The respiration sensor bakusou l. m.

 

The invention relates to medical equipment, namely, devices of the control of respiration parameters in norm and pathology, and can be used, for example, for monitoring the current functional condition in intensive surveillance, and monitoring of a human operator, for example, during a space flight. The technical result of the invention is to reduce the cost and simplify while improving the accuracy and reliability due to the introduction of elements that allows to exclude from the design of any moving mechanical parts, and the effect simulating the pyroelectric effect in conventional piezoelectric materials, not having pyroelectric properties, as well as by increasing the amplitude of the output voltage. The sensor includes a sensing element is connected through the electrical contacts with the Registrar. The sensing element is a thin plate of a piezoelectric material deposited on the surface of metal electrodes, at least one of the electrodes is made in the form of a deposited thin film, and electrodes made of dissimilar electrically conductive materials with different coefficients of thermal races which have different coefficients of thermal expansion, inflicted on each other. The surface of the plate of piezoelectric material is chosen smaller than the area of the electrodes and the interelectrode space, free from the plate of a piezoelectric material, a semiconductor wafer in contact with the electrodes, the thickness of which is equal to the plate thickness of the piezoelectric layer. In the semiconductor wafer can be performed varicap. Plate of a piezoelectric material is piezoresonator, and the Registrar contains a generator, castorocauda the inputs of which are the inputs of the recorder, and frequency, the input connected to the output of the generator. During operation, the sensing element is positioned so that he was in the flow of exhaled air away from the patient. 4 C.p. f-crystals, 6 ill.

The invention relates to medical equipment, namely, devices of the control of respiration parameters in norm and pathology and can be used, for example, for monitoring the current functional condition in intensive surveillance, and monitoring of a human operator, for example, during a space flight.

A device for measuring the frequency of breathing, containing a force sensor with an elastic strap having fastening nastroyennogo in the form of two lobes trapezoidal shape, between the elastic strap and the base of the buckle posted by the force sensor, and the anglebetween the plane of the bore of the guide and the plane of the base sensor strength isarctgK, where K - the coefficient of friction between the elastic strap and PTFE guide [1].

The disadvantages of the known devices are low operational capabilities due to the bulkiness of the device, and the necessity of placing it on the patient around the chest, which is possible in a very limited number of cases, which leads to low functionality of the known device and limits the scope of its application.

Known the breath sensor containing sensitive element mounted in the housing and connected through electrical contacts with the Registrar, and the sensing element made in the form of a rod made of a polymer exhibiting a shape memory effect, coated with a metallic coating, and the part from a material with high electric resistance is made semicircular and is in contact with the end of the sensing element [2].

The disadvantages of the known ustroistvakh parts, which, in addition, the electrical contacts. In addition, the device has a small resource due to high Flexural displacements of the polymer rod and the rapid accumulation therein of mechanical stresses.

The closest in technical essence is a device for the study of respiration parameters, containing the sensing element is connected through the electrical contacts with the Registrar. In addition, the sensitive element is made in the form of a hollow with holes in the ends of the truncated cone of the polarized ferroelectric material, with the outer and inner sides of which are arranged electrodes coated with a layer of insulating material and an amplifier, whose input is connected to the electrodes of the sensing element, and an amplifier output connected to the input of the Registrar [3].

The known device has a high sensitivity due to the use of the pyroelectric effect in ferroelectrics, however, the disadvantages are its high cost applied pyroelectric materials and the complexity of the technological process of performing a pyroelectric sensing element is of complex shape.

The aim of the invention is sigelement, allows to exclude from the design of any moving mechanical parts, and the effect simulating the pyroelectric effect, in the conventional piezoelectric materials, not having pyroelectric properties, as well as increasing the amplitude of the output voltage.

To achieve this goal in the known device for the study of respiration parameters, containing the sensing element is connected through the electrical contacts with the Registrar optionally, the sensing element is a thin plate of a piezoelectric material such as piezoelectric ceramics, coated with metal electrodes. In addition, at least one of the electrodes is made in the form of a deposited thin film. In addition, electrodes made of dissimilar materials with different coefficients of thermal expansion. In addition, the plate of a piezoelectric material consists of two or more thin layers of heterogeneous piezoelectric having different coefficients of thermal expansion inflicted on each other. In addition, the plate area of the piezoelectric layer is smaller than the area of the electrodes and the interelectrode space, free from the plate of piezoelectric, is a plate of semiconductor, provodnikov plate made varicap. In addition, the plate of a piezoelectric material is piezoresonator, and the Registrar contains a generator, CustomNode the inputs of which are the inputs of the recorder, and frequency, the input connected to the output of the generator.

In Fig.1 shows a diagram of the breath sensor in the case of electrodes made of the same material, and process of measurement of respiration parameters.

In Fig. 2 shows a diagram of the strain sensitive element of the sensor during heating.

In Fig. 3 shows a diagram of the measurement functions of the respiratory system sensor, the electrodes of the sensing element which is made from various materials.

In Fig.4 shows graphs of the variation of the temperatures of the electrodes and plates in accordance with the schedule changes slowed down the air pressure in the breathing process.

In Fig.5 shows a diagram of the breath sensor with piezoresonator.

In Fig.6 shows a diagram of the breath sensor with variola.

The respiration sensor (Fig. 1) contains the sensing element 1 containing thin film electrode 2 and the second solid or thin-film electrode 3, between which is a thin plate 4 having piezoelectric properties and is made, for example, piezoelectric; reglement 6. The electrodes 2 and 3 of the sensor can be of the same thickness, size and configuration and are made of different electrically conductive materials with different coefficiente thermal expansion (Fig.3). The sensing element 1 of the sensor in these cases, in General, can be a plate area of from several tens cm2up to 1 mm2.

In the case where the piezoelectric layer 4 of the sensing element 1 is piezoresonator, (Fig.5) for example, made from a slice of single crystal rock crystal, electrodes 2 and 3 can be made from the same electrically conductive material (Fig.1), and heterogeneous materials (Fig.3). In this case, the Registrar 5 contains the indicator element 6, which is the frequency, and the electron generator 7 high-frequency oscillations, the inputs castshadow contour which are the inputs of the recorder 5 and connected to the electrodes 2 and 3, the sensing element 1, and the output of the generator 7 is connected to the input of the frequency counter 6. The area of the sensitive element 1 in this case is determined by the self-resonant frequency of the quartz plate, is used as the piezoelectric layer 4.

The respiration sensor (Fig.6) may be sensitive element 1, the soda is I. introduction he piezoelectric layer 4, the area of which is smaller than the area of each of the electrodes 2 and 3; the rest of the interelectrode space is a semiconductor layer 8, which is formed varicap; Registrar 5 sensor in this case also contains the indicator element 6, which used customer, and the generator 7 high-frequency oscillations similar to the breath sensor in Fig.5.

The respiration sensor operates as follows.

The sensing element 1 of the sensor is positioned so (Fig.1) that he was in the flow of exhaled air away from the patient. If the electrodes 2 and 3, the sensing element 1 is made of a homogeneous electrically conductive material, the sensing element 1 is positioned so that the electrode 2 made in the form of a thin film located at the side of the patient, preferably so that its surface was located in the direction close to the normal relative to the direction of flow of the air exhaled by the patient. When exhaling a stream of heat that enters the sensor element 1 from the side of the thin film electrode 2, heats it, and the sensor element 1, and therefore due to the difference of coefficients of thermal expansion of the electrode 2 and the piezoelectric layer of the NTA 1 heat flux, and the electrode 2 on the side of the patient, film, and the electrode 3 on the opposite surface of the piezoelectric element 4 is insulated from the electrode layer 2 of the piezoelectric layer 4, is the micro-deformation of the sensing element 1 (Fig.2). This microdeformation converted piezoelectric plate 4 in the electrical charge on the electrodes 2 and 3 of the sensing element, which is fed to the input of the recorder 5, and is displayed by the display element 6, as the latter can be used, for example, a digital oscilloscope.

At the same time on the oscilloscope recorded the voltage pulse parameters (amplitude, shape, duration) depend on the parameters and the dynamics of output, which allows for constant distance to the patient and the appropriate calibration to assess the functional status of the respiratory system. After the end of the exhale and the inhale is the cooling of the electrode 2 and the return of the element 1 in the original straight condition, resulting in the electrodes 2, 3 formed charge and on the oscilloscope recorded the voltage pulse of the opposite polarity, carrying information about the breath. The amplitude of these pulses can reach values of the order of hundreds milleporina oscilloscope, analogue or digital voltmeter or recorder.

Thanks to the thin-film electrode 2 and the piezoelectric plate 4 in the form of a thin layer of thickness less than 0.1 mm, the heating and cooling them is for a short time, significantly less respiratory cycle. As a result, the inertia sensing element 1 is small and practically does not affect the registration accuracy of breathing process.

In case the electrodes 2 and 3 are symmetric in the form of identical thin films, but made of different electrically conductive materials with different coefficients of thermal expansion, the orientation of the sensing element 1 relative to the flow of heat can be arbitrary (Fig.3), but fixed in the monitoring process. In this case, the electrodes 2 and 3 function as parallel bimetallic element. Some time after the beginning of the work (depending on the thickness of the electrodes 2 and 3 and plate 4) temperature of the piezoelectric layer 4 takes the steady-state value (Fig.4), and the deformation of the sensing element 1 begins to be determined practically by the difference of coefficients of thermal expansion of the electrodes 2 and 3. In the comparable values teploprovodnosti small manage to get almost instantaneous sensing element 1. When turning the sensitive element 3, the plane of the electrodes 2 and 3 is normal with respect to the flow of heat one of the electrodes (2 or 3) in the side of the patient, a respiration sensor works similarly to the execution of the electrodes of the same material.

When performing a wafer of a piezoelectric material 4 in the form of piezoresonator, such as single crystal rock crystal, thermal deformation of the sensing element 1 will lead to a proportional frequency shifts of its own Electromechanical resonance of the sensing element 1. In this case, the recorder 5 may contain the generator 7 high-frequency oscillations (about 30 MHz), the input castotnozawisimaya contour which are the inputs of the recorder 5. However, in accordance with the change of frequency of its own Electromechanical resonance will change the frequency of the generated oscillations. This frequency deviation that accurately reflect the process of respiration can be measured and indicated by the frequency used as the indicator 6, or the oscilloscope according to the method of the beating.

When the piezoelectric plate 4 of the breath sensor is made together with the plate 8 polozhenii such a sensitive element 1 in the heat flux in Fig.1 or Fig.3 when performing the electrodes 2 and 3 are homogeneous or heterogeneous, the charge generated by the deformable piezoelectric plate 4, induces a voltage across the electrodes 2 and 3, which is in accordance with the nature of its change alters the capacitance formed in the plate 8 varicap. The capacitance change of varicap 8 causes a corresponding deviation of the frequency generator 7, since the capacity of varicap included in CustomNode the oscillator circuit 7. This frequency deviation reflects the parameters of the breathing process of the patient and fixed indicator element 6, which can be used customer.

The invention compared with the known analogues, including the prototype has the following benefits: - significant simplicity and low cost due to the widespread use of high-tech materials, low cost, in particular, piezoelectric ceramics, and the absence of any moving mechanical connections, performing the additional items offered by the United way; - high accuracy measurement of breath and a high degree of teachers, enabling contactless monitoring of respiration at a distance of 0.5 meters from the patient, due to liricheskih sensors, the costs are several orders of magnitude greater than the cost of the proposed sensor; - high reliability due to non-contact and the absence of moving mechanical parts; - significant values of the output voltages, without additional amplification; - the possibility of high variability, the configuration and dimensions of the sensing element, which allows to extend the scope of its application.

Sources of information 1. RF patent N 2013996, MKI6AND 61 IN 5/08, 1994.

2. USSR author's certificate, 1725830, MKI6AND 61 IN 5/08, 1992.

3. USSR author's certificate, 731957, MKI6AND 61 IN 5/08, 1980.

Claims

1. The respiration sensor containing the sensing element is connected through the electrical contacts with the Registrar, characterized in that the sensing element is a thin plate of a piezoelectric material deposited on the surface of metal electrodes, at least one of the electrodes is made in the form of a deposited thin film, and electrodes made of dissimilar electrically conductive materials with different coefficients of thermal expansion.

2. The sensor of the breath, p. 1, characterized in that plastificante thermal expansion, inflicted on each other.

3. The sensor of the breath, PP.1 and 2, characterized in that the plate area of the piezoelectric layer is smaller than the area of the electrodes and the interelectrode space, free from the plate of a piezoelectric material, is the semiconductor wafer in contact with the electrodes, the thickness of which is equal to the plate thickness of the piezoelectric layer.

4. The sensor of the breath, PP.1-3, characterized in that the semiconductor wafer is executed varicap.

5. The sensor of the breath, PP.1-4, characterized in that the plate of a piezoelectric material is piezoresonator, and the Registrar contains a generator, castorocauda the inputs of which are the inputs of the recorder, and frequency, the input connected to the output of the generator.

 

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