Apparatus for continuous dry chlorination of plutonium dioxide
The invention relates to nuclear energy, in particular to the production of plutonium metal and mixed uranium-plutonium oxide fuel. The inventive apparatus for continuous “dry” chlorine dioxide plutonium is made in the form of a horizontal tube, divided into three zones: load compartment 1, the heated reaction volume of compartment 2 and unloading 3. Zones can also be connected and separated by sealed valves 4, 5. Loading and unloading bays are separated from the atmosphere sealed by covers 6, 7. To move products inside the machine has 8 boats. The device is equipped with the evaporator 9 for feeding into the reaction volume of the vapor of carbon tetrachloride. The advantage of the invention lies in the fact that its use will significantly improve performance. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 3 ill. The invention relates to the field of nuclear energy, in particular the production of plutonium metal and mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX) fuel.From the published literature devices for dry chlorination, which can be taken as analogues known, for example, laboratory XLERATOR obtained for sky "study of the processes of chlorination of uranium dioxide and plutonium carbon tetrachloride". Proceedings of the second international conference on peaceful uses of atomic energy, Geneva, 1958. Reports of Soviet scientists, "Nuclear fuel and reactor materials", Atomizdat, page 285). This XLERATOR is a closed, horizontally positioned vessel, which put plutonium dioxide. The vessel is equipped with a tube for supplying a reagent in liquid form that is included inside of the vessel by about half its length and above the processed product. This feeding tube is connected to the tank for liquid carbon tetrachloride and provided with a valve to adjust the flow rate of the reagent. For removal of gaseous products provided by the other tube. To heat the vessel to the desired temperature is provided by a horizontal tube furnace. The disadvantage of this charator is the periodic nature of the work and low productivity.Known also XLERATOR continuous chlorination of plutonium dioxide with phosgene (A. N. Wolski, J. M. sterling "metallurgy of plutonium), Nauka, 1967, S. 145), which is a heated pipe with a slope of 4in the upper end of which serves plutonium dioxide (250-500 g/h), and the bottom serves stream of phosgene. The product inside the pipe prod and a temperature of 450-500With that allows you to use a metal pipe (for example, from an alloy Hastelloy). The disadvantages of this charator are:the use of phosgene, is extremely toxic and hazardous reagent;the possibility of driving a full section of pipe products of chlorination and termination of the promotion.The aim of the invention is to develop charator high performance for continuous dry chlorination of plutonium dioxide.This objective is achieved in that XLERATOR made in the form of a horizontal tube (see Fig. 1), is divided into three zones: load compartment 1, the heated reaction volume of compartment 2 and unloading 3. Zones can also be connected and separated by sealed valves 4 and 5, such as vacuum valves.Loading and unloading bays are separated from the atmosphere sealed openable lids 6 and 7.To move products inside charator provided by the boat 8. The device boats, loaded with product, shown in Fig. 2. The boat is a tank 1, an open top and provided with a double bottom, the upper bottom 2 is made of a porous gas-permeable material, and the lower bottom 3, as the rest of the boat is solid m is the inside pipe of the reaction volume. This device pumps can reduce the time required for chlorine dioxide plutonium. This is due to the nature of the movement of gaseous substances involved in the reaction of chlorination Rio2+CCl4ul3+CO2+1/2l2. Diffusion of gaseous reactant CCL4and gaseous products of reaction of CO2and CL2through the layer of powder is a factor in determining the rate of reaction, so the gas exchange with the two sides of the layer of powder can reduce the duration of the operation. The shape of the boat and the ratio of its size with the diameter of the host pipe does not allow the boat to tip over. The length of the reaction space can accommodate several boats (for example, 6 pieces), their number depends on the duration of chlorination and performance charator.The evaporator of carbon tetrachloride 9 is connected with the reaction volume of the compartment near the discharge 3 (Fig.1) and the bottom-up part of the line for the exhaust gas (EXHAUST gas) starts from the reaction volume vicinity of the load compartment 1. This inlet and outlet fittings conform to the principle of countercurrent flow of the reacting substances. Ascending part characterized by the capacitor 4 and the separator 5. After the separator neskondensirovannyh EXHAUST gas undergo further cleaning, and line 6 for draining the condensate passes into the evaporator 7 and ends near its bottom (below the level of liquid reagent), here on line 8 takes the spent reagent (carbon tetrachloride). The boiling point of carbon tetrachloride in the evaporator 7 supports the heater 9.List of drawings graphicsFig.1 is a schematic representation of apparatus for continuous dry chlorination of plutonium dioxide (oven, the device opening, closing valves and lids, a device for transferring boats, pipes to change the atmosphere in the compartments 1 and 3 not shown).Fig.2. - cross section of the reaction volume and boats with the product.Fig.3 - diagram of the recycling of carbon tetrachloride.XLERATOR works as follows. The apparatus is prepared for operation, is installed in the boot compartment of the boat, which is loaded plutonium dioxide (1 kg). Closing the lid 6, replacing the atmosphere in the compartment 1 on the inert and opening the valve 4, propel the boat in the reaction volume 2, preheated to operating temperature again close the valve 4 and begin filing tetrachloride vapor ugley gas, then connect the reaction volume with the boot compartment and push the loaded boat in the reaction volume.Through a number of cycles for the installation and promotion of boats to the discharge compartment ideal first boat ready trichloride plutonium boat with the product promoted in the discharge compartment, using the method of sluicing, similar to locking when loading, remove the boat from charator that are discharged into the container, and then load dioxide plutonium and again served in the loading slot.Next, the process goes with regular replacement of boats performance1 kg/h evaporator of carbon tetrachloride add the required amount of fluid, and the EXHAUST gas is passed through the absorber chlorine and carbon dioxide (solid CP -).To move boats can be used simple devices (pushers, hooks or other known devices, and to monitor their correct actions (if necessary) wall extreme compartments are made of a transparent material.
Claims1. Apparatus for continuous dry chlorination of plutonium dioxide, characterized in that the reaction volume is Soane, at the ends of the reaction volume is provided by a sealed valve that separates the loading and unloading bays on the ends of which are mounted sealed cover and inside compartments are tools for moving boats along the pipe, for feeding into the reaction volume of the vapor of carbon tetrachloride provides a heated evaporator, and to return the excess carbon tetrachloride includes a condenser vapors.2. The apparatus according to p. 1, characterized in that boat for placing products is a tank, an open top and provided with a double bottom, the upper bottom is made of a porous gas-permeable material, and the bottom the bottom, like the rest of the boat is made of solid material, but for the passage of gases has holes are not blocked when moving boats inside the tube of the reaction volume.
FIELD: nuclear engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method for volume crystallization of plutonium dioxide includes treatment of molten alkali-metal chlorides with plutonium compound dissolved therein, as well as treatment of melt obtained in the process by oxygen-containing gas mixture and precipitation of large-crystal plutonium dioxide on bath bottom. In the process closed-porosity graphite granules are disposed on melt surface, their contact with melt being afforded as they are consumed. Apparatus for volume crystallization of plutonium dioxide from molten alkali-metal chlorides with plutonium compound dissolved therein has bath, cover, melt mixing system, and device for feeding soluble plutonium compounds and gas mixture to melt. Bath, parts and assemblies contacting the melt are made of ceramic material shielded at melt boundary level with pyrographite parts. Gas mixture feeding devices have ceramic and pyrographite tubes.
EFFECT: enhanced durability of equipment.
3 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions concerns application of polymer-containing solution or water suspension paste and a device of ruthenium collection in gaseous discharge. The solution or water suspension paste contains one alkylene glycol polymer and/or one alkylene glycol co-polymer. The alkylene(s) contains 2-6 carbon atoms for ruthenium collection in gaseous discharge. The device includes a ruthenium collection cartridge with a substrate bearing alkylene glycol polymer or co-polymer. The alkylene(s) contains 2-6 carbon atoms.
EFFECT: improved ruthenium collection and chemical recovery of ruthenium oxide.
22 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: fuel systems.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to recycling of return nuclear fuel (RNF) and materials of blanket region (BR) of fast breeder reactors (FBR) for their multiple use with the possibility to adjust content in creation of a new fuel composition. Initial chemical state of processed material may vary: oxides, nitrides, metals and alloys. Method represents a combination of serial processes of chemical transformation of radiated nuclear fuel (RNF): fluoridation with gaseous fluorine and extraction of main uranium mass; transition of fluoridation remains into oxides (pyrohydrolysis); - chlorination of oxides in recovery conditions with group separation of plutonium chlorides, uranium (left in process of fluoridation) and fission products. Further "plutonium" and "uranium" fraction, and also fraction containing fission products (and, possibly, minor-actinides), are used each separately in various processes according to available methods. Earlier produced uranium hexafluoride, with low boiling fluorides of fission products, is cleaned from the latter and used, according to objectives of processing, also by available methods. Using waterless processes with application of salt melts, suggested version makes it possible to realise continuous highly efficient processes of fuel components production, moreover, it is stipulated to carry out preparation stages in continuous mode. Plant for processing of spent nuclear fuel containing uranium and plutonium includes three serially installed devices: fluoridiser; pyrohydrolysis device; chlorinator-condensator-granulator device. Two last devices are of flame type. The last of devices represents a pipe with a central element, in which lines of inlet product and reagents supply are installed. In lower part there is an expansion in the form of pear with a flame burner along its axis, and medium part has a row of conical shelves inside, between which there are nozzles with pipelines for chlorides outlet. Nozzle for chlorides outlet is also arranged in lower point of pear-like part. Nozzle for exhaust of non-condensed gases is provided in upper part. Granulator is arranged as reservoir with low boiling incombustible liquid, and to produce drops, capillaries are provided at pipeline ends.
EFFECT: highly efficient method for processing of spent nuclear fuel of practically any composition from thermal reactors and fast breeder reactors, blanket region of fast breeder reactors and some other types of reactors with the possibility to produce several other types of fuel compositions.
19 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises immersion of alloy into salt melt to change rare-earth element from liquid alloy into melt by oxidation. Note here that said oxidation us performed in zinc chloride melt at 420-550°C while melt zinc ions are used as oxidiser.
EFFECT: higher yield.
2 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method and a device for bringing two immiscible fluids into contact. Method of binging into contact without mixing of the first substance consisting of metal or alloy of metals in liquid state and the second substance consisting of salt or salt mixture in liquid state, in which: the first substance in solid state is placed in the first container, the first container is put into contact with the second substance in solid state placed in the second container, the first and the second containers are exposed to electromagnetic field effect, the first substance in liquid state is brought into motion, the second substance in solid state starts melting under the effect of heat flow from the first container, the second substance in liquid state is brought into motion, the first substance in liquid state stays in contact with the second substance in liquid state for a certain period of time, the first container is removed from the second substance in liquid state, the first container is cooled until the first substance returns into solid state.
EFFECT: improved mass transfer kinetics.
35 cl, 10 dwg, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing oxychloride and/or oxide of actinide(s), and/or lanthanide(s) from chloride of actinide(s), and/or lanthanide(s), present in a medium containing at least one molten salt of chloride type. Method involves a step for reacting chloride of actinide(s) and/or lanthanide(s) with wet inert gas.
EFFECT: invention provides efficient production of oxyhalogenide and/or oxide of actinide(s), and/or lanthanide(s), as well as formation with elements of actinides or lanthanides, products, different from oxyhalogenides or oxides, and excluding cation-contamination of medium containing molten salt, simplifying recirculation of molten salts.
11 cl, 3 ex