A method of manufacturing design and design for ventilation of hydrogen gas, the electrochemical bath

 

The invention relates to a structure for venting gaseous hydrogen and the method of its manufacture. Design for ventilation of hydrogen gas contains at least two metal layers, the first metal layer 1 is exposed to hydrogen embrittlement, is connected with the second metal layer 2, resistant to hydrogen embrittlement, and the grid 4 for the formation of channels for ventilation 5 between the first 1 and second 2 metal layers and grid, and the grid is located between the said first 1 and second 2 metal layers and connected with them. Data the method and the device allow to obtain a robust design for ventilation of hydrogen gas. 4 C. and 14 C.p. f-crystals, 3 ill.

The present invention relates to a structure for venting gaseous hydrogen and method for its production. More specifically, the invention relates to a structure containing at least first and second metal layers are connected together, and a grid connected to these layers, between which it is located. In design, containing the grid, there are channels for ventilation between the grid and layers, thereby preventing the formation of hydrogen useresponse in structures in contact with hydrogen, are sensitive to hydrogen, such as used in an electrochemical bath to obtain alkali metal chlorate. To overcome this problem have been proposed various solutions.

In U.S. patent 3992279 described electrode Assembly containing an anode based on Ti, the cathode material based on iron and an intermediate layer made of silver or gold between the anode and cathode. In the electrolytic bath, for example, to obtain sodium chlorate from sodium chloride, part of the adsorbed atomic hydrogen produced in the cathode reaction at the cathode begins to diffuse from the cathode through the electrode set towards sensitive to hydrogen to the anode, i.e., the layer of titanium. The intermediate layer of the electrode, creating a barrier for hydrogen, which blocks the passage of hydrogen, thus, creates protection for sensitive to hydrogen anode. In SA 914610 also described a set of electrolytic baths with multi-monopolar bath containing the design of the cathode - intermediate layer - anode.

However, in U.S. patent 3992279 atomic hydrogen recombinases in gaseous hydrogen in the border zone, i.e. at the junction between the cathode and the intermediate layer. This can privest the hydrated layer of the electrode set as a result of high pressure, what could cause it to split.

In U.S. patent 4116807 shows one concept of how it can be prevented the formation of hydrogen bubbles. It describes a method of connection by using connection to the explosion of sinilnikova anode and cathode, which are based anode and the cathode, the metal strips of conductors, resulting in the formation of an air cavity between stylename, which in turn allows the release of gaseous hydrogen. Join explosion or the explosion welding, for example, have been known for a long time to connect and hardening of metal structures. This is described, for example, in the article, Gonzalez, A. and others "explosion welding of a composite sheet of aluminum and aluminum alloys" (7th international conference on high energy intensity, 14-18 September 1981, pp. 199-207), which describes that the design of aluminum reinforced with steel mesh. Joint technology explosion is also described in U.S. patent 3137937.

These sets, which are described in U.S. patent 4116807, however, difficult and difficult to produce United explosion stelnicki in connection with the difficulties uniform energy distribution on the surface on which the premises is of lenicov. Another disadvantage of this type of designs is that the connecting surface between the strips and stylename, which is not ventilated, must be large enough to provide sufficient strength and good electrical contact. In addition, only these types of structures of the electrodes can be applied for multi - monopolar electrolyzers and lines of cells, i.e. cells in which stelnicki placed between cells.

The above problems are solved in the present invention, as defined in the attached claims.

The invention relates to a method of ventilation of hydrogen gas, comprising the compound of the first metal layer, sensitive to hydrogen embrittlement, with the second metal layer and the grid. The first layer is connected with the second layer and the specified grid, forming channels for ventilation, which may be ventilation of hydrogen, is combined with the first and second metal layers, between which it is located.

The invention also relates to a method for manufacturing a structure containing at least two metal layers, by connecting the first metal is th layer connected with the second metal layer, and the specified grid connected to the first and second metal layers, between which it is located.

Accordingly, the first metal layer is selected from Fe, steel, Ti, Zr, Nb, TA, or other valve metals or their alloys. The thickness of the first metal layer, respectively, ranges from about 1 to about 20 mm, preferably from about 1 to about 15 mm

Accordingly, the second metal layer is selected from Fe, steel, Ni, Cr, W or their alloys, preferably of iron, steel, Ni or their alloys. The thickness of the second metal layer, respectively, ranges from about 2 to about 30 mm, preferably from about 5 to about 20 mm

The connection layers, respectively, is performed by connecting the explosion, rolling, fastening bolts or the like. Preferably the connection is used by the explosion.

In accordance with one preferred design of the invention relates to a method for venting gaseous hydrogen containing compound of the first metal layer is exposed to hydrogen embrittlement, with the second and third metal layers and grid. The first layer is connected with the third layer, the third layer is connected with the second sloaa, connects to the specified second and third metal layers, between which it is located.

In accordance with the same design of the invention also relates to a method for manufacturing a structure containing at least three metal layers by connecting the first metal layer is exposed to hydrogen embrittlement, with the second and third metal layers and grid. The first metal layer connected to the third metal layer, the third metal layer connected with the second metal layer, and the specified grid is connected with the second and third metal layers, between which it is located. The connection of the third layer, respectively, produced by the methods of the compounds described above.

At least three metal layers may be joined together in any order. For example, the first metal layer may first be connected with the third metal layer, then the third layer may be connected with the second metal layer, while the grid is connected with the second and third layers, between which it is located. Can be applied in reverse order. The combination of three layers respectively made visiowave, preferably from Hell, Fe. The thickness of the third layer, respectively, ranges from about 0.2 to about 10 mm, preferably from about 0.4 to about 5 mm

Accordingly, the ratio of thicknesses between the second layer and the third layer is from about 100 to about 0.1, preferably from about 50 to about 5.

In accordance with a variant of this preferred design of the invention, the fourth layer connected to the third and first metal layers between which it is located. The connection of the fourth layer, respectively, produced by the connection methods described above. The thickness of the fourth layer, respectively, ranges from about 0.2 to about 10 mm, preferably from about 0.4 to about 5 mm, Respectively, the fourth metal layer is selected from Hell, si, Al, or alloys thereof, preferably from Hell.

In General understood that the term "grid" includes any grid or network, or the design type of the grid, for example foraminous sheet, sieve, sieve, grate or grid of thread or wire. Mesh respectively is selected from plastics, ceramics or the like, for example, Fe, steel, Hastelloy, C, Ad, or their alloys, preferably of iron or steel. Overstate mesh can be from about 0.5 to about 10 mm, preferably from about 1 to about 5 mm, the thickness of the mesh, respectively, ranges from about 0.1 to about 5 mm, preferably from about 0.1 to about 1 mm

The connection of the grid may be performed in various ways. Accordingly, the grid is connected through a connection explosion, rolling, fastening bolts or the like. Preferably, the connection is used by the explosion.

The invention further relates to a structure containing at least two of the metal layer; the first metal layer is exposed to hydrogen embrittlement, which is connected with the second metal layer, and a grid, forming channels for ventilation between the first and second metal layers connected with these first and second metal layers, between which it is located. The design can be designed in such a way as described above.

Through the channels for ventilation can be passing gaseous hydrogen obtained by recombination of hydrogen atoms which have diffundiruet in design through the second metal layer. Channels for ventilation to prevent hydrogen bubbles at the boundary surfaces between the second and even lead to separation of the connection between the metal layers. Channels for ventilation, educated appropriately, have a diameter of from about 0.01 µm to about 1000 microns, preferably from about 0.1 μm to about 10 μm. In addition, the term "channel" includes pores, grooves, channels, or other passages.

Additional characteristics of the metal layers and grid structures respectively include sizes and designs, as described above.

The invention, furthermore, relates to a structure manufactured by the method described above.

In accordance with one preferred design, the design also includes a third metal layer, which connects with the specified first and second metal layers, between which it is located. The grid in this design connects with the second and third metal layers, between which it is located.

In accordance with one variant of the preferred embodiment are the first, third and second metal layers to form the anode, the intermediate protective layer and the cathode, respectively, thus creating a bipolar electrode or the like. Respectively formed channels have a diameter from about 1 μm to about 100 μm.

entilini metals or their alloys, preferably from Ti. The second layer, i.e., the cathode having resistance to hydrogen, respectively, is selected from Fe, steel, Cr, Ni or their alloys, preferably of steel. The third layer, i.e., the intermediate layer having resistance to hydrogen, respectively, is selected from Hell, si, A1, or their alloys, preferably from Hell. The thickness of the first layer, respectively, ranges from about 2 to about 20 mm, preferably from about 5 to about 15 mm, the Thickness of the second layer, respectively, ranges from about 2 to about 30 mm, preferably from about 5 to about 20 mm, the Thickness of the third layer, respectively, ranges from about 0.2 to about 10 mm, preferably from about 0.4 to about 5 mm

Accordingly, the permeability of hydrogen in the second layer is higher than in the third layer. Preferably, the ratio between the permeability of hydrogen in the second layer and the third layer ranged from about 103up to about 109.

Accordingly, the ratio of thicknesses between the third layer and the mesh is from about 2 to about 20, preferably from about 4 to about 10.

In accordance with a variant of this preferred embodiment are, in particular, when the third metallifere to prevent hydrogen embrittlement of the first layer. The fourth metal layer is connected with the third and first metal layers between which it is located. The fourth metal layer respectively is selected from Hell, si, A1, or their alloys, preferably from Hell. The thickness of the fourth layer, respectively, ranges from about 0.2 to about 10 mm, preferably from about 0.4 to about 5 mm

The bipolar electrode is particularly suitable for processes involving the production of hydrogen, for example, when you get a chlorate of an alkali metal, in such a way? it is used when connecting at least three metal layers and mesh, as described above. In bipolar electrolytic baths several sets of bipolar electrodes are usually connected electrically in series within a single mailbox baths. In order to get a low ohmic losses and uniform current distribution on the electrodes, anodes and cathodes in the adjoining cells are connected "back to back" through the back plate. On one side of the back plate is mounted anode corresponding to the first metal layer, providing the electrons move due to the anodic reaction, for example, chlorine, occurring at the anode, when the electrode is used in electrolyses side of the back plate is mounted cathode, corresponds to the second metal layer, which provides the transfer of electrons as a consequence of the formation of hydrogen (H2) at the cathode.

Recoil pad connects the anode plate and the cathode plate is electrically and mechanically. The hydrogen atoms adsorbed at the cathode, are formed when the cathode is formed of hydrogen. The majority of the formed hydrogen atoms recombinases for the formation of gaseous hydrogen. However, a small portion of adsorbed hydrogen atoms diffuses inside the cathode.

In conventional bipolar electrode containing a cathode, the back plate and the anode, not reconstituted hydrogen atoms can diffuse through the cathode, respectively, made of Fe, towards the back plate. Recoil pad prevents further diffusion of the majority of hydrogen atoms through the back plate to the anode, sensitive to hydrogen, which often is made of Ti. On a boundary surface between the cathode and the recoil atoms of hydrogen can reunite on the structural defects and thus begins the formation of hydrogen, which in turn can lead to the formation of hydrogen bubbles.

Bipolar electrode according to the present invention is effetto, mesh and protective intermediate layer formed channels for ventilation, thus preventing the occurrence of hydrogen bubbles.

The invention also relates to an electrochemical bath containing the electrode described above. Electrochemical bath may be bipolar electrolyzer multi monopolar electrolyzer or the like.

The invention also relates to the use of electrochemical baths described above, to obtain a chlorate of an alkali metal, hydroxide of alkali metal hypochlorite or the like.

In accordance with another preferred design design grid is connected with the first and second metal layers of the structure, between which it is located, as described above. Seamed construction in accordance with this design by placing it in a hydrogen environment with a relatively low concentration can effectively protect the first layer from hydrogen embrittlement, as well as to provide ventilation of the formed gaseous hydrogen in the border zone between the first and second metal layers. The first metal layer, which is sensitive to hydrogen by the metal, which is resistant to hydrogen, respectively is selected from Fe, steel, Ni, Cr or their alloys, preferably of steel. The thickness of the first layer, respectively, ranges from about 1 to about 20 mm, preferably from about 1 to about 10 mm. Thickness of the second layer, respectively, ranges from about 2 to about 20 mm, preferably from about 2 to about 15 mm, the Design is preferably used in moderately affecting hydrogen environment, for example to protect the cathode, the marine plants and the petrochemical industry.

A brief description of the drawings Fig. 1 depicts a side view in section of the construction in accordance with the invention.

Fig. 2 is a perspective view of one of the structural design, which shows a set of bipolar electrode placed in the electrolytic bath (the grid is not shown).

Fig. 3 is a side view according to Fig.2, which shows the diffusion of hydrogen in the cathode (mesh not shown).

Description of designs Refer to the drawings in which the reference number 8 in Fig.1 refers to the construction in accordance with the invention. The first metal layer 1 is connected with the third metal layer 3, which in turn is connected with the second metal is Fig.2 refers to a single set of bipolar electrodes, which should be placed in an electrochemical bath to obtain sodium chlorate, with the design in accordance with Fig.1. The anode 1 corresponds to the first metal layer. The cathode 2 corresponds to the second metal layer. From the shown design in Fig. 2 shows that part of the cathode (black) and anode (white) acts perpendicular to the structure design, as shown in Fig. 1. The third metal layer, in this case corresponding to the back plate, and the grid is not shown. These two parts are assembled, as shown in Fig.1.

Fig. 3 refers to the same set of bipolar electrodes, and Fig.2. The arrows 7 indicate the direction of diffusion of hydrogen atoms formed as an intermediate product at the cathode, resulting in the formation of gaseous hydrogen in the tub.

Obviously, the above option may be changed in various ways, as described in the invention. Such options should not be considered as beyond the nature and scope of the present invention, and all such modifications as would be obvious to a person skilled in this art are intended to be included in the scope of the claims. The following example more the Structural strength of the samples of the back plate, i.e. United steel (cathode), silver (intermediate layer) and titanium (anode) layers was measured before and after electrolysis to obtain sodium chlorate for the United explosion conventional electrodes without a grid and electrodes with a grid in accordance with Fig. 2 and 3. United by the explosion of the samples were selected from different areas of the back plate in order to investigate the influence of low-quality connection that was analyzed on small plots of ultrasonic analysis. A sample of the back plate had dimensions 0,h,h,030 m Tests were conducted on samples of the recoil pad in the electrolyzer for receiving chlorate with four sets. The electrolyte temperature was equal to 65oC and the current density through the recoil pad was 3-5 kA/m2.

All samples of conventional electrodes structural strength after 10 days of electrolysis was lower than 1 MPa.

In samples with a grid, remained an initial strength of about 190 MPa after 10 days of the test cell under the same conditions as for conventional electrodes with recoil pad.

The results showed that stelnicki with a grid, creating channels for ventilation, not subject to the formation of hydrogen bubbles on the otopleniya design for ventilation of hydrogen gas, containing at least two metal layers, which connect the first metal layer (1) subject to hydrogen embrittlement, with the second metal layer (2), resistant to hydrogen embrittlement, and the grid (4) to form a ventilation channel (5) between the first-mentioned (1) and second (2) metal layers and the said grid through which may be passed through hydrogen gas, and the grid (4) is attached between the first (1) and second (2) metal layers.

2. The method according to p. 1, in which between the first (1) and second (2) metal layers additionally placed third (3) a metal layer and connect with them, mentioned the grid (4) is placed between the second (2) and third (3) metal layers and connect with them.

3. The method according to any of the preceding paragraphs, in which the first metal layer (1) made of iron, steel, Ti, Zr, Nb, TA or their alloys.

4. The method according to any of the preceding paragraphs, in which the mesh (4) are made of Fe, Ag, Ni, Hastelloy or their alloys as well as plastics or ceramics.

5. The method according to any of the preceding paragraphs, in which use the net (4) hole size from about 0.5 - 10 mm

6. The method according to any of the preceding paragraphs, in the cat the rum grid (4) is attached by means of explosion, rolling or attach bolts.

8. The method according to p. 2, in which between the first (1st) and third (3) metal layers additionally include a fourth metal layer and connect with them.

9. Design (8) for venting gaseous hydrogen produced by the method according to any of the preceding paragraphs.

10. Design (8) for venting gaseous hydrogen, containing at least two metal layers, the first metal layer (1) subject to hydrogen embrittlement, is connected with the second metal layer (2), resistant to hydrogen embrittlement, and the grid (4) for the formation of channels for ventilation (5) between the first-mentioned (1) and second (2) metal layers and the said grid, and a grid located between the first-mentioned (1) and second (2) metal layers and connected with them.

11. Design (8) for venting gaseous hydrogen under item 10, in which between the first (1) and second (2) metal layers is a third metal layer (3) and connected with them, as mentioned grid (4) is located between the second (2) and third (3) metal layers and connected with them.

12. Design (8) for venting gaseous hydrogen under item 11, in which between the third (3) and the first is La ventilation of hydrogen gas according to any one of paragraphs.10-12, in which are formed channels (5) have a diameter of from about 0.01 to 1000 microns.

14. Design (8) for ventilation of hydrogen gas according to any one of paragraphs.10-13, in which the first metal layer (1) made of Ti, Zr, Nb, TA or their alloys.

15. Design (8) for venting gaseous hydrogen under item 11, in which the first (1), third (3) and second (2) layers form the anode, the intermediate layer and the cathode, forming a bipolar electrode.

16. Design (8) for venting gaseous hydrogen under item 11, in which the permeability of hydrogen in the third layer (3) is lower than that of the second layer (2).

17. Electrochemical bath, which contains an electrode according to any one of paragraphs.15-16.

18. Electrochemical bath under item 17, which is adapted to receive alkali metal chlorate, alkali metal hydroxide or hypochlorite.

 

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SUBSTANCE: catalyst for generation of synthesis gas via catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons is a complex composite composed of ceramic matrix and, dispersed throughout the matrix, coarse particles of a material and their aggregates in amounts from 0.5 to 70% by weight. Catalyst comprises system of parallel and/or crossing channels. Dispersed material is selected from rare-earth and transition metal oxides, and mixtures thereof, metals and alloys thereof, period 4 metal carbides, and mixtures thereof, which differ from the matrix in what concerns both composition and structure. Preparation procedure comprises providing homogenous mass containing caking-able ceramic matrix material and material to be dispersed, appropriately shaping the mass, and heat treatment. Material to be dispersed are powders containing metallic aluminum. Homogenous mass is used for impregnation of fibrous and/or woven materials forming on caking system of parallel and/or perpendicularly crossing channels. Before heat treatment, shaped mass is preliminarily treated under hydrothermal conditions.

EFFECT: increased resistance of catalyst to thermal impacts with sufficiently high specific surface and activity retained.

4 cl, 1 tbl, 8 ex

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