The method of extracting heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions

 

The invention relates to methods of extraction of heavy metal ions adsorption on cellulose sorbents from solutions of different nature, formed after carrying out a variety of technological processes, and can be used to improve membrane and sorption technologies. Extraction of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions is carried out by contacting them with a polymeric sorbent on the basis of cellulose, in particular with pre-treated sawdust or short flax fiber, and the contacting is carried out for 1-15 min at room temperature and module solution/sorbent equal 50-200, and pre-processing of the materials carried out for 0.5-20 min discharge plasma of low pressure generated in the gas phase when the discharge current 15-50 mA, the voltage on the electrodes 1-10 kV and a pressure of 50-100 PA. The invention allows the use of cheap and non-deficient sorbents, waste production, and to avoid environmental pollution and significantly reduce both processing time and the time of the sorption process. table 1.

The invention relates to methods for isolating ions treizeci), formed after carrying out various processes (anodic treatment of metals and alloys and other), and can be used to improve membrane and sorption technologies, the development of technologies for utilization of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions and wastewaters of different nature.

The prior art method of purification of aqueous solutions of ions of heavy metals by filtration through sawdust modified with polysulfides of sodium or ammonium [1. A. C. 1696399 the USSR, MKI52 F 1/62. The method of purification of waste water from heavy metal ions // Pilate B. C., Yakunin, A. I.].

However, this method is associated with a high consumption of reagents (polysulfides of sodium or ammonium) and leads to environmental pollution.

A known method of purification of the sewage of industrial enterprises from heavy metals, in particular copper ions by sorption sawdust treated with 4-methyl-8-oxo-5-Azadegan-3,9-HE-2 when the mass ratio of sawdust - reagent 1:0,05-0,1 [2. A. C. 1819669 the USSR, MKI5In 01020/22. The method of producing adsorbent for wastewater treatment copper // Timofeeva, S. C., Kukharev B. F. , Stankevich C. K., Klimenko, P. - 4911863/05; Appl. 15.05.91; publ. 7.06.93, BI 21]. However, this method is the amount of 5-10% by weight of the sorbent, but also leads to environmental pollution.

The closest in technical essence and the achieved result, that is the prototype, is the method of extraction of copper ions from aqueous solutions of its salts with natural cellulosic materials: of cotton fiber (XB), bamboo cellulose (BC), jute (DV) and sawdust (OP), painted reactive dyes of the type monochloroethene [3. Shukla, S. R., Sakhardande V. D. Cupric ion removal by dyed cellulosic materials// J. Appl. Polym. Sci. - 1990. - V. 41. - N 11-12. - R. 2655-2663]. As a result of application of such sorbents degree of sorption extraction of copper ions was achieved 84,3-97,6%, increasing in number XB<LWoC for 1 h after completion of the dyeing cellulose material was removed from the dye bath, thoroughly rinsed with water and dried in air. It should also be noted that for the sorption of copper ions from aqueous solutions of copper salts were used painted above the tion was 2 h, it has been long enough. Finally, the authors propose to apply the painted sorbent for removal of metal ions from highly concentrated solutions of their salts (1200-1300 mg/l). As a result, when the purification rate of ~97% of the residual concentration of metal ions in solution is much higher than the MAC, averaging 30-40 mg/L. Therefore, this method should be used in combination with the technique of thin clearing.

Summary of the INVENTION object of the invention is the creation of an efficient method of extracting heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions of cellulose-containing materials, allowing the use of cheap and non-deficient sorbents, waste production, and to avoid the use of chemical reagents for processing sorbents, and therefore, pollution and significantly reduce both processing time and the time of the sorption process.

The problem is solved by creating a method of extracting heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions by contacting them with a sorbent based on the pre-treated cellulosic material as a sorbent use sawdust or short flax fiber, processed, the pressure of 50-100 PA, and the contacting is carried out for 1-15 min at room temperature and module solution/sorbent equal 50-200.

INFORMATION CONFIRMING the POSSIBILITY of carrying out the INVENTION Example 1.

10 g of short flax fiber is placed in a plasma-chemical reactor, which is a glass tube, lateral shoots which are metal electrodes. Earlier in the reactor generate a vacuum with a residual pressure of ~1 PA, and then it serves the air flow with a speed of 5 cm/s during continuous pumping system vacuum pump. For modification of the sorbent using glow discharge with the following parameters: working pressure: 50 PA, a current of 15 mA and the voltage across the electrodes 1 kV. Processing of the sorbent in the plasma of low pressure, hold for 0.5 min Then the sorbent is removed from the reactor and is poured at room temperature for 0.5 l of an aqueous solution (module 50) containing 10 mg/l ions of Zn2+. After 1 min the solution is filtered and the filtrate determine the content of metal ions by atomic absorption spectroscopy on the device "Saturn". The concentration of zinc ions after three cycles of sorption was 0.2 mg/l (extraction rate 98%).

Example 2.2+. After 8 min the solution is filtered and the filtrate determine the content of copper ions by atomic absorption spectroscopy on the device "Saturn". The concentration of copper ions after three cycles of sorption was 0.1 mg/l (extraction rate 99%).

Example 3.

10 g of short flax fiber is placed in a plasma-chemical reactor (see example 1), where the modification of the sorbent in the plasma of low pressure for 20 min under the following discharge parameters: working pressure of 100 PA, 50 mA and the voltage across the electrodes 10 kV. Then the sorbent is removed from the reactor and is poured at room temperature and 2 l of an aqueous solution module (200) containing 10 mg/l ions Cd2+. After 15 minutes the solution is filtered and the filtrate determine the content of cadmium by atomic absorption spectroscopy on the device "Saturn". The concentration of cadmium ions after three cycles of sorption was 0.2 mg/l (extraction rate 98%).

Example 4.

10 g of sawdust is placed in a plasma-chemical reactor (see example 1), where for 15 minutes holding the, the current of 40 mA and a voltage on the electrodes 7 kV. Then the sorbent is removed from the reactor and is poured at room temperature 0.65 l of an aqueous solution (module 65) containing 10 mg/l ions of Zn2+, Cu2+and Cd2+. After 10 minutes the solution is filtered and the filtrate determine the content of metal ions by atomic absorption spectroscopy on the device "Saturn". The concentration of ions of zinc, copper and cadmium after three cycles of sorption, respectively 0,2; 0,2 and 0,3 mg/l (degree of recovery of 98%, 98% and 97%).

The results of the experiments presented in the table. Thus, from the table it follows that the proposed method can solve the problem, namely, to allocate heavy metals adsorption from aqueous solutions; this method allows to achieve a high degree of purification at low cost sorbents, representing waste, and avoid using long multi-stage process of preparation of the sorbent to work (the processing time of the sorbent is reduced on average 30 times, and the time of sorption - 10 times) and pollution chemical reagents used to process the sorbents according to the method proposed in the prototype.

The form is with the sorbent on the basis of the pretreated cellulosic material, characterized in that the sorbent use sawdust or short flax fiber, processed in the plasma of low pressure generated in the gas phase when the discharge current 15-50 mA, the voltage of 1-10 kV, a pressure of 50-100 PA, and the contacting is carried out for 1-15 min and module solution:sorbent equal to the 50-200.

 

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