The fuel rod of a nuclear reactor

 

The invention relates to nuclear energy, in particular to fuel design for a composite tape system power control active zone (SMT) power reactor type VVER-440. An object of the invention is to increase the efficiency of the reactor core. The fuel rod of a nuclear reactor consists of a sealed tubular shell that hosts the fuel pellets, the retainer of the fuel column, placed in the gas compensation volume, and the liner to absorb excess neutrons placed between the extreme tablet and retainer. The insert is made of hafnium or an alloy of hafnium from zirconium and sheath placed additional fuel pellets. 3 C. p. F.-ly, 2 Il.

The invention relates to nuclear energy, in particular to fuel design for a composite tape system power control active zone (SMT) power reactor type VVER-440.

Known fuel rod, comprising a sealed cylindrical shell filled with fuel pellets of uranium dioxide and fixed in the sheath from moving the retainer of the fuel column, which are used in fuel cartridges from one of teplovidelyaushaya power in such cassettes is the vertical movement of the absorbing rods in the guide channels [1, 2]. The efficiency of the fuel rods in such high FA, since the release height is nearly constant except for the ends, where it is slightly lowered. The drawback of such tapes is reduced fuel loading, since a portion of the volume of the cartridge employs the guide channels.

Known TVEL taken by the authors for the prototype [3], consisting of filled fuel pellets of uranium dioxide garmonichnoi cylindrical shell, the retainer of the fuel column, prevents movement of fuel pellets during transport operations, 100 mm column of stainless steel, is placed between the upper end of the fuel pellet and the retainer of the fuel column and gas compensation volume in the upper part of a fuel rod, which is used in the fuel assemblies composite tapes CPS for reactor type VVER-440. Lower fuel Assembly cassette consists of distantsirovaniya lattices hex beam rods in chekhlova tube and the upper extension piece, which is attached to chekhlova tube fuel Assembly contains absorb the materials. Cassette CPS is used for energy production and management capacity of the reactor core due to their vertical lane is the added piece is introduced. When the power regulation in the area of the junction of the cassette, where is 30 mm water gap between the extension and the end of the fuel rods, as well as gas compensation volume of the fuel rods, there is a burst of neutron field, which causes unacceptable increase of the power density on the upper ends of the fuel rods. To address the increased energy deposition in the fuel cartridge CPS placed 100 mm stainless steel columns (3). A disadvantage of the known technical solution is the reduced loading of fuel in the fuel rods due to the fitting of stainless steel columns, resulting in decreased energy production and economic performance of nuclear power plants.

An object of the invention is to increase the efficiency of the reactor core.

The solution of the technical problem is achieved by the fact that the fuel rod comprising a sealed tubular shell that hosts the fuel pellets, the retainer of the fuel column, placed in the gas compensation volume, and the liner to absorb excess neutrons placed between the extreme tablet and lock), the insert is made of hafnium or an alloy of hafnium from zirconium and sheath placed additional fuel pellets.

In the private version of violas. up to 90% wt.

In another private embodiment, the liner perform a height of from 0.5 to 2.5 inner diameter of the shell.

In another private embodiment, the liner is in the form of tablets, the diameter of which varies in the limits of variation of the diameter of the fuel pellets.

The invention is illustrated by drawings.

In Fig.1 shows a General view of a fuel rod of the prototype.

In Fig.2 shows a General view of a fuel rod according to the invention.

In Fig. 1 shows the structure of a fuel rod for a fuel Assembly of CPS of WWER-440 reactor prototype. The fuel rod consists of a tubular shell (5), sealed on the ends with plugs (1) and (6). Inside the shell is placed fuel tablets (4), retainer (2) of the fuel column, the insert (3) made in the form of a stainless steel rod height 100 mm

In Fig. 2 shows the structure of a fuel rod for a fuel Assembly of CPS of WWER-440 reactor according to the invention. The fuel rod consists of a tubular shell (5), sealed on the ends with plugs (1) and (6). Inside the shell is placed fuel tablets (4) extra fuel tablets (7), retainer (2) of the fuel column, the insert (3), made of hafnium or an alloy of hafnium from zirconium. The content of hafnium in the alloy ask in what ora: the need to ensure a specified number of absorbing neutrons material - hafnium in the area of the end face of the top tablets and the need for liner volume and shape, convenient for equipment shell of a fuel rod in its manufacture. The optimum is to run a liner in the form of tablets with a height in the range from 0.5 to 2.5 internal diameter of shell diameter within the limits established for tablets nuclear fuel. Geometrical parameters of the liner within the specified limits enables the manufacture of fuel rods without complicating the technology of its equipment.

Cassette CPS made with the use of fuel elements in accordance with the proposed solution works as follows. When power regulation active zone of reactor VVER-440 in the joint area FA and by extension, where the gas compensation volume and the water gap between the upper ends of the rods and by extension, increases the concentration of thermal neutrons in comparison with other parts of the fuel Assembly of the cassette, where the fuel rods of the fuel pellets having a large cross section for capture of thermal neutrons. Posted in Fe insert of hafnium or an alloy of hafnium from zirconium, which has a high cross section of capture of thermal neutrons (about 105 barn), absorb excess neutrons and thereby reduces teplovidenie the I resistance in the reactor conditions above, than that of zirconium alloys. The cross-section of capture of thermal neutrons in hafnium in the process of operation is changed by only a few %. Additional fuel pellets, which are in accordance with the invention placed in the upper part of a fuel rod (instead of part of the volume of the stainless steel liner), can increase the loading of fuel in the fuel rods of the fuel Assembly by 3.5-4% and to obtain additional power.

A new technical result of the invention is that when using CPS tapes with liner containing hafnium, FA provides a substantial increase in fuel loading in these fuel rods while maintaining uniform combustion of fuel in the module working cartridges. Due to this reduced the cost generated at the nuclear power plant.

Sources of information 1. Emelianov, I. E. nuclear Power reactors. M, Energoatomizdat, 1984, S. 18-30.

2. Reshetnikov F., Development of production and operation of fuel cell power reactors. M, Energoatomizdat, 1995, book 1., S. 185.

3. Sidorenko Century A. the safe operation of VVER reactors. M, Atomizdat, 1977, S. 141-142 - prototype.

Claims

1. TVEL nuclear react what about the post, posted in gas compensation volume, and the liner to absorb excess neutrons placed between the extreme tablet and a latch, wherein the insert is made of hafnium or an alloy of hafnium from zirconium and sheath placed additional fuel pellets.

2. TVEL under item 1, characterized in that for the manufacture of the liner using an alloy of hafnium from zirconium, when the hafnium content of from 15 to 90 wt.%.

3. TVEL under item 1, characterized in that the liner perform a height of from 0.5 to 2.5 inner diameter of the shell.

4. TVEL under item 1, characterized in that the liner is in the form of tablets with a diameter in the range specified for fuel pellets.

 

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FIELD: nuclear power engineering; fuel rods for water-moderated water-cooled reactors.

SUBSTANCE: proposed fuel rod designed for use in water-cooled water-moderated power reactors such as type VVER-1000 reactor has fuel core disposed in cylindrical can. Outer diameter of fuel rod is chosen between 7.00 . 10-3 and 8.79 . 10-3m and fuel core diameter is between 5.82 . 10-3 and 7.32 . 10-3m and mass, between 0.93 and 1.52 kg, fuel core to fuel rod length ratio being between 0.9145 and 0.9483.

EFFECT: reduced linear heat loads and fuel rod depressurization probability, enlarged variation range of reactor power, optimal fuel utilization.

7 cl, 3 dwg

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