A method of measuring the deviation from roundness

 

The invention relates to measuring equipment. The method consists in creating optical base, which uses an optical cylinder, a guiding circles which is a control (5), and other (3) form a rotating rod (1) with respect to the controlled product optical sight (2). The axis of the reticle passes through the corresponding control point of the circle drawn on the screen (4) located opposite from the rod (1) side of the test object. The radius-vectors of the test object located inside the base dimension is defined as the sum of the radius of the control circle and the values measured from the base measurement to a pre-marked points on the surface of a body of rotation. The radius-vectors of the body of rotation is located outside the base measure, defined as the difference between the radius of the control circle and the measured value from the base measurement to a pre-marked points on the surface of a body of rotation. Effect: improved accuracy. 1 C. p. F.-ly, 3 ill.

The invention relates to measuring technique and can be used in the measurement of roundness deviations mainly cruentus-vectors of the points of the inner surface of the shell. The measurements are performed in the plane of the controlled section from an arbitrary center. The resulting measurement data are recalculated to the reference variance, which can be used adjacent the circumference, the middle circumference, the circumference of the minimum variance (circumference minimum zone) /1/.

It is obvious that such measurements are possible only if the inside of the shell there are conditions for use of bulky tool. If the inside of the shell is set designs, they make technological notch, and if this is not allowed, the measurement of the radius-vectors are not the totality of controlled points. Such measurements will decrease the quality control. After you install inside the shells of large equipment measurement by the above method becomes impossible. In addition, in a known manner deviation of roundness is measured only on the inner surface of the body of rotation.

Also known a method of measuring the roundness deviations, implying that the measured surface set on the circumference of the three measuring center, move one of them on the arc of a circle between two other centers and measure PR is and the measured surface evenly around the circumference, each of the centers consistently move between two other surface details with return and fixation in the initial position, and moving centers are within the arc of a circumference not exceeding 1/3 of the perimeter /2/.

The known method is used only for measuring the deviation of the roundness of the end sections of the cylindrical parts. In addition, the disadvantage of this method is the low accuracy of the control, due to the presence of the three measuring centers that consistently move on the part surface.

Also known a method of measuring the roundness deviations hull of the submarine, based on the creation of optical measurement bases in the plane of rotation of a body in the form of a square, with base dimensions are constructed from an outer side of the construction /3, 4/. Measure the distance from the optical bases to controlled points of the cross section, calculate the Cartesian coordinates of these points. These coordinates define the radius-vectors of controlled points of the body surface of the rotation.

There is a method called "method of optical square, a rather time-consuming, because the measurements are based on each controlled section. The accuracy of the method is>The task of the invention is to provide a method of measuring roundness deviations, allowing you to control both internal and external surfaces of bodies of revolution with a minimum expenditure of time.

Technical result achieved in the process of the task is to improve the precision of measurement of roundness deviations and reduce the complexity of the measurement process.

These technical results are achieved according to the invention by the fact that as a base of measurement is used, the optical cylinder, a guiding circles which is a control, and another form of rotating on the rod relative to the body of rotation of the optical sight, the axis of which passes through the corresponding control point of the circle drawn on the screen, located opposite from the rod side of the body of rotation, and the radius-vectors of the body of rotation that is located inside the base dimension is defined as the sum of the radius of the control circle and the value measured from the base measurement to a pre-marked points on the surface of a body of rotation, and the radius-vectors of the body of rotation, located outside the base measure, defined as the difference between radio and body rotation.

Improving the accuracy of measurement of roundness deviations is provided by the geometric rigidity of the circumference of the base dimension and a small distance between the basis of measurement and the surface of the body of rotation.

Reducing the complexity of the measurement process deviations roundness is due to the fact that the base dimension is set once for the entire period of manufacture of the product and allows you to measure the deviation of roundness in any plane cross-section of the body of rotation both outside and inside the body of rotation by adjusting the length of the rod, which is equipped with an optical sight.

In addition, the invention enables the achievement of a technical result, namely that the claimed method can also be measured and the deviation from cylindricity surface of the body of rotation.

The inventive method is illustrated by drawings, where Fig.1 shows a base dimension that is created by the optical cylinder of Fig.2, 3 - the scheme of measurement of roundness deviations, where the numbers represent the following positions: 1 - hose 2 - reticle 3 - directing circle, 4 - screen, 5 - control circle, 6 - target 7 - body rotation.

The inventive method is carried out as follows.

Rod with an optical viewfinder and a screen coated with the control circle (or rod with the target) can be installed outside of the controlled body rotation, and inside, in the immediate vicinity of the ends. It does not matter in what position is the body of rotation: horizontal or vertical. A measuring instrument such as a ruler, measure the distance from the optical forming, created by the reticle, to a pre-marked points on the surface of a body of rotation. For each measurement is in control of the match optical forming with the control points of the circle. When the nalitch which can be displaced in the radial direction, with a corresponding shift of the control circle. On the results of determination of the radius-vectors of the pre-marked points such offset is not affected. The measured distance from optical form to the pre-marked points on the surface of the body of rotation is used to calculate the radius-vectors, and then the deviation of roundness or cylindricity relative to the one adopted by reference deviations according to GOST 24642.

For example, when using as a base of reference deviations of the average circumference of the deviations are determined from the expression:where r is the nominal radius of rotation of a body;i- radius-vectors of the body of rotation;Sources of information 1. GOST 24642-81. The basic rules of interchangeability. Tolerances of form and position of surfaces. Basic terms and definitions.

2. Auth. mon. The USSR 1551960, publ. 23.04.1991.

3. Express information "Shipbuilding", 1965, 20 "Optical calibration of the circular shape of the hull of the submarine".

4. Warner, M. S., Rich N. S. Optikal Square Method Submarine Hall Circularity. Bureau of Ship Journal, 1, 1965.

Claims

1. The way of measuring deviations from roundness of the rotary bodies, zaklyuchiv surface of a body of rotation, characterized in that the optical quality of the base dimension is used, the optical cylinder, a guiding circles which is a control, and another form of rotating on the rod relative to the body of rotation of the optical sight, the axis of which passes through the corresponding control point of the circle drawn on the screen, located opposite from the rod side of the body of rotation, and the radius-vectors of the body of rotation that is located inside the base dimension is defined as the sum of the radius of the control circle and the values measured from the base measurement to a pre-marked points on the surface of a body of rotation, and the radius-vectors of the body of rotation, located outside the base measure, defined as the difference between the radius of the control circle and the measured value from the base measurement to a pre-marked points on the surface of a body of rotation.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the control circle is used the rod with the target, which caused a fragment of the control circle.

 

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