The purification method of the marshes from oil and oil products

 

The invention relates to the protection of the environment, and in particular to methods of cleaning marshes from oil and oil products with high initial concentrations of pollutants mainly in the aftermath of accidental spills. In the process spend a gradual clearing of the swamp from the main and residual concentrations of petroleum contamination using climatic factor. At the preparatory stage, splitting the contaminated sites section through dams along which the digging of the trench for collection of oil or oil products. At the first stage in collecting main concentrations of oil pollution from the surface of the swamp in the summer-autumn period through the buried floating scraper by its reciprocating movement by means of a traction mechanism from one trench to another. In the second stage, carry out the removal from the site of residual concentrations of petroleum contamination by washing off the water flow into the trench, at a cross section from one trench to another set booms. The third stage produces the removal of contaminated soil and vegetation in the winter-spring period when the frozen swamp Noah trench to another by means of a traction mechanism. This method allows you to clean up the wetlands, covering several acres to the degree of pollution concentration 500-3000 mg/kg, which is successfully carrying out the processes of natural recovery of soil and vegetation and possible stakeholders with seeding. 2 Il.

The invention relates to the protection of the environment, and in particular to methods of purification wetlands from oil and oil products with high initial concentrations of pollutants mainly in the aftermath of spills.

A known method of purification of the water surface of ponds and marshes from oil and oil products through a self-propelled vehicle with an arrow attached to it a gripping device [RU, patent 2123087].

However, this method can be used in areas with stable ground.

A known method of cleaning soil from oil, including leaching of soil water under pressure, and removing the resulting oil mixture [RU, patent 2061144].

The disadvantage of this method is its use of only minor contamination. Spills of oil, when the concentration of oil is high, this tyano pollution, including the splitting of the polluted area into sections and removed from the surface area of oil pollution with the use of his washing water flow [EN, patent 2142533].

This method is not effective enough in case of emergency spills of oil, when the total area of wetlands is several hectares, and does not allow to increase the degree of purification wetlands to the concentration of oil, which allows the natural regeneration.

The present invention is to develop a comprehensive method of purification from oil and oil products wetlands large area spills with a high initial concentration of contaminants using climatic factor.

The technical result consists of clearing of wetlands, covering several acres to the degree of pollution concentration 500-3000 mg/kg, which is successfully carrying out the processes of natural recovery of soil and vegetation and conduct of stakeholders with seeding.

The technical result is achieved by the fact that they spend a gradual clearing of the swamp from the main and residual concentrations of petroleum contamination using climatic factor, pudol which dig trenches for the collection of oil or petroleum products, at the first stage in collecting main concentrations of oil pollution from the surface of the swamp in the summer-autumn period through the buried floating scraper by its reciprocating movement by means of a traction mechanism from one trench to another, in the second stage, carry out the removal from the site of residual concentrations of petroleum contamination by washing off the water flow into the trench, at a cross section from one trench to another set booms, and the third stage produces the removal of contaminated soil and vegetation in the winter-spring period when the frozen swamp through the knife-scraper mounted on the runners, by its reciprocating movement from one trench to another by means of a traction mechanism.

The implementation of the method is illustrated in the drawings.

In Fig. 1 shows a diagram of the purification section of the swamp from the main concentration. In Fig. 2 shows the knife-scraper (in section).

Swampy area filled with oil when the accident (Fig.1), is divided into sections (1) through sand dams (2). The length and width of the section is determined by the convenience of later work. Along dams (2) dig a trench (3) depth of 1 m or more for collecting the deposits of the period. On both sides of the section (1), dams (2) there are two traction mechanism (4) - tractors with mounted winches (5), through which the cable coupling device (6) connected with a floating scraper (7). Scraper (7) made in the form of pipes or pipe connections with tightly closed tips. The depth of the scraper (7) in the oil layer is carried out by increasing the weight of the filling volume of the liquid or granular material through the cover (8). Using winches (5) scraper (7) move from one trench to another. Captured scraper (7) the oil is transported in a trench (3). Then both of the traction mechanism (4) move on dams (2) in the same direction at a distance equal to approximately half the length of the scraper (7), and the process repeats. Clearance area (1) is produced as long as the surface is not removed all the oil that can be collected by the scraper (7). From the trench (2) the collected oil was transported to the pit for temporary storage for further processing. After completion of the first phase on the surface of the swamp the remaining oil and contaminated residues.

During the same summer-Osenovo period carry out the second stage of the treatment marshes from residual concentrations. For this segment of the trench (3). Washed of residual oil contamination with the water flow are transported into the trench (3), which are taken in places of temporary storage for subsequent separation of oil and water and oil sludge processing. In case of need across the site can be set up booms to create a water flow more power.

In winter, the marsh is frozen to a depth of several dozen centimes, and oily soil remains unfrozen, remaining on the surface of the oil becomes thick. The third treatment stage is carried out at the beginning of winter or in the spring after snow melting.

Technological scheme of the third stage of the final clearing of land from crop residues and contaminated the soil and vegetation is similar to the purification scheme from the major concentrations and differs in that instead of floating scraper (7, Fig.1) use knife-scraper.

Knife-scraper (Fig.2) installed on the rails (9), work the body in the form of two bonded blades (10) on both sides of the working body to hold the cuttings in transportation made fences (11).

Using winches knife-scraper is moved from one trench to another. Cleaning lead to the complete removal of the Sabbath.

Removal of the contaminated layer at much frozen swamp (freezing depth of 70-90 cm) final cleaning can be performed wetland bulldozer with low specific surface pressure.

Example Marshy swamp area of 30 ha was divided into sections of sand dams. Section length equal to the length of the bog, and the width of 60-70 meters Along the dams were excavated trench with a depth of 1 m, the Height of the oil layer above the soil was 50 cm Depth of saturation of the soil - 50-70 see the First stage of cleaning was carried out according to the above-described technology. Floating scraper with a diameter of 72 cm was buried in the oil layer. For once scraper in the trench was transported from 5 to 10 m3oil. On average, over 9 hours cleared a total area of 2 ha. After completion of the first phase on the surface of the swamp remained residual oil contamination and oil-contaminated residues, the concentration of oil in the soil averaged 250000 mg/kg

Then were clearing the swamp from residual concentrations. The section is divided containment fences at a distance of 5-7 m from each other. For washing off residual concentrations and stream towards the trenches used mobile high-performance 6-DIMM 5-10oto the surface of the swamp washed before a residual oil contamination, which stream of water rushed to the trenches. After completing the second stage, the concentration of oil in the soil was 50000-60000 mg/kg

The third stage of the treatment was carried out in spring after snow melting in the frozen swamp.

After the third step, the concentration of pollution was 500-3000 mg/kg in the Spring were made on cleared land Bioregulation work, and restoration of soil and vegetation was successful.

Thus, the complex method of purification of wetlands in case of emergency spills of oil allowed to restore the territory of 30 hectares

Claims

The purification method of the marshes from oil and oil products, including the splitting of the polluted area of the swamp into sections and removed from the surface area of oil pollution using his flushing water stream, wherein spend a gradual clearing of the swamp from the main and residual concentrations of petroleum contamination using climatic factor, while at the preparatory stage, splitting the contaminated sites section through dembmtrate oil contamination from the surface of the swamp in the summer-autumn period through the buried floating scraper by its reciprocating movement by means of a traction mechanism from one trench to another, in the second stage, carry out the removal from the site of residual concentrations of petroleum contamination by washing off the water flow into the trench, at a cross section from one trench to another set booms, and the third stage produces the removal of contaminated soil and vegetation in the winter-spring period when the frozen swamp through the knife-scraper mounted on the runners, by its reciprocating movement from one trench to another by means of a traction mechanism.

 

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