefied hydrocarbon gas and branch pipe for discharging vapor. The evaporator is made of a pressure-tight unit that receives heating pipes, and the heater is provided with water space. The heating pipes of the evaporator are connected with the water space of the heater through the supplying and discharging pipes of circulation pump. The water space of the heater receives flame pipes connected with the fire pipe through the duct for flue gases.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability and efficiency.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: natural gas industry; methods of utilization of the cold of the liquid natural gas regasification.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the technology of realization of the process of the liquid natural gas regasification. The regasification of the liquid natural gas is exercised at the expense of usage in the capacity of the external heat-carrier the water, which as a result of the heat-exchange with the liquid natural gas is exposed to congealing. The liquid natural gas is fed into the first heat-exchange apparatus till congelation in it of the larger part of the water, then the liquid natural gas is fed into the second heat-exchange apparatus. After removal of the non- frozen water the formed ice is extracted from the heat-exchange apparatus or thawed and the formed water is withdrawn. Usage of the invention allows to realize the development of the commercially effective method of utilization of the cold of the regasification of the liquid natural gas at preservation of the acceptable mass-size parameters of the heat-exchange equipment.
EFFECT: the invention allows to realize the development of the commercially effective method of utilization of the cold of the regasification of the liquid natural gas.
SUBSTANCE: present invention pertains to heat technology and can be used in cryogenics for evaporating gaseous media in liquid state, in rocket and space technology and in the national economy, for example, for gasification of condensed gases and their mixtures. The cryogenic liquid evaporator has case 1, made in form of double-layer cylindrical casings 2, 3, forming circular cavity 4, for passing through a heating heat-carrier. Each of casings 2, 3, consists of two cylinders, rigidly joined together, between which channels 5, are formed, joined into collectors 6, 7 for inlet and collectors 10, 11 for outlet of cryogenic product. At the inlet of the circular cavity 4, there is cover 14, on which are fitted mixing elements 15 and auxiliary device 18. At the outlet there is gas inlet 21.
EFFECT: wider functional capabilities of the evaporator and improvement of its technical characteristics.
6 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: cryogenic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to cryogenic engineering, namely to devices of pumping and filling liquid nitrogen into vessels. The proposed device for liquid nitrogen pouring from Dewar's flask contains filling tube, heat exchanger-evaporator. Heat exchanger-evaporator covers one end of filling tube going to Dewar's flask with calibrated gap. At the end of heat exchanger-evaporator there is gas pipe with gap coaxial to filling pipe. At the part of gas pipe, which is located in Dewar's flask gas cavity, there are holes for gas output. The holes connect the gap between these coaxial pipes and gas cavity. The device is equipped with the cap that seals Dewar's flask neck. Between filling and gas pipes to the cap there is a plate. It seals the gap between pipes and prevents gaseous nitrogen penetration higher than the plate. Part of coaxial pipes above the said plate goes through the cap, pipes free end is equipped with coaxial insulation pipe. Cavity between all pipes is sealed, filling pipe free end goes to filling vessel. Heat exchanger-evaporator is located in heat isolation housing. The device has a handle that presses the cap towards Dewar's flask neck.
EFFECT: invention helps to simplify the device, decrease its size and weight.
FIELD: heating systems.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to cryogenic equipment, and namely to cryogenic liquid evaporators, and can be used in gasification plants. Cryogenic liquid evaporator includes housing with cryogenic liquid supplying assembly and cooling agent output assembly and heat exchange assembly made in the form of a tube bank, inter-tube space of which includes dump packing. In addition, heat exchange assembly is equipped with gas distributing grid located in lower part of tube bank and having the shape of flattened cone installed with smaller base upwards. Dump packing is located on gas distributing grid.
EFFECT: use of invention will allow more efficient use of thermal and physical properties of heat exchange assembly of cryogenic liquid evaporator owing to arrangement of dump packing with section having constant resistance, and creating conditions of uniform distribution and passing of warm gas vapours through the head piece.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: cryogenic liquid evaporator includes a housing with cooling agent inlet and outlet chambers, heat exchange elements containing a liquid cooling agent chamber and a central tube equipped with an ejector. Cooling agent inlet and outlet chambers are divided with a partition wall with a hole, heat exchange elements are installed in the partition wall and interconnected with the central tube; the central tube is installed into the hole made in the partition wall with a gap, and the ejector has an insert that controls gaseous cooling agent from liquid cooling agent chambers. Cryogenic liquid evaporator is equipped with a recuperator. Evaporator allows increasing cooling agent use efficiency due to repeated use of cooling agent and arrangement of two-stepped cooling of working substance.
EFFECT: absence of any additional heat source for evaporation of liquid cooling agent and absence in the design of massive heat exchange head pieces additionally increases evaporator operating efficiency and reduces hydraulic resistance of an evaporator.
1 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: proposed system comprises buried tank 1 with liquefied hydrocarbon gas equipped with automatic control and safety system 9, pipeline of liquefied gas vapor phase composed of internal gas discharge pipe 2, buried gate valve 3 to shutoff soil evaporator in repair, steam superheating pipeline 4 composed of helical horizontal pipeline arranged under the depth of seasonal soil frost penetration, box-type gas control station 5 and low-pressure regulator 6 accommodated therein. Note here that said station 5 is equipped with low-pressure vapor phase gas line.
EFFECT: ruled out formation of liquefied hydrocarbon gas hydrates in pressure regulator orifices.
4 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat engineering and can be used for evaporation of media that are in a liquid state. The invention proposes a cryogenic liquid heating method consisting in passage of liquid through heat exchange elements with heat supply to them. A cryogenic liquid evaporator housing is made in the form of at least two two-layered covers, internal and external ones, so that an annular cavity for passage of heating heat carrier is formed. Each cover is made so that it consists of two shells rigidly attached to each other, between which channels for passage of a cryogenic component are formed, and which are combined into headers. Cryogenic liquid is supplied to an inner cavity of the internal cover from the header and discharged through a connection pipe installed in the central part of the internal cover. Cryogenic liquid is supplied to the inner cavity of the external cover from the header located on a convergent part of the external cover; at that, it is supplied so that filled channels are uniformly alternated with empty ones; with that, cryogenic liquid is passed through the whole cover; then, it is turned in the initial part of the cylindrical cover and returned to an outlet header located in the convergent part through the rest part of the channels.
EFFECT: simpler design, smaller dimensions and lower weight.
5 cl, 4 dwg