A method of measuring the deviation from roundness
The invention relates to measuring equipment. The method consists in creating optical base, which uses an optical cylinder, a guiding circles which is a control (5), and other (3) form a rotating rod (1) with respect to the controlled product optical sight (2). The axis of the reticle passes through the corresponding control point of the circle drawn on the screen (4) located opposite from the rod (1) side of the test object. The radius-vectors of the test object located inside the base dimension is defined as the sum of the radius of the control circle and the values measured from the base measurement to a pre-marked points on the surface of a body of rotation. The radius-vectors of the body of rotation is located outside the base measure, defined as the difference between the radius of the control circle and the measured value from the base measurement to a pre-marked points on the surface of a body of rotation. Effect: improved accuracy. 1 C. p. F.-ly, 3 ill. The invention relates to measuring technique and can be used in the measurement of roundness deviations mainly cruentus-vectors of the points of the inner surface of the shell. The measurements are performed in the plane of the controlled section from an arbitrary center. The resulting measurement data are recalculated to the reference variance, which can be used adjacent the circumference, the middle circumference, the circumference of the minimum variance (circumference minimum zone) /1/.It is obvious that such measurements are possible only if the inside of the shell there are conditions for use of bulky tool. If the inside of the shell is set designs, they make technological notch, and if this is not allowed, the measurement of the radius-vectors are not the totality of controlled points. Such measurements will decrease the quality control. After you install inside the shells of large equipment measurement by the above method becomes impossible. In addition, in a known manner deviation of roundness is measured only on the inner surface of the body of rotation.Also known a method of measuring the roundness deviations, implying that the measured surface set on the circumference of the three measuring center, move one of them on the arc of a circle between two other centers and measure PR is and the measured surface evenly around the circumference, each of the centers consistently move between two other surface details with return and fixation in the initial position, and moving centers are within the arc of a circumference not exceeding 1/3 of the perimeter /2/.The known method is used only for measuring the deviation of the roundness of the end sections of the cylindrical parts. In addition, the disadvantage of this method is the low accuracy of the control, due to the presence of the three measuring centers that consistently move on the part surface.Also known a method of measuring the roundness deviations hull of the submarine, based on the creation of optical measurement bases in the plane of rotation of a body in the form of a square, with base dimensions are constructed from an outer side of the construction /3, 4/. Measure the distance from the optical bases to controlled points of the cross section, calculate the Cartesian coordinates of these points. These coordinates define the radius-vectors of controlled points of the body surface of the rotation.There is a method called "method of optical square, a rather time-consuming, because the measurements are based on each controlled section. The accuracy of the method is>The task of the invention is to provide a method of measuring roundness deviations, allowing you to control both internal and external surfaces of bodies of revolution with a minimum expenditure of time.Technical result achieved in the process of the task is to improve the precision of measurement of roundness deviations and reduce the complexity of the measurement process.These technical results are achieved according to the invention by the fact that as a base of measurement is used, the optical cylinder, a guiding circles which is a control, and another form of rotating on the rod relative to the body of rotation of the optical sight, the axis of which passes through the corresponding control point of the circle drawn on the screen, located opposite from the rod side of the body of rotation, and the radius-vectors of the body of rotation that is located inside the base dimension is defined as the sum of the radius of the control circle and the value measured from the base measurement to a pre-marked points on the surface of a body of rotation, and the radius-vectors of the body of rotation, located outside the base measure, defined as the difference between radio and body rotation.Improving the accuracy of measurement of roundness deviations is provided by the geometric rigidity of the circumference of the base dimension and a small distance between the basis of measurement and the surface of the body of rotation.Reducing the complexity of the measurement process deviations roundness is due to the fact that the base dimension is set once for the entire period of manufacture of the product and allows you to measure the deviation of roundness in any plane cross-section of the body of rotation both outside and inside the body of rotation by adjusting the length of the rod, which is equipped with an optical sight.In addition, the invention enables the achievement of a technical result, namely that the claimed method can also be measured and the deviation from cylindricity surface of the body of rotation.The inventive method is illustrated by drawings, where Fig.1 shows a base dimension that is created by the optical cylinder of Fig.2, 3 - the scheme of measurement of roundness deviations, where the numbers represent the following positions: 1 - hose 2 - reticle 3 - directing circle, 4 - screen, 5 - control circle, 6 - target 7 - body rotation.The inventive method is carried out as follows.
Claims1. The way of measuring deviations from roundness of the rotary bodies, zaklyuchiv surface of a body of rotation, characterized in that the optical quality of the base dimension is used, the optical cylinder, a guiding circles which is a control, and another form of rotating on the rod relative to the body of rotation of the optical sight, the axis of which passes through the corresponding control point of the circle drawn on the screen, located opposite from the rod side of the body of rotation, and the radius-vectors of the body of rotation that is located inside the base dimension is defined as the sum of the radius of the control circle and the values measured from the base measurement to a pre-marked points on the surface of a body of rotation, and the radius-vectors of the body of rotation, located outside the base measure, defined as the difference between the radius of the control circle and the measured value from the base measurement to a pre-marked points on the surface of a body of rotation.2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the control circle is used the rod with the target, which caused a fragment of the control circle.
FIELD: railway transport; instrument technology.
SUBSTANCE: proposed wear checking system contains optical receiving projection system and converting-and-calculating unit. It includes also car position pickup and car counter whose outputs are connected to inputs to inputs of converting-ands-calculated unit. Optical receiving projection system consists of sets of stereo modules. Rigid structure of each module includes two CCD television cameras and lighting unit. Outputs of stereomodules are connected to corresponding inputs of converting-and-calculating unit. Stereomodules are rigidly installed relative to each other.
EFFECT: enlarged operating capabilities.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: measuring arrangements.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises unmovable base provided with the first cantilever, two carriages provided with drives controllable with a computer, pickup of linear movements, arrangement for mounting blade and first measuring channel connected with the computer. The first carriage is mounted on the unmovable base and is made for permitting movement parallel to the X-axis. The first measuring passage is defined by the optoelectronic head and units secured to the unmovable base, third carriage provided with an actuator controlled by a computer and pickup of linear displacements, second measuring channel, first and scone markers of the blade with actuating members controlled by a computer, arrangement setting the blade mounted on the first carriage and made for permitting rigid orientation of the blade in the vertical plane, second and third carriages arranged on the first and second cantilevers, respectively, and made for permitting movement parallel to the Z-axis, first and second markers of the blade, fiber optic heads of the first and second measuring channels arranged on the second and third carriages from the both sides of the study blade. The objectives of the fiber optic heads are mounted for permitting triangulation link of the photodetector with the sourced through the blade surface of the blade to be tested.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
6 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: measuring engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises setting the article to be tested on the working table, moving the nonflatness meter, determining the amplitude of nonflatness, and determining coefficients of nonflatness. The device comprises source of light, multielement photodetector, objective, and computer.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
5 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: measuring instruments.
SUBSTANCE: the interferometer for controlling of the form of prominent, concave spherical and flat surfaces of large-sized optical components has a source of monochromatic radiation, a collimator and an objective, one after another located a beam divider, a flat mirror and an aplanatic meniscus with a reference surface and also an observation branch located behind the beam divider in beam return and a working branch consisting out of a spherical mirror with a compensator which form a focusing system. Depending of the form of a controlled surface focusing of the working branch of the interferometer is executed at replacing the compensator and the basic block of the interferometer which has an illuminating branch. A beam divider, a flat mirror, an aplanatic meniscus and an observation branch relative to a fully stabilized spherical mirror along an optical axis on such a distance at which the beams reflected from the spherical mirror fall on the controlled surface transversely to its surface.
EFFECT: expansion of nomenclature of controlled surfaces, decreasing large-sized dimensions of the interferometer.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: the invention refers to measuring technique.
SUBSTANCE: the mode of measuring the form of an object includes formation of a light line on the surface of the object with the aid of the light-emitting system lying in the preset cross-section of the object, getting the image of the light line, its processing and definition of the coordinates of the profile of the cross-section of the object. AT that collateral light lines are formed on the surface by turns with the aid of two light-emitting systems illuminating the surface in preset cross-section of the object at different angles in its every point, images of light lines are received. On each of them sites are revealed. A resultant image is compiled out of the images of the indicated sites. According to this resultant image the coordinates of the profile of the cross-section of the object are determined. The arrangement for measuring the form of the object has a light-emitting system optically connected with a photoreceiver and a computing unit. It also has one additional light-emitting system optically connected with a photoreceiver and a commuting unit connected with its input to the computing unit, and with its output - with every light-emitting system. Optical axles of light-emitting system are placed in one plane and located to each other at an angle equal 5-800.
EFFECT: the invention increases accuracy of measuring by way of excluding the distortions of the zone of influence on the results of measuring.
13 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: measuring equipment.
SUBSTANCE: method includes lighting object by collimated parallel beam of coherent monochromatic light, directed at angle of raising of screw surface relatively to object axis, as which object with screw surface is used, receiving optical image of its profile and following processing of received profile of image to perform further calculations of its parameters, while lighting of object is performed concurrently on two portions by collimated parallel beams of coherent monochromatic light, directed at raising angle of screw surface relatively to object axis, while these two beams are positioned symmetrically relatively to longitudinal axis of object and two images of said profile are received, mutual position of separate elements in which does not depend on presence of vibrations and shaking.
EFFECT: higher quality.
1 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: measurement technology.
SUBSTANCE: device for automatic measuring coordinates of string plummets of hydraulic structures has reflecting screen, illumination source, two optical systems each of which is blocked with corresponding electro-optical array, device for measuring coordinate of string's projection, digital serial communication desk. Device also has resolver that has in turn two input serial communication desks, which have their outputs connected with controller, and indicator.
EFFECT: high precision of measurement of coordinates of string plummets.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: measuring engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises directing a coherent light beam at the surface to be tested, producing and recording interferogram of the light path difference, and processing the interferogram. The tested and reference surfaces are exposed to the second coherent light beam, and the second interferogram of the light path difference is created. The second interferogram is provided with the additional light path difference with respect to that of the first interferogram, which is equal to the one fourth of the beam wavelength. The light path difference of the first interferogram is determined at specific points of the surface to be tested from the signal of illumination in one of two interferograms. The device comprises source of coherent light, first filter-condenser, first and second light-splitting units, interferometer composed of tested and reference surfaces, unit for measuring optical length of the beam, first projecting unit, recording unit, observing unit, and unit for processing the interferogram. The device also has two light-splitting units between which two pairs of transparent diffraction lattices are interposed. The filter-condenser, the second light-splitting unit, and λ/4 lattice are arranged in series in the direction of the beam.
EFFECT: enhanced precision.
4 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: measuring engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises setting the article to be controlled on the movable traverse gear having two extent of freedom, illuminating the surface of the article by light, receiving the light reflected from the surface of the article with the use of a photodetector, moving the article parallel to the X-axis, determining coordinates of the light spots on the photodetectors of the current values of the heights of the article shape, locking the position of the table, scanning the main section of the article shape, comparing it with the reference one , and determining the quality of the article shape. The main section is scanned by moving the article parallel to the Y-axis, when the traverse gear is in a position determined from the formula proposed. The device comprises unmovable horizontal base, vertical cantilever secured to the base, unit for measuring the article shape mounted on the vertical cantilever, two carriages that define a traverse gear and provided with the individual drives controlled by a computer, and pickup of linear movements. The first carriage moves parallel to the X-axis, and the second carriage is mounted on the first one and moves parallel Y-axis.
EFFECT: improved quality of control.
4 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: measuring engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises housing that receives electric lamp, toroidal lens, conical mirror of ring vision, lens, and scaling grid arranged in series. The device is additionally provided with aperture with ring and central round recesses positioned in front of the lamp, ring and round color filters mounted in front of the recesses, and second mirror cone positioned behind the aperture. The top of the cone points to the lamp. The semi-transparent mirror, color filter, measuring grid, and first TV camera are arranged along the longitudinal axis of the housing behind the lens. The second color filter, second measuring grid, and second TV camera are arranged in series along the perpendicular to the axis of the housing behind the lens.
EFFECT: expanded functional capabilities.