Method and apparatus for producing synthesis gas
The invention relates to a process for production of synthesis gas, in particular to a method and device. Method for production of synthesis gas steam reforming of hot hydrocarbons in the heated tubular reactor in the presence of catalyst on the carrier, made in the form of a thin layer on the wall of the tubular reactor, with the subsequent removal of the synthesis gas. When this reaction is carried out in the presence of a catalyst, made on the inner wall of the tubular reactor, an external wall which is subjected to heating. Described as a device for teaching a synthesis gas containing a heated tubular reactor with the catalyst on the carrier, made in the form of a thin layer on the wall of the tubular reactor, the reactor has an input for the hot synthesis gas of hydrocarbons and an output for outputting a synthesis gas due to the fact that the catalyst is made in the form of a thin layer on the inner wall of the tubular reactor, the external wall of which is made with the possibility of heating. The invention provides more efficient heat transfer. 2 C. and 8 C.p. f-crystals, 4 Il., table 2. Description text in facsimile form (see graphic part).
Formula izobreteniya reactor in the presence of catalyst on the carrier, made in the form of a thin layer on the wall of the tubular reactor, with the subsequent removal of a synthesis gas, wherein the reaction is carried out in the presence of a catalyst, made on the inner wall of the tubular reactor, an external wall which is subjected to heating.2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the hot hydrocarbon feedstock is a product obtained by indirect heat exchange with flue gases in the presence of reforming catalyst, made in the form of a thin layer on the inner wall of the heat exchanger.3. The method according to p. 2, characterized in that the additional amount of hot hydrocarbon is added to the product of indirect heat exchange.4. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the gas obtained by the reforming step, is subjected to additional stages of reforming in the presence of a fixed catalyst layer.5. Apparatus for producing synthesis gas containing heated tubular reactor with the catalyst on the carrier, made in the form of a thin layer on the wall of the tubular reactor, the reactor has an input for the hot hydrocarbon and an output for outputting a synthesis gas, wherein the catalyst is made in the form of a thin layer of the device under item 5, characterized in that the outlet of the tubular reactor is in communication with the additional reforming apparatus fixed bed reforming catalyst located in it.7. The device under item 5, characterized in that it contains an indirect heat exchanger of the type having a catalyst made in the form of a thin layer on the inner wall of the heat exchanger.8. The device according to p. 7, wherein the indirect heat exchanger of the type constructed in the form of a pre-heated spiral.9. The device according to PP.7-8, characterized in that the output of the indirect type heat exchanger connected to the input of the tubular reactor.10. The device according to p. 9, characterized in that the output of the indirect type heat exchanger provided with a line for supplying additional quantities of hydrocarbons.
FIELD: hydrocarbon conversion catalysts.
SUBSTANCE: catalyst for generation of synthesis gas via catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons is a complex composite composed of ceramic matrix and, dispersed throughout the matrix, coarse particles of a material and their aggregates in amounts from 0.5 to 70% by weight. Catalyst comprises system of parallel and/or crossing channels. Dispersed material is selected from rare-earth and transition metal oxides, and mixtures thereof, metals and alloys thereof, period 4 metal carbides, and mixtures thereof, which differ from the matrix in what concerns both composition and structure. Preparation procedure comprises providing homogenous mass containing caking-able ceramic matrix material and material to be dispersed, appropriately shaping the mass, and heat treatment. Material to be dispersed are powders containing metallic aluminum. Homogenous mass is used for impregnation of fibrous and/or woven materials forming on caking system of parallel and/or perpendicularly crossing channels. Before heat treatment, shaped mass is preliminarily treated under hydrothermal conditions.
EFFECT: increased resistance of catalyst to thermal impacts with sufficiently high specific surface and activity retained.
4 cl, 1 tbl, 8 ex
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method includes searching for continental or oceanic rift generation zones, supported by abnormal mantle with output of substance branches to earth crust. Drilling of wells by turbodrills into mantle substance. After well enters mantle substance a reaction hollow is formed in it by putting together force and product wells or by expanding force and/or product wells. Water is pumped into force well and gas-like hydrogen is outputted to surface through product well forming during reaction of inter-metallic substances fro mantle substance to water. Water is fed in amount, adjusting output of hydrogen, while reaction surface of reaction hollow is periodically regenerated, for example, by high pressure water flow, supplied through jets in reaction hollow, on remotely controlled manipulators. Expansion of well may be performed via explosions of explosive substances charges, and it is possible to separate forming gaseous hydrogen and water steam by separator mounted therein.
EFFECT: higher effectiveness of hydrogen production.
FIELD: alternative fuel production and catalysts.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to (i) generation of synthesis gas useful in large-scale chemical processes via catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons in presence of oxygen-containing components and to (ii) catalysts used in this process. Catalyst represents composite including mixed oxide, simple oxide, transition element and/or precious element, carrier composed of alumina-based ceramic matrix, and a material consisting of coarse particles or aggregates of particles dispersed throughout the matrix. Catalyst has system of parallel and/or crossing channels. Catalyst preparation method and synthesis gas generation method utilizing indicated catalyst are as well described.
EFFECT: enabled preparation of cellular-structure catalyst with high specific surface area, which is effective at small contact times in reaction of selective catalytic oxidation of hydrocarbons.
6 cl, 2 tbl, 16 ex
FIELD: autothermal catalytic reforming of hydrocarbon feed stream.
SUBSTANCE: method relates to method for reforming of hydrocarbon feed stream with water steam at elevated temperature to produce gas enriched with hydrogen and/or carbon oxide. Hydrocarbon stream is passed through water steam reforming catalyst bed wherein oxygen is fed through oxygen-permeable membrane followed by removing of finished product from this bed. Said catalyst bed contains in input region catalyst with reduced or without water steam reforming activity, but having hydrocarbon feed oxidation activity.
EFFECT: process with improved characteristics due to temperature controlling in reactor.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: alternate fuel manufacture catalysts.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to generation of synthesis gas employed in large-scale chemical processes such as synthesis of ammonia, methanol, higher alcohols and aldehydes, in Fischer-Tropsch process, and the like, as reducing gas in ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy, metalworking, and on gas emission detoxification plants. Synthesis gas is obtained via catalytic conversion of mixture containing hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon mixture and oxygen-containing component. Catalyst is a complex composite containing mixed oxide, simple oxide, transition and/or precious element. Catalyst comprises metal-based carrier representing either layered ceramics-metal material containing nonporous or low-porosity oxide coating, ratio of thickness of metallic base to that of above-mentioned oxide coating ranging from 10:1 to 1:5, or ceramics-metal material containing nonporous or low-porosity oxide coating and high-porosity oxide layer, ratio of thickness of metallic base to that of nonporous or low-porosity oxide coating ranging from 10:1 to 1:5 and ratio of metallic base thickness to that of high-porosity oxide layer from 1:10 to 1:5. Catalyst is prepared by applying active components onto carrier followed by drying and calcination.
EFFECT: increased heat resistance and efficiency of catalyst at short contact thereof with reaction mixture.
13 cl, 2 tbl, 17 ex
FIELD: electric power and chemical industries; methods of production of the electric power and liquid synthetic fuel.
SUBSTANCE: the invention presents a combined method of production of the electric power and liquid synthetic fuel with use of the gas turbine and steam-gaseous installations and is dealt with the field of electric power and chemical industries. The method provides for the partial oxidation of hydrocarbon fuel in a stream of the compressed air taken from the high-pressure compressor of the gas turbine installation with its consequent additional compression, production of a synthesis gas, its cooling and ecological purification, feeding of the produced synthesis gas in a single-pass reactor of a synthesis of a liquid synthetic fuel with the partial transformation of the synthesis gas into a liquid fuel. The power gas left in the reactor of synthesis of liquid synthetic fuel is removed into the combustion chamber of the gas-turbine installation. At that the degree of conversion of the synthesis gas is chosen from the condition of maintenance of the working medium temperature at the inlet of the gas turbine depending on the type of the gas-turbine installation used for production of the electric power, and the consequent additional compression of the air taken from the high-pressure compressor of the gas-turbine installation is realized with the help of the gas-expansion machine powered by a power gas heated at the expense of the synthesis gas cooling before the reactor of synthesis. The invention allows simultaneously produce electric power and synthetic liquid fuels.
EFFECT: the invention ensures simultaneous production of electric power and synthetic liquid fuels.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: petrochemical industry.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with petrochemical industry, in particular with a method of catalytic preliminary reforming of the hydrocarbon raw materials containing higher hydrocarbons. The method provides for the indicated hydrocarbon raw materials gating through a zone of a catalyst representing a fixed layer containing a noble metal on magnesia oxide (MgO) and-or spinel oxide (MgAl2O4) at presence of oxygen and water steam. The technical result is a decrease of a carbon share on the catalyst.
EFFECT: the invention allows to decrease a carbon share on the catalyst.
3 cl, 2 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: technology for production of methanol from syngas.
SUBSTANCE: claimed method includes mixing of hydrocarbon raw material with water steam to provide syngas by steam conversion of hydrocarbon raw material and subsequent methanol synthesis therefrom. Conversion of hydrocarbon raw material and methanol synthesis are carried out under the same pressure from 4.0 to 12.0 MPa. In one embodiment hydrocarbon raw material is mixed with water steam and carbon dioxide to provide syngas by steam/carbonic acid conversion of hydrocarbon raw material in radial-helical reactor followed by methanol synthesis therefrom under the same pressure (from 4.0 to 12.0 MPa). In each embodiment methanol synthesis is carried out in isothermal catalytic radial-helical reactor using fine-grained catalyst with grain size of 1-5 mm. Methanol synthesis is preferably carried out in two steps with or without syngas circulation followed by feeding gas from the first or second step into gasmain or power plant.
EFFECT: simplified method due to process optimization.
12 cl, 3 tbl, 3 dwg
FIELD: methods of production a synthesis gas.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the process of production of hydrogen and carbon oxide, which mixture is used to be called a synthesis gas, by a selective catalytic oxidation of the hydrocarbonaceous (organic) raw material in presence of the oxygen-containing gases. The method of production of the synthesis gas includes a contacting with a catalyst at a gas hourly volumetric speed equal to 10000-10000000 h-1, a mixture containing organic raw material and oxygen or an oxygen-containing gas in amounts ensuring the ratio of oxygen and carbon of no less than 0.3. At that the process is conducted at a linear speed of the gas mixture of no less than 2.2 · 10-11 · (T1 + 273)4 / (500-T2) nanometer / s, where: T1 - a maximum temperature of the catalyst, T2 - a temperature of the gas mixture fed to the contacting. The linear speed of the gas mixture is, preferably, in the interval of 0.2-7 m\s. The temperature of the gas mixture fed to the contacting is within the interval of 100-450°C. The maximum temperature of the catalyst is within the interval of 650-1500°C. The technical effect is a safe realization of the process.
EFFECT: the invention ensures a safe realization of the process.
10 cl, 5 ex
FIELD: chemical industry; petrochemical industry; oil refining industry and other industries; methods of production a synthesis gas.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of the methods of production of a synthesis of gas and may be used in chemical, petrochemical, oil refining and other industries. The method of production of synthesis gas using a vapor or a vapor-carbon dioxide conversion of a hydrocarbonaceous raw material provides for purification of the hydrocarbonaceous raw material from sulfuric compounds, its commixing with steam or with steam and carbon dioxide with formation of a steam-gas mixture. The catalytic conversion of the steam-gas mixture is conducted in a reactor of a radially-spiral type, in which in the ring-shaped space filled with a nickel catalyst with a size of granules of 0.2-7 mm there are the hollow spiral-shaped walls forming the spiral-shaped channels having a constant cross section for conveyance of a stream of the steam-gaseous blend in an axial or in a radially-spiral direction. At that into the cavities of the walls feed a heat-transfer agent to supply a heat into the zone of reaction. The invention ensures intensification the process.
EFFECT: invention ensures intensification the process.
4 cl, 4 dwg, 2 tbl, 3 ex