The purification method of the marshes from oil and oil products
The invention relates to the protection of the environment, and in particular to methods of cleaning marshes from oil and oil products with high initial concentrations of pollutants mainly in the aftermath of accidental spills. In the process spend a gradual clearing of the swamp from the main and residual concentrations of petroleum contamination using climatic factor. At the preparatory stage, splitting the contaminated sites section through dams along which the digging of the trench for collection of oil or oil products. At the first stage in collecting main concentrations of oil pollution from the surface of the swamp in the summer-autumn period through the buried floating scraper by its reciprocating movement by means of a traction mechanism from one trench to another. In the second stage, carry out the removal from the site of residual concentrations of petroleum contamination by washing off the water flow into the trench, at a cross section from one trench to another set booms. The third stage produces the removal of contaminated soil and vegetation in the winter-spring period when the frozen swamp Noah trench to another by means of a traction mechanism. This method allows you to clean up the wetlands, covering several acres to the degree of pollution concentration 500-3000 mg/kg, which is successfully carrying out the processes of natural recovery of soil and vegetation and possible stakeholders with seeding. 2 Il. The invention relates to the protection of the environment, and in particular to methods of purification wetlands from oil and oil products with high initial concentrations of pollutants mainly in the aftermath of spills.A known method of purification of the water surface of ponds and marshes from oil and oil products through a self-propelled vehicle with an arrow attached to it a gripping device [RU, patent 2123087].However, this method can be used in areas with stable ground.A known method of cleaning soil from oil, including leaching of soil water under pressure, and removing the resulting oil mixture [RU, patent 2061144].The disadvantage of this method is its use of only minor contamination. Spills of oil, when the concentration of oil is high, this tyano pollution, including the splitting of the polluted area into sections and removed from the surface area of oil pollution with the use of his washing water flow [EN, patent 2142533].This method is not effective enough in case of emergency spills of oil, when the total area of wetlands is several hectares, and does not allow to increase the degree of purification wetlands to the concentration of oil, which allows the natural regeneration.The present invention is to develop a comprehensive method of purification from oil and oil products wetlands large area spills with a high initial concentration of contaminants using climatic factor.The technical result consists of clearing of wetlands, covering several acres to the degree of pollution concentration 500-3000 mg/kg, which is successfully carrying out the processes of natural recovery of soil and vegetation and conduct of stakeholders with seeding.The technical result is achieved by the fact that they spend a gradual clearing of the swamp from the main and residual concentrations of petroleum contamination using climatic factor, pudol which dig trenches for the collection of oil or petroleum products, at the first stage in collecting main concentrations of oil pollution from the surface of the swamp in the summer-autumn period through the buried floating scraper by its reciprocating movement by means of a traction mechanism from one trench to another, in the second stage, carry out the removal from the site of residual concentrations of petroleum contamination by washing off the water flow into the trench, at a cross section from one trench to another set booms, and the third stage produces the removal of contaminated soil and vegetation in the winter-spring period when the frozen swamp through the knife-scraper mounted on the runners, by its reciprocating movement from one trench to another by means of a traction mechanism.The implementation of the method is illustrated in the drawings.In Fig. 1 shows a diagram of the purification section of the swamp from the main concentration. In Fig. 2 shows the knife-scraper (in section).Swampy area filled with oil when the accident (Fig.1), is divided into sections (1) through sand dams (2). The length and width of the section is determined by the convenience of later work. Along dams (2) dig a trench (3) depth of 1 m or more for collecting the deposits of the period. On both sides of the section (1), dams (2) there are two traction mechanism (4) - tractors with mounted winches (5), through which the cable coupling device (6) connected with a floating scraper (7). Scraper (7) made in the form of pipes or pipe connections with tightly closed tips. The depth of the scraper (7) in the oil layer is carried out by increasing the weight of the filling volume of the liquid or granular material through the cover (8). Using winches (5) scraper (7) move from one trench to another. Captured scraper (7) the oil is transported in a trench (3). Then both of the traction mechanism (4) move on dams (2) in the same direction at a distance equal to approximately half the length of the scraper (7), and the process repeats. Clearance area (1) is produced as long as the surface is not removed all the oil that can be collected by the scraper (7). From the trench (2) the collected oil was transported to the pit for temporary storage for further processing. After completion of the first phase on the surface of the swamp the remaining oil and contaminated residues.During the same summer-Osenovo period carry out the second stage of the treatment marshes from residual concentrations. For this segment of the trench (3). Washed of residual oil contamination with the water flow are transported into the trench (3), which are taken in places of temporary storage for subsequent separation of oil and water and oil sludge processing. In case of need across the site can be set up booms to create a water flow more power.In winter, the marsh is frozen to a depth of several dozen centimes, and oily soil remains unfrozen, remaining on the surface of the oil becomes thick. The third treatment stage is carried out at the beginning of winter or in the spring after snow melting.Technological scheme of the third stage of the final clearing of land from crop residues and contaminated the soil and vegetation is similar to the purification scheme from the major concentrations and differs in that instead of floating scraper (7, Fig.1) use knife-scraper.Knife-scraper (Fig.2) installed on the rails (9), work the body in the form of two bonded blades (10) on both sides of the working body to hold the cuttings in transportation made fences (11).Using winches knife-scraper is moved from one trench to another. Cleaning lead to the complete removal of the Sabbath.Removal of the contaminated layer at much frozen swamp (freezing depth of 70-90 cm) final cleaning can be performed wetland bulldozer with low specific surface pressure.Example Marshy swamp area of 30 ha was divided into sections of sand dams. Section length equal to the length of the bog, and the width of 60-70 meters Along the dams were excavated trench with a depth of 1 m, the Height of the oil layer above the soil was 50 cm Depth of saturation of the soil - 50-70 see the First stage of cleaning was carried out according to the above-described technology. Floating scraper with a diameter of 72 cm was buried in the oil layer. For once scraper in the trench was transported from 5 to 10 m3oil. On average, over 9 hours cleared a total area of 2 ha. After completion of the first phase on the surface of the swamp remained residual oil contamination and oil-contaminated residues, the concentration of oil in the soil averaged 250000 mg/kgThen were clearing the swamp from residual concentrations. The section is divided containment fences at a distance of 5-7 m from each other. For washing off residual concentrations and stream towards the trenches used mobile high-performance 6-DIMM 5-10oto the surface of the swamp washed before a residual oil contamination, which stream of water rushed to the trenches. After completing the second stage, the concentration of oil in the soil was 50000-60000 mg/kgThe third stage of the treatment was carried out in spring after snow melting in the frozen swamp.After the third step, the concentration of pollution was 500-3000 mg/kg in the Spring were made on cleared land Bioregulation work, and restoration of soil and vegetation was successful.Thus, the complex method of purification of wetlands in case of emergency spills of oil allowed to restore the territory of 30 hectares
ClaimsThe purification method of the marshes from oil and oil products, including the splitting of the polluted area of the swamp into sections and removed from the surface area of oil pollution using his flushing water stream, wherein spend a gradual clearing of the swamp from the main and residual concentrations of petroleum contamination using climatic factor, while at the preparatory stage, splitting the contaminated sites section through dembmtrate oil contamination from the surface of the swamp in the summer-autumn period through the buried floating scraper by its reciprocating movement by means of a traction mechanism from one trench to another, in the second stage, carry out the removal from the site of residual concentrations of petroleum contamination by washing off the water flow into the trench, at a cross section from one trench to another set booms, and the third stage produces the removal of contaminated soil and vegetation in the winter-spring period when the frozen swamp through the knife-scraper mounted on the runners, by its reciprocating movement from one trench to another by means of a traction mechanism.
FIELD: environment protection, particularly for cleaning polluted water or land areas.
SUBSTANCE: method involves introducing hydrophobic powder or fine granular sorbent and air in central area of water jet; spraying thereof under increased pressure by air-and-water mixture spray. Sorbent is introduced together with air in amount of 20-25% to 80-75% of water. To increase jet head axial rotary motion is imparted to the jet at hydraulic elevator outlet.
EFFECT: increased uniformity of sorbent application, possibility of uniform mixing thereof in water and, as a result, reduced sorbent consumption, increased accuracy of sorbent spraying from remote distance, increased spraying distance, increased sorption rate, possibility to implement above method in strong windy conditions, increased safety for maintenance staff.
2 cl, 2 ex
FIELD: devices for cleaning or keeping clear the surface of open water from oil or like floating materials.
SUBSTANCE: method involves spraying unwettable by water combustible materials having positive floatation on contaminated surface, particularly with the use of air-borne vehicle; igniting thereof by applying heat to combustible materials.
EFFECT: increased efficiency.
FIELD: environmental protection.
SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for localizing and gathering of oil on bottom of running water reservoir directly over place of emergency blowout from main lie. Proposed device contains hermetic tubular frame with supports and water intake pipes in lower part. Elastic envelope is connected over perimeter of frame from inner side, and elastic hole is connected to other side of envelope, other end of elastic hose being hermetically secured inside floating chamber. Frame with floating chamber is installed in aperture of floating platform on which winches are mounted to which frame is connected by wire ropes, and compressed air source is installed communicating with spaces of frame and floating chamber. Guards with are installed inside support over its height. According to second design version, support device is provided with wheel-mounted hermetic tubular frame with supports. As in first design version, envelope with elastic hose is secured on frame, end of hose being hermetically secured inside floating chamber. Spaces of frame can communicate with compressed air source. Guards are installed inside supports over height for vertical displacement.
EFFECT: enlarged operating capability at gathering of oil directly over place of energy blowout from main line.
4 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: environment protection, oil industry.
SUBSTANCE: device has settling tank, provided with automatic water drain equipment, air and product draining, umbrella in form of separator cap, pipeline feed channel, collector with apertures, positioned horizontally. Collector is mounted below water level and is made in form of pipe grating, in form of connected tanks, and on apertures, placed in upper portion of grating, meshed air dispersers are mounted. Collector is connected through vacuum pump to settling tank.
EFFECT: higher efficiency, simplified construction.
FIELD: environmental protection.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to devices and methods of skimming of oil and oil products from water surface which can be used under ice conditions. Proposed device contains housing providing formation of limited space with water or ice surface, and discharge hole to let out water and oil from limited space, means to decrease air pressure in limited space to make water level inside housing higher than water level outside housing and breaker installed in housing for rotation to emulsify oil mixed with water and break lumps of ice in limited space and provide discharge of water and oil mixture from limited space through discharge hole.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of recovery of oil from water under ice conditions.
9 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: environmental protection.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for localization and skimming of oil or oil products from water surface. Proposed device contains hollow flexible boom defense whose ends are connected to two towboats, and oil skimmer with oil pumping means made in form of catamaran whose hulls are connected to framework placed in between. Row of drums arranged lengthwise the framework and at least two rows of drums arranged in height are found inside framework being fitting on vertical axles provided with drives. Separate belt of boom defense is wound on each drum being provided on end with connecting members for mechanical coupling with neighbor belts. Boom defense is made for communication its spaces with compressed air source and discharge of air. Drums can be made folding in height, and boom defense can be disconnected from towboats and connected into ring. Invention improves efficiency of localization and skimming of oil or oil products owing to covering of large area of oil spillage and operative rigging out of boom defense, and owing to possibility of rigging out of one part of boom defense and connecting other part into ring.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of localization and skimming of oil.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: environmental protection.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to devices for collecting floating hard and liquid impurities, mainly oil. Proposed device has floating body with side walls extending forward in direction of body movement, overflow crest adjustable in height installed at inlet of collecting reservoir and installed on shutter. The latter is secured on horizontal axel for turning around axle by means of tooth-and-lever mechanism. Proposed device is furnished with pumps to pump out water and oil, float-type oil collector floating in net guard on surface of liquid in collecting reservoir and two tanks for ballast water and two tanks for collected oil. Float- type oil collector is connected by drain hose with one of oil-collecting tanks and is provided with wire rope for lifting said collector over surface of liquid in reservoir.
EFFECT: increased amount of collected hard trash, reduced time taken for its collecting.
5 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: devices for cleaning or keeping clear the surface of open water, particularly rivers, lakes, pools and near-shore zones thereof from oil or like floating materials.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus comprises vessel with sorbent, dozing unit, ejection mixing chamber, compressor, electric pump unit, water supply pipeline and air-and-sorbent mixture delivery pipeline provided with sprayer. The equipment is installed on frame. Sprayer is formed as pneumohydraulic nozzle assembly having water nozzle and air-and-sorbent nozzle. The nozzles are coaxially installed and connected to water supply and air-and-sorbent mixture delivery pipelines correspondingly to form jet having 1.5 - 4 mm wall thickness and air-and-sorbent mixture with 18 - 36 kg/m3density. Water pressure pw is 0.8-1.2 MPa, water flow rate Qw is 8-24 m3/h. Air pressure pa is 50 kPa and flow rate thereof Qa is 60-120m3/h.
EFFECT: increased quality of sorbent application and decreased loss thereof.
FIELD: devices for cleaning or keeping clear the surface of open water from oil and ecological protection means.
SUBSTANCE: method involves producing dome-shaped member of oil-resistant web material; connecting floats along member perimeter, rings to provide sliding thereof over guiding ropes and securing flanges in member center for attaching oil suction hoses; immersing the member into water from salvage water-craft and securing thereof with the use of floating buoys; moving mounting raft having winches and other necessary mounting equipment in dome-shaped member center; securing the raft by cables to sunk ship; connecting oil suction hoses to the flanges; replacing floats with weights along dome-shaped member perimeter; detaching dome-shaped member from floating buoys; lowering dome-shaped member on water body bottom to cover sunk ship along with lengthening oil suction hoses; connecting oil receiving receptacles and pump units to hoses; pumping oil out of the tank and transferring thereof into barge.
EFFECT: increased reliability of water body isolation from oil products, reduced labor inputs.
FIELD: environment control; collecting floating solid and liquid (mainly oil) contaminants.
SUBSTANCE: proposed clean sweep device has floating hull equipped with side walls extended forward. Mounted at inlet of garbage accumulating reservoir is spillway crest adjustable in height. Inclined escalator with spillway crest is mounted under movable shutter. It is provided with additional geared motors for motion of end of escalator in vertical plane. Crane secured on cabin is used for discharge of solid garbage from garbage accumulating reservoir. Guide booms are provided with two-sided crests and are articulated with floating hull by means of vertical pins. Guide booms are made from articulated rigid tubes which are secured along sides of clean sweep device. Clean sweep device is provided with pumps for discharge of water and oil, two ballast water tanks and two oil collecting tanks.
EFFECT: increased capacity of device; reduction of time required for collecting garbage.
3 cl, 8 dwg