Method of recording and processing plethysmogram for measuring parameters of the cardiovascular system and device for its implementation
The invention relates to medicine, namely to the measurement of parameters of cardiac vascular system. The method includes the formation of a measured signal, amplification and filtering, and processing of the measured signal and output the results of the measurement. To signal processing are forming bipolar rectangular signal and reference pulses, the correlation of their durations, while processing a measured signal to carry digital filter packs of the signal pulses, registration and calculation of parameters of the cardiovascular system. Realizing the way the device comprises a peripheral part, performed at the initial driver of the measured signal associated with a power amplification and filtering, and basic electronic system, executed on a processor associated with the port I / o and display device. Peripheral part contains the unit stabilize the voltage measuring-generator bipolar rectangular measured and the reference pulses and the block of electro-optical control, through which the power amplification and filtering associated with the meter generator bipolar rectangular pulses, is connected with port I / o, which through the power of a hundred is Tracie and a block of electro-optical control. The invention allows for a significant reduction of the energy consumption and cost, improving reliability, noise immunity, accuracy and repeatability of measurements. 2 S. and 9 C.p. f-crystals, 1 Il. The invention relates to the field of medical electronics and devices with built-in test devices cardiovascular human activities, including household appliances widespread use.It is well known that in Russia and several other countries, diseases of the cardiovascular system take precedence over the others and have a high mortality rate, causing about 50% of deaths.In this case, one of the major health problems is the detection of abnormal functioning of the cardiovascular system at an early stage of heart disease.Many known devices and methods of measurement of parameters of the cardiovascular system (CVS) and, in particular, the variability of the heart rate (WBU).To date, however, no known device that is affordable to the General population and allows to quickly and with the necessary degree of informativeness and reliability to obtain information about the parameters of the CCC. When solving this problem, a special the x electronic systems, containing as constituent parts of the processor or microprocessor and display device information, and allows measurement of parameters of physiological processes in the human body.The rapid development of computer technology, followed by the introduction in everyday use of powerful personal computers (PC) and a variety of microprocessors, have not touched upon in this aspect of the use of these systems as control over the person's health on a broad social level.The present invention aims at eliminating the above-mentioned space and the improvement of prototype solutions.The ECG is a dimension of the electric field caused by the electrical activity of the heart, and the field is measured by electrodes placed on the skin. The change caused by the stress field of the electrodes in time, is called the electrocardiogram. Plethysmography is called the dimension of increased blood volume during compression of the heart. The change in blood volume over time is called plethysmography. The most simple method plethysmography combined is photoplethysmography (PPG), in which the light is directed to a certain area kovanye cells. Light emitted by the skin, is measured by a photodetector. The output signal shows oscillations of heart rate due to changes in blood volume in the tissue, which are at the beating heart. Another type plethysmography combined is seismoelectromagnetic (LNG), in which changes in blood volume registered by the piezosensor.Prototype solutions described in US Pat. No 3.980.075, US Pat. No 5.397.774, US Pat. No 5.423.322 and US Pat. No 5.632.272. However, none of these patents is not the purpose of establishing a direct connection between the measuring device and the external blocks PC. Closest to the present invention is the invention described in US Pat. No 5.876.351 and US Pat. No 5.862.805.In US Pat. No 5.876.351 Autonomous device for measuring electrocardiogram based on video games NINTENDO GAMEBOY. Use this game to measure electrocardiograms becomes possible through the use of a cassette that contains all the necessary electronic components and computer programs. With its relatively high cost ($ 50 for the game and $ 125 per cartridge), the device does not provide a high level of diagnostic capabilities without replacing the cartridge, as well as the ability to store and aggregate obtained is the impossibility of removing the electrocardiogram computer or compatible devices (systems) without special measures, providing reliable electrical safety. Indeed, when the ECG necessary electrical contact between the patient and the measuring device, and the latter is connected to the signal input of the computer. Between the measuring device and the computer has a galvanic connection, so the patient may suffer from electric voltage. To avoid possible electric shock in the measuring device is inserted optoelectronic isolation, and the power supply is separate from a safe source. This increases the cost of the measuring device. When the electrocardiogram is a need for special measures of protection from interference, because the information-carrying signal may have a magnitude in a fraction of a millivolt. A significant drawback (for home use) this method is the necessity of preparation of the patient for the measurement. This training includes the fixation of the electrodes on the skin prior to application of the conductive lubricants required to obtain improved electrical contact between skin and electrodes.Method PPG is free from the above shortcomings, because it does not require electrical contact between the patient and at. 5.862.805 the described device and method of measuring the variability of the parameters of the CAS by using the method of Fig. The device includes a number of expensive electronic functional blocks: a modulator, a demodulator, an analog-to-digital Converter (ADC) and a processor for processing the measured signal. Communication with external devices PC is not provided. However, these device and method is closest to the present invention by special attributes.The present invention differs significantly in many features from the prototype. A significant difference is the ability to enforce the present invention device with peripheral devices used in computers or other electronic systems to input and output information: mouse and keyboard. The present invention extends the functionality of the latter. In accordance with the present invention a device for measuring the parameters of the CAS can be integrated into the case mentioned peripheral devices. Moreover, the power devices can be accessed from the linear port of a PC or other processor systems, which are used simultaneously for submission to the PC (or the processor is Tania). However, linear PC ports have hard capacity limits, so in the corresponding present invention device does not have the electronic components and blocks having significant power consumption. First of all, these are the main power consumers in prototype devices are the modulator, demodulator, ADC, blocks of information storage and special purpose processors. Along with substantial consumption of power, these functional blocks are of relatively high cost and reduce the reliability of the device.The above-mentioned disadvantages of prototyping solutions dramatically limit their scope and do not allow to solve the problem of providing for the General population (and, first of all, users of computers and mobile phones, as well as owners of private and company cars) devices, affordable, and provides for the timely and reliable information about the parameters of the MTS and proactive guidance (from the applicable device) to prevent the development of diseases or pre-emptive decisions from the user about the line of the future behavior: an urgent appeal to the doctor, failure and so on.The main task, which is aimed by the invention is a significant reduction of the energy consumption and cost, improving reliability and noise immunity, accuracy and repeatability of measurement devices for the recording and processing parameters of the cardiovascular system (CVS) of a person using the method plethysmography combined (GHG) emissions, in comparison with the known prototype solutions.Objects of the invention are apparatus and method, the combined use of which solves the problem.Unlike most similar analogue (US Pat. No 5.862.805), which has an Autonomous power supply and processing of the measured signal by a separate functional blocks, including a modulator, a demodulator, ADC, CPU, and does not provide for communication with external devices basic electronic system (BAS) that contains the processor and display device information, in the invention, the processing and information display of the measured signals is carried out using the corresponding structural elements specified BAS (processor and display device information), available at the (unit "meter-generator"), directly connected to the input port of the I / o signals BAS (e.g., a PC) and the power to any peripheral blocks of the device (PCU) of the claimed invention, directly available to consumers, is carried out from the port I / o signals referred to BAS through a mandatory unit of the voltage supply.The implementation of this concept to construct a device and method for measuring parameters of the MTS allows you to transfer functions to ensure the required electrical power, processing and visualization of signals at a sufficiently powerful BAS (e.g., a PC) and use due to this, when carrying out processes in PCU, "soft" electric modes, which greatly facilitates the task of providing high accuracy and repeatability of measurements, and can significantly reduce the cost PCU.The combination of distinctive features, providing technical result, in all cases subject to the requested objects of legal protection, are in addition to the above the following: - relaxation generator (WG) forms a bipolar rectangular pulses (in the block "meter-generator"), the imp who are supportive. The duration of the signal pulses is dependent on the voltage coming from the receiver. Control duration of these pulses is optoelectronic transistor pair. This approach identified the need to establish a junction DC between DC amplifier with high gain (used for amplification of the measured signal and having a gain up to 10,000) and the WG. This ensures that no spurious connection, which increases the stability (accuracy and repeatability of measurement results); - the characteristic feature of the present invention is an effective method for eliminating the influence of temperature, instability of supply voltage and other destabilizing factors - effective method of correlating the duration of the signal and reference pulses by means of software in the CPU part of the BAS (e.g., CPU). The pulses of these two species are generated RG-rum, so destabilizing disturbance (temperature, humidity, instability of supply voltages, and others) affect the duration of the signal and reference pulses to the same extent. Usually correlate in a wide di is cessor. In the invention, the processor part of the BAS receives both the signal and reference pulses, measures the duration and correlates them programmatically. The correlation value, and which is further processed corresponds to the signal pulse in the absence of the influence of all destabilizing factors; - to ensure high stability check of the measured signal in the present invention programmatically get the filtered sequence (low-pass filtering) packs of signal pulses, which (tutu) and then processed in the processor device BAS (e.g., a PC). For more accurate results process not single pulses and pulse packet. The essence of the proposed invention is a method of filtering (or smoothing): is a method of accumulating a specified number of recording points. In the beginning of the array is formed from this number registration. The first value is the measured value is the sum of all array elements. The following value is determined by adding to the sum of the following values to the registration point and simultaneously subtracting the first element of the array. Moreover, the new point value registers is issleduyuschimi ratios:S(2)=S(1)-M(1)+t(n+1) (5.2); t(n+1)M(1) (5.3); S(3)=S(2)-M(2)+t(n+2) (5.4); t(n+2)M(2) (5.5) and so forth,
where S(1) - the first value of the measured value;
i = 1n - order filter;
M(i) - array of accumulation points of registration;
S(2) - the second measured value;
t(n+1) - value of the measured quantity n plus first registration point;
t(n+1)(M(1) denotes the substitution of the first element of the array by the value of n plus first registration point;
S(3) - the third value of the measured value;
t(n+2) - value of the measured value n plus two point registration.The replacement of the elements of the array M(i) is carried out cyclically. After substitution of the last element of the array M(n) returns the first element of M(1). This method allows the smoothing of the signal without increasing the integration time, because regardless of n, the number of operations needed to obtain the measured value does not change and is always equal to three (subtraction, addition and substitution). This ensures the preservation of the resolution of the device in time, regardless of the order of the filter. Time quantization corresponds to the period sledgehammer pulses stored in the memory of the PC) low-pass filtering is performed practically without delay.In the particular case of the invention, when the BAS used a personal computer, for implementing the invention will require an IBM compatible computer with processor model 386 and free COM 1 or COM 2 port. The specifics of the operation of the variant of the invention with PCU embedded in a regular mouse PC and connected with the aforesaid port of the PC, is that the measurement process must take place in real time, which means that the program must not be interrupted by other programs, it is necessary to single-tasking mode of operation of the computer. With this PC software using the above high-performance filtering software, as well as conducting all operations of the proposed method in accordance with the block diagram of the sequence of operations in the flow diagram of the inventive device (see drawing) allow to produce with high precision and repeatability of measurement of parameters of CCC, expert analysis of the measurement results by issuing reports about the rhythm of cardiac contractions, archiving these results, various kinds of monitoring and transmitting measurement results to the diagnostic centers through the Internet and obtaining F the particular case of a basic electronic system, contains the processing unit, the block I / o and display device information, use the personal computer. The block diagram also illustrates the commitment and consistency greater part of the operations carried out when implementing the method in accordance with the claimed invention.The block diagram of the device according to the claimed invention 1 includes part of the basic structural elements of the electronic system 2, in particular the port I / o signals 2.1, the processor (or microprocessor) 2.2 and the display device information 2.3 (with other structural elements BAS 2 that, for each species BAS will be different, conventionally represented as 2.4, 2.5, 2.6) and the peripheral part of the device (PCU) 3, including the driver of the measured signal 3.1, amplifier and filters 3.2, unit of electro-optical control 3.3, the target shaper of the measured signal (meter-generator) 3.4 and stabilization unit supply voltage 3.5. In accordance with the above distinctive features in PCU 3 no ADC and an Autonomous power supply, the power of structural elements PCU 3 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4 is carried out from the port I / o signals 2.1. BAS 2 through the block stabilisaattorit element 2 BAS - port I / o signals 2.1.The authors of the invention in accordance with the block diagram presented in the figure, designed variant of the device with a built-in computer mouse company "Genius" PCU with an infrared radiation source with a wavelength of about 0.9 μm, which is connected to COM port 1 IBM compatible computer. The set of items includes a floppy disk with a specially developed program with the amount of information 60 Kbytes.E PCU made using modern discrete electronic components in the form of fees based on surface mount technology. The nomenclature of these components are optimized from the point of view of the scale of "price - quality". The design of the device utilized in the experimental production of specialized enterprises, St. Petersburg. To date, released several pilot batches of the specified devices that are offered to consumers under the title of "Doctor of mouse".In the case of the mouse device has the hole for the infrared radiation sensor. When measuring the arterial pulse of the opening indicated the patient covers the palm of the right hand, in particular the pad at the base of the decree of the measurements (in strict accordance with the attached manual) perform a health check on the product: plug in accordance with the drawing, the output PCU 3 stabilization unit supply voltage 3.5. port I / o signals 2.1. the personal computer 2, and the supply voltage12, stable block 3.5., acts in accordance with drawing on all structural elements PCU: primary shaper of the measured signal 3.1., the amplifier and filters 3.2., a block of electro-optical control 3.3. the meter generator 3.4.; carry the computer to boot the supplied products diskette, open the PC 2 section DRMOUS and run the program on the monitor screen 2.3. PC running as a virtual oscilloscope, the screen saver is displayed on computer pulsometrija and running line, which dramatically shifted up or down when you move the hand near the sensor primary shaper signal 3.1., next, close and slightly press the index finger of the right hand (with the skin temperature of the finger is not less than 28o(C) the surface area of the mouse, where there is a hole in which "drowned" sensor, and 6-8 on the monitor screen 2.3. a signal of pulse wave, using the keys of the horizontal and vertical movement is adjustable amplitude and location polysomatism curve, with a steady behavior of this curve user who hang PC F3 - The DIMENSION on the monitor screen of the PC 2 in slow motion will appear in the registration process of the pulse, in full accordance with the drawing out all operations of the proposed method: all structural elements PCU 3 in the absence of a standalone power source provided stable power supply through the power stabilization of the supply voltage 3.5. from the port I / o signals 2.1. PC 2, the primary measured signals are automatically withdrawn from the finger of the hand, formed by the photodetector primary shaper of the measured signal 3.1. in the form of signal pulses are amplified and filtered in 3.2., then through a block of electro-optical control 3.3. come to the meter generator 3.4., where are formed the main and supporting rectangular pulses of different polarity, the pulses of both species arrive through the port I / o signals 2.1. PC 2 CPU 2.2., where programmatically efficiently correlate the duration of the reference and signal pulses with the exception of the influence of destabilizing factors on the quality and magnitude of the measured signals, the processor 2.2. at the same time this is also programmatically filter packs signaling within 12-15 with oversees the registration process - during this period, the accumulation of the measurement results, then the user completes the measurement process by pressing F4 - display RESULTS on the screen of the monitor 2.3. see the results in tabulated form and further manipulation in the form of text recommendations and explanations for each option. The developed program allows you to back up the results, to perform various types of monitoring, data transfer (Internet) online DIAGNOSTICS CENTER with responses-recommendations of the specialists.Using the product "Dr. mouse and the proposed method to measure and calculate the following parameters:
- the presence of pauses and PVCs for a certain period of time;
- rhythm disturbances;
- the scope of cardiointervals;
stability and variability of heart rate.The shape analysis pulsogram allows you to define:
- the presence of dystonia (violation of vascular tone);
- disorders of the mitral and aortic valves;
- the weakening of the contractile function of the muscle of the left ventricle.It provides the following specifications:
Powered by COM port 1 - +12; -12
The time dimension path time, MS - 102
Clock frequency, kHz - 1
Comparison of prototypes device Doctor mouse" with the prototype shows that the power consumption is reduced in 3 times, the number of electronic components is reduced 2.5 times the cost of the product is reduced to 7-8 times. In particular, the cost of prototypes (floppy and modified mouse) is 40-45$. When the mass production of this cost will be reduced."Dr. Maus" good mates with option style PC note book, and the scope and range of users was significantly increased: with this product, users were able to control myself in different conditions: in the gym, on the road, transport and so onThese products for a long time been tested in a real environment, in St. Petersburg in a specially constructed for this purpose, paragraphs operational diagnostics and testing in pharmacies, sports centres, swimming pools. Just been tested more than 10,000 people. In all cases the products were characterized by high reliability, validity and accuracy of measurements. Currently the product "Dr. Maus" is successfully operated in the first INTERNET PHARMACIES, St. Petersburg, created by Apteekista invention device and method for actively monitored using medical subcontractors in terms of hospitals and other medical institutions, St. Petersburg for the purpose of monitoring the status of the CCC during medical treatment, monitoring of heart and blood vessels after data and design methods, the authors will present the necessary materials to obtain a certificate of Ministry of health of the Russian Federation.The authors conducted research that confirmed the ability to perform PCU on a single chip (the miniaturization of technical solutions) and subsequent embedding PCU in objects such as mobile phone, compact blocks of testing the physiological state of the drivers, digital camcorders and cameras, control devices, digital TVs, various biometric devices, including fingerprint type, and other products broad and special purpose.
1. Method of recording and processing parameters of the cardiovascular system of the person using the method plethysmography combined, including the formation of the measured signal, its amplification and filtering, and processing of the measured signal and output the results of the measurement, wherein prior to processing the measured signal are forming bipolar rectangular signal is sent to the steering signal to carry digital filter packs of the signal pulses, registration and calculation of parameters of the cardiovascular system.2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the digital filter packs of the signal pulses is performed by the method of accumulation of a specified number of recording points, which initially form an array of a specified number of recording points, with the first measured value is the sum of all array elements, and the following value of the measured value determined by adding to that amount the next value of the registration point and simultaneously subtracting the first element of the array with the new value of the registration point replaces the array item to subtract, the replacement of the elements of the array produce a loop back to the first element of the array.3. The device for recording and processing parameters of the cardiovascular system, containing peripheral part made on the shaper of the measured signal associated with a power amplification and filtering, and basic electronic system, executed on a processor associated with the port I / o and display device, characterized in that it contains in the peripheral part of the stabilization unit voltage measuring-generator bipolarii associated with the meter generator bipolar rectangular pulses, connected with port I / o, through which the stabilization unit supply voltage connected to the shaper measured signal power amplification and filtering unit and the electro-optical control.4. The device according to p. 3, characterized in that the peripheral part is integrated in the housing of a computer mouse or keyboard.5. The device according to p. 3, characterized in that the driver of the measured signal is performed on the source and the infrared receiver.6. The device according to p. 3, characterized in that it is made with the possibility of embedding in the case of the digital camera.7. The device according to p. 3, characterized in that it is made with the possibility of embedding in the case of a digital camera.8. The device according to p. 3, characterized in that it is made with the possibility of embedding in the body and the external blocks of digital TV.9. The device according to p. 3, characterized in that it is arranged to be embedded in the casing of a mobile phone.10. The device according to p. 3, characterized in that it is made with the possibility of embedding in the case of biometric devices.11. The device according to p. 3, characterized in that it is arranged to be embedded in the device for determining and
SUBSTANCE: method involves recording rheogram from feet and legs lifted and fixed at an angle of 45є. Then, rheogram is recorded on inhaling from legs directed vertically downward. Functional blood circulation reserve index is calculated as product of results of dividing and subtracting rheographic indices recorded under conditions of lifted and lowered extremities that means under conditions of functional venous system relief and venous hypertension, respectively.
EFFECT: enhanced effectiveness in recognizing patient group suffering from severe lower extremities ischemia.
FIELD: medicine; medical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method involves doing multi-channel recording of electroencephalogram and carrying out functional tests. Recording and storing rheoencephalograms is carried out additionally with multi-channel recording of electroencephalogram synchronously and in real time mode in carotid and vertebral arteries. Electroencephalograms and rheoencephalograms are visualized in single window with single time axis. Functional brain state is evaluated from synchronous changes of electroencephalograms, rheoencephalograms and electrocardiograms in response to functional test. The device has electrode unit 1 for recording bioelectric brain activity signals, electrode unit 2 for recording electric cardiac activity signals, current and potential electrode unit 3 for recording rheosignals, leads commutator 4, current rheosignal oscillator 5, synchronous rheosignal detector 6, multi-channel bioelectric brain activity signals amplifier 7, electrophysiological signal amplifier 8, demultiplexer 9, multi-channel rheosignal amplifier 10, multi-channel analog-to-digital converter 11, micro-computer 12 having galvanically isolated input/output port and personal computer 13 of standard configuration.
EFFECT: enhanced effectiveness of differential diagnosis-making.
11 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: medicine; medical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method involves irradiating blood-carrying tissue area under control with luminous flow, receiving scattered luminous flow modulated with blood filling changes in blood vessels and capillaries of blood-carrying tissue and forming electric signal of pulse wave. Deviation signal of light-emitting and light-receiving transducers of optoelectronic converter relative to blood-carrying tissue area under control based on difference between the current and preceding values of impedance signal on the area under control. The signal being observed, prohibition signal is produced on pulse wave electric signal passage for excluding errors caused by motion artifacts from its following processing. The device has optoelectronic converter having light-emitting and light-receiving transducers and unit for producing pulse wave signal, which input is connected to light-receiving transducer output. Unit for forming deviation signal has two measuring electrodes connected to separate comparator inputs which output being deviation signal former output, is connected to control input of key. Information input of the key is connected to pulse wave signal former output.
EFFECT: improved noise immunity.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: medicine; medical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method involves recording multichannel electroencephalogram, electrocardiogram record and carrying out functional test and computer analysis of electrophysiological signals synchronously with multichannel record of electroencephalogram and electrocardiogram in real time mode. Superslow brain activity is recorded, carotid and spinal artery pools rheoelectroencephalogram is recorded and photopletysmogram of fingers and/or toes is built and subelectrode resistance of electrodes for recording bioelectrical cerebral activity is measured. Physiological values of bioelectrical cerebral activity are calculated and visualized in integrated cardiac cycle time scale as absolute and relative values of alpha-activity, pathological slow wave activity in delta and theta wave bandwidth. Cerebral metabolism activity dynamics level values are calculated and visualized at constant potential level. Heart beat rate is determined from electrocardiogram, pulsating blood-filling of cerebral blood vessels are determined from rheological indices data. Peripheral blood vessel resistance level, peripheral blood vessel tonus are determined as peripheral photoplethysmogram pulsation amplitude, large blood vessel tonus is determined from pulse wave propagation time data beginning from Q-tooth signal of electrocardiogram to the beginning of systolic wave of peripheral photoplethysmogram. Postcapillary venular blood vessels tonus is determined from constant photoplethysmogram component. Functional brain state is determined from dynamic changes of physiological values before during and after the functional test. Device for evaluating functional brain state has in series connected multichannel analog-to-digital converter, microcomputer having galvanically isolated input/output ports and PC of standard configuration and electrode unit for reading bioelectric cerebral activity signals connected to multichannel bioelectric cerebral activity signals amplifier. Current and potential electrode unit for recording rheosignals, multichannel rheosignals amplifier, current rheosignals generator and synchronous rheosignals detector are available. The device additionally has two-frequency high precision current generator, master input of which is connected to microcomputer. The first output group is connected to working electrodes and the second one is connected to reference electrodes of electrode unit for reading bioelectrical cerebral activity signals. Lead switch is available with its first input group being connected to potential electrodes of current and potential electrodes unit for recording rheosignals. The second group of inputs is connected to outputs of current rheosignals oscillator. The first group of outputs is connected to current electrodes of current and potential electrodes unit for recording rheosignals. The second group of outputs is connected to inputs of synchronous detector of rheosignals. Demultiplexer input is connected to output of synchronous detector of rheosignals and its outputs are connected to multichannel rheosignals amplifier inputs. Outputs of multichannel bioelectrical cerebral activity signals amplifier, multichannel rheosignals amplifier and electrophysiological signal amplifier are connected to corresponding inputs of multichannel analog-to-digital converter. Microcomputer outputs are connected to control input of lead switch, control input of multichannel demultiplexer, control input of multichannel analog-to-digital converter and synchronization inputs of current rheosignals oscillator and synchronous detector of rheosignals. To measure subelectrode resistance, a signal from narrow bandwidth current generator of frequency f1 exceeding the upper frequency fup of signals under recording is supplied. A signal from narrow bandwidth current generator of frequency f2≠ f1>fup is supplied to reference electrode. Voltages are selected and measured at output of each amplifier with frequencies of f1, f2 - Uf1 and Uf2 using narrow bandwidth filtering. Subelectrode resistance of each working electrode is determined from formula Zj=Ujf1 :(Jf1xKj), where Zj is the subelectrode resistance of j-th electrode, Ujf1 is the voltage at output from j-th amplifier with frequency of f1, Kj is the amplification coefficient of the j-th amplifier. Subelectrode resistance of reference electrode is determined from formula ZA=Ujf2 :(Jf2xKj), where ZA is the subelectrode resistance of reference electrode, Ujf2 is the voltage at output from j-th amplifier with frequency of f2, Jf2 is the voltage of narrow bandwidth current oscillator with frequency of f2.
EFFECT: wide range of functional applications.
15 cl, 10 dwg
FIELD: medicine, surgery.
SUBSTANCE: one should evaluate clinical state of a patient and as objective parameters one should calculate rheological and brachio-malleolar indices, detect fractional tension of oxygen in capillary blood. At observing clinical improvement accompanied by increased rheological and brachio-malleolar indices by more than 0.1, increased blood saturation with oxygen by more than 10 mm mercury column one should state upon a "good" therapeutic effect. At detecting clinical improvement accompanied by the increase of either one or several objective parameters, or if dynamics of these values is not available - effect should be considered as a "satisfactory" one. At kept ischemic pain at rest without decrease of its intensity, impossibility to keep a limb in horizontal position for a long period of time, the absence of positive dynamics of trophic disorders, at kept ischemic edema and at no alterations in objective parameters - should be determined as "no dynamics". In case of enhanced ischemic pain and edema of foot, at progressing necrotic alterations in foot - one should detect "deterioration" of patient's state. The method increases the number of diagnostic means.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of evaluation.
1 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method involves recording peripheral differential upper extremity blood vessel rheogram and phonocardiogram in synchronous way. The second phonocardiogram beginning and the deepest rheogram points are detected. Pulse way propagation time reduction being found, arterial bloodstream tone growth conclusions are drawn.
EFFECT: high reliability of the results.
18 dwg, 3 tbl
FIELD: medicine, neurology.
SUBSTANCE: a patient should be in initial position when his/her sight is directed towards the ceiling and in 3-5 min it is necessary to register a background rheoencephalogram, then a patient should fix the sight at a pointer's tip being at the distance of about 30 cm against the bridge of nose along the middle line, then the sight should be directed into marginal position due to shifting pointer to the left. Then the sight should be returned into initial position and 3 min later it is necessary to register rheoencephalogram of vertebro-basilar circulation, calculate rheographic index (RI), coefficient for RI ratio on returning the sight from left-hand marginal position into initial one (k2) and at k2>1.098 from the left and (or) k2>1.085 from the right one should detect alteration in vertebro-basilar circulation by reflector mechanism. The method excludes biomechanical impact in stimulating proprioceptive receptors of muscular-ligamentous system under stretching.
EFFECT: higher accuracy and reliability of detection.
2 ex, 2 tbl
FIELD: medicine, resuscitation.
SUBSTANCE: one should detect cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), intracranial pressure (ICP), values for blood saturation with oxygen in radial artery and jugular vein bulb (SaO2, SjO2), additionally one should study lactate level in jugular vein bulb and radial artery, calculate venous-arterial difference according to lactate (▵lactate), cardiac ejection (CE) due to thermodilution and hemoglobin level. Values for cerebral oxygen transport function should be calculated by the following formulas: mĎO2 = 0.15 x CE x CaO2 x 10; mVO2 = 015 x CE x (CaO2 - CjO2) x 10; CaO2 = 1.3 x Hb x SaO2; CjO2 = 1.3 x Hb x SjO2. In case of noninvasive detection - due to pulsoxymetry one should measure peripheral saturation (SpO2), due to parainfrared spectroscopy - cerebral oxygenation (rSO2) and cardiac ejection due to tetrapolar rheovasography (CEr), detect and calculate the values of cerebral oxygen transport system according to the following formulas: mĎO2 = 0.15 x CEr x CaO2 x 10; mVO2 = 0.15 x CEr x (CaO2 - CjO2) x 10; CaO2 = 1.3 x Hb x SpO2; CjO2 = 1.3 x Hb x rSO2. At the value of mĎO2 86-186 ml/min and more, MVO2 33 - 73 ml/min, ▵lactate below 0.4 mM/l one should evaluate cerebral oxygen transport system to be normal and the absence of cerebral metabolic disorders. At mĎO2 values below 86 ml/min, mVO2 being 33-73 ml/minO2, ▵lactate below 0.4 mM/l one should state upon compensated cerebral oxygen transport system and the absence of metabolic disorders. At mĎO2 being below 86 ml/min, mVO2 below 33 mM/l, ▵lactate below 0.4 mM/l one should conclude upon cerebral oxygen transport system to be subcompensated at decreased metabolism. At the values of mĎO2 being 86-186 ml/min and more, MVO2 below 33 ml/min, ▵lactate below 0.4 mM/l one should establish subcompensated cerebral oxygen transport system at decreased metabolism. At values of lactate being above 0.4 mM/l and any values of mĎO2 and mVO2 one should point out the state of decompensation in cerebral oxygen transport system and its metabolism. The innovation enables to diagnose disorders and decrease the risk for the development of secondary complications.
EFFECT: higher efficiency and accuracy of evaluation.
1 cl, 3 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method involves setting a patient in vertical posture with stabilogram and rheoencephalogram being concurrently recorded with frontomastoid and accipitomastoid leads being used retaining head position with stressed neck extensor muscles state and head position with relaxed neck extensor muscles state. Stabilogram parameters characterizing vertical posture stability and rheographic index of each of four brain basins. When combining better filling of cerebral basins with blood and higher standing stability, training is carried out in keeping head positions allowing better filling of cerebral basins. If better filling of cerebral basins with blood follows with no increased standing stability, the trainings are carried out in keeping head position with stressed neck extensor muscles state. The training sessions are given twice a day for 15 min during two weeks.
EFFECT: enhanced effectiveness of treatment.
2 cl, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method involves determining pulsating arterial blood flow parameters. To do it, measuring electrodes are applied in main liver body mass location zone. Electrode-to-electrode distance is additionally measured and hepatic index is calculated from formula HI=ρ*L2*Ad*ET*HBR/Z2*1000*S, where HI is the hepatic index (l/min/m2), ρ is the constant reflecting volume blood resistance (150 Ohm cm), L is electrode-to-electrode distance (cm), Z is the base impedance (Ohm), Ad is the differential rheogram amplitude (Ohm/s), ET is blood expulsion time (s), HBR is heart beat rate per 1 min, S is the body surface (m2), 1000 is the coefficient for converting to liters. HI value being greater than 0.225 l/min/m2, porto-portal and/or porto-central hepatic fibrosis is diagnosed.
EFFECT: wide range of functional applications.