Electrode means with a functional element or without him and the electrode device is formed from the electrode means with functional elements

 

The invention relates to an electrode tool for addressing the functional element. The proposed tool includes first and second electrode located on top of the first. At the intersection of the first and second electrodes is electrically insulating material so that the electrodes overlap one another without direct physical and electrical contact, forming a structure in the form of a bridge. The tool also includes a contact layer, which represents a conductive or semiconductive organic material located over the first and second electrode with the possibility of electrical contact with the first and second electrodes. Also proposed electrode means and a device with two or more electrode devices with the function of detection, storage and/or display information. In the functional possibilities of the proposed electrode means. 3 C. and 35 C.p. f-crystals, 11 ill.

The invention concerns an electrode tool, especially for addressing the functional element consisting of first and second electrodes. The invention also relates to an electrode means with the function of detec the local element, and with the passive electrical addressing of the functional element. In addition, the invention relates to an electrode device with a function of detecting, storing information and/or information display, while the electrode device includes two or more electrode means, each of which has a functional element and a passive electrical addressing of the functional elements in the electrode device.

Finally, the invention also relates to applications of the electrode device of this type.

In the application for the European patent No.0619594 And discovered electronic emitter, which contains a substrate, at least one fuel element forming electrode line, at least one fuel element forming the electrode columns and intersecting the electrode number, and at least an insulating layer, formed at the intersection of the electrodes of the row and the column. At least one conductive layer with the area of the radiating electrons, formed at intersections between the electrodes of the row and the column. An insulating layer formed between the electrodes of the row and column so that they are not in direct electrical contact with each other up until the electrically conductive the life of the electrode. It forms an electronic emitter surface conductive type, in which the conductive layer forms the cathode in such a way that the field-emitting electrons is formed in the vertical portion of the layer between the electrodes. In this case, the electrodes are presented in a bridge configuration and cannot be used for addressing functional element in communication with the electrodes.

There are a number of technical solutions for addressing functional elements, for example in the form of pixels on the surface. However, not many of them allow simple passive addressing of the functional element, and a number of which requires a fairly complex technologies of thin-film transistors. These are very difficult decisions is hampered by a low percentage of output in the production, and the problems increase when the item very large area must be covered with functional elements, such as, for example, in the case of manufacturing "screen", which shall consist of pixels.

One solution to the problem of addressing functional elements is the creation of functional elements so that they form elements in the form of rows and columns in x,y-matrix and the voltage applied to x in the same row is nachamie as Vx+VyVx+Vy>Vowhere Vo- critical threshold voltage for a process that must be managed functional element, for example, the switching material of the liquid crystal display between the two States orientation. To cover the surface of the rows and columns of functional elements thus requires that the rows and columns are not connected electrically to any point in addition to the functional element at the x,y position for addressing, in other words, the intersection between a number x and column y. This is not achieved, when at the same time requires that the functional element contained a very large area of the active surface. One solution to this problem is provided by the series in the same plane and columns in a different plane and their electrical connection with the conductive paths from the lower electrode pattern to the upper electrode pattern. If, for example, there are rows and columns, it is necessary to form the n2conductive tracks that should all work.

The first aim of the invention is therefore the creation of the electrode tool that allows passive addressing the functional e is performance communications elements are part of a two-dimensional matrix, for example, is formed as pixels on the screen.

Another objective of the invention is to provide electrode means with a functional element, in which the functional element can be given the function of detection, storage and/or display information.

The third objective of the invention is to provide electrode means with the functional element of the aforementioned type and an electrode device comprising such electrode means, integrated in the form of a two-dimensional matrix, in which the functional element is not provided between the electrodes, but is placed on one side of the electrodes. This allows you to build, for example, screens, in which the functional element in the form of pixels is addressed to the external side and is open to the viewer or recipient device, with functional elements in the form of the receiving elements is open to the environment.

Fourth objective of the invention is to provide electrode means in which electric connection between the electrodes can be obtained through the use of a contact layer with anisotropic electric conductor, which to some extent implies the possibility of recip design of the electrode device with a passive addressing is therefore considerably simplified compared with the prior art.

The above features and advantages are achieved in accordance with the invention through the electrode means, which differs in that the first electrode is formed in the form of essentially strip structure of electrically conductive material, the second electrode is formed over the first electrode in the form of similar, essentially strip structure of electrically conductive material and located at right angles to the first electrode, crossing the latter, which is the intersection between the first and second electrodes is formed a layer of insulating material so that the electrodes cross one another without direct physical and electrical contact and thus form a structure in the form of a bridge, and that above the first electrode and the second electrode contact layer is formed of conductive or semiconductor material electrically contacting with the first and second electrodes; electrode means, which differs in that the first electrode is formed in the form of essentially strip structure of electrically conductive material, the second electrode formed over the first electrode in the form of similar, essentially, the strip structure from elektroizolyacionnogo material is formed at the intersection between the first and second electrodes, so that the electrodes cross one another without direct physical or electrical contact and thus form a structure in the form of a bridge that the contact layer of conductive or semiconductor material which is in contact with both the first and the second electrode is electrically formed over the first electrode and the second electrode, and that the functional element is formed, essentially, near the intersection of the electrodes or at the intersection of the electrodes, the functional elements have a configuration or receiving element, or element for storage and/or display information; and an electrode device, which differs that the electrode devices are integrated in the form of quasidiagonal matrix that the first electrodes form a relief layer rows of electrodes in the matrix that the second electrodes are not in direct physical or electrical contact with the rows of electrodes form a relief layer of the columns of electrodes in the matrix that the contact layer or integrated, or relief forms a continuous contact layer in the matrix and is distributed to each individual electrode means, which is electrically conductive or poluprovodnikovymi and that functional elements, secured in the contact layer or on top of the contact layer, forming one or more relief or nieletnich layers of functional elements provided in the respective two-dimensional matrices, with a separate functional element is combined with the corresponding intersection between the electrode of the row and the column electrode in the electrode layers.

The electrode device can be installed in the optical, electronic, or chemical cameras, storage devices with electrical addressing or data processing devices with electrical addressing, as well as in display devices with electrical addressing, with the functional elements of the electrode device is formed, respectively, in pixels or memory, or logic elements.

In accordance with the invention, the first and second electrodes mainly composed of a metal with high or low work function, or Vice versa.

In accordance with the invention, a contact layer mainly forms a rectifying electrical contact with the first electrode and the ohmic contact with the second electrode, or Vice versa.

In accordance with the invention, electrically conductive or semiconductor material in the context of predpochtitelno contains insulating matrix in the form of a non-conductive polymeric material and embedded in it, at least one electrically conductive material, and electrically conductive polymeric material is divided into domains with an extension at least equal to the thickness of the contact layer.

In addition, in accordance with the invention, the functional element is mainly provided with or formed as part of the contact layer above the intersections of the electrodes or, essentially, is on the same level with them, or provided as a separate item on top of the contact layer and so that it essentially coincides with the intersection of the electrodes. Preferably the functional element is respectively controlled by the potential of the inorganic or organic metal or controlled by the potential of the semiconductor, inorganic or organic metal with injection current, or a semiconductor with injection current, or inorganic or organic metal accumulation of charges, or the semiconductor stacked charges, these materials contain electroactive and/or electrochromic materials, the optical properties of which change depending on the magnitude of the accumulated charge.

In accordance with the invention, particularly preferably, a separate functional element allelespecific physical excitation signal.

In accordance with the invention is also particularly preferably, a separate functional element is an inorganic or organic metal or semiconductor that generates a response signal in response to a specific chemical reagent.

In accordance with the invention is also advantageous that the electrode device is implemented by thin-film technology, and that the layer of functional elements formed by deposition of a polymer layer from a solution of one conductive polymer or mixture of polymers containing at least one conductive polymer, at this conductive polymer is doped or undoped state.

Other distinctive features and advantages of the invention disclosed additional attached dependent claims.

Now the invention will be explained in more detail based on examples of implementation options and with reference to the drawings, in which: Fig. 1A is a depiction in perspective of the electrode means in accordance with the prior art, Fig.1b is a top view of the electrode means in Fig.1A, Fig. 2A is a depiction in perspective of the electrode means in accordance with the invention, Fig.2b Omnicom, embedded in the matrix, Fig. 3A is a depiction in perspective of the electrode means with a functional element in accordance with the invention, Fig.3b is a fundamental image of the structure of the functional element and implemented, in particular, as the receiving element, Fig.3C - section of the electrode means in Fig.3A, Fig.3d is a top view of the electrode device of Fig.3A,
Fig.4 - first preferred embodiment of the electrode means in Fig.3A,
Fig.5 is a second preferred embodiment of the electrode means in Fig.3A,
Fig.6 is a third preferred embodiment of the electrode means in Fig.3A,
Fig. 7 - electrode device in accordance with the invention and implemented with input and output means to the control electrode means and the detection output signals,
Fig.8 is an equivalent diode circuit for the electrode device in accordance with the invention,
Fig.9 is a diagram of application of the electrode device in accordance with the invention, in the optical or electronic camera,
Fig. 10 is a diagram of application of the electrode device in accordance with the invention in the chemical chamber, and
Fig. 11 is a diagram of application of the electrode device in counago means, implemented in accordance with the prior art, i.e. in the form of a three-layer structure in which the layer of active material 3 is provided on top of the first electrode 1, in this case, the active polymer and again secured over him the second electrode 2, for example an electrode of indium-tin shown on the glass substrate. Active polymer 3 can contain a polymer light-emitting diodes that use a rectifying contact formed between the conjugate polymer and a metal electrode 1. A number of these polymers has a conductivity of P-type and therefore a rectifying contact may be obtained by contacting the metal with a low work function such as aluminum, calcium, or indium. Electrode means, in which the polymer is enclosed between the two electrode layers, previously used for the purposes of photodetective. For most of these tools is common that one of these electrodes is a transparent indium oxide-tin (Reis) on the glass substrate, while the first electrode 1, i.e., the metal electrode is made in the form of a layer that is deposited on the polymeric material. In these tools, the light passes through the transparent side of vesprini the look of geometry can be easily extended to the design of the photodiode array. As the resin material 3 is placed between the electrodes 1 and 2, the deposition of the first or bottom electrode, but can be damaged easily located over him polymeric material. The deposition of the metal may, for example, to seep through the polymeric material to form a shorting jumper, or may occur chemical reactions that can modify the polymeric material. If you use the method on the basis of the photoresist to give the required relief to the first or bottom electrode in the three-layer structure in the electrode means, the polymeric material must be able to withstand all solvents and etching agents that apply.

As active polymeric material located between the electrodes 1 and 2, electrode means in a three-layer design in addition to be less suitable for a number of purposes. For example, it may not be used for addressing detector arrays consisting of perceiving elements adapted to respond to specific chemical substances, if they are unable to penetrate through one of the layers. If the electrode means in a three-layer structure is used for addressing detector arrays in electronic kamalaya transparent.

In Fig.1b shows a top view of the electrode means in a three-layer structure in Fig.1A. The active region 3' of the electrode tool, shown shaded, and is formed, as will be seen, the whole region, which is located between the electrodes 1 and 2 in the intersection. This should mean that a three-layer structure of the electrode tool is very well suited for use as a photodetector, as the active region 3' is equal to the product of the width of the electrodes and therefore will generate a relatively high photocurrent.

Electrode means in accordance with the present invention is implemented as a structure in the form of a bridge, as shown in perspective in Fig.2A. In her first electrode 1, for example aluminum electrode not shown is formed on the substrate, which, for example, may consist of silicon. On top of the aluminum electrode 1 is provided by a layer of insulating material and on top of this layer is provided by the second electrode, which may be made of metal, for example gold. Materials respectively for the first and second electrodes 1 and 2 must have a different work function, for reasons that should be discussed in more detail below. You only need obespechitelnogo physical or electrical contact. The insulating layer 4 is preferably precipitated by centrifugation, so that it is formed as a thin film. As shown in Fig. 2A and in the top view in Fig.2b, the electrodes 1 and 2, essentially implemented as strip patterns and are mutually perpendicular. Under the intersection of the electrodes should therefore in General to understand the area that mutually cover the two electrodes and which is therefore essentially be equal to the product of the width of the electrodes. As shown in Fig.2b, the upper surface of the second electrode 2 is open. If the insulating layer 4 are precipitated so that it covers the whole of the first electrode 1, the insulating layer after was besieged a second electrode 2 may be removed where it is not covered with the second electrode, for example, by etching.

Themselves electrode materials may be deposited by sputtering and, if the first electrode 1 is provided on the substrate, for example, of silicon, on the surface of the silicon can be grown oxide layer, for example, a thickness of about 1 μm to provide electrical isolation when the electrode means is made integral way, i.e. with a large number of electrode means on the same substrate. The electrodes are precipitated from prema etch process to remove the unwanted areas of the insulating layer. As an insulating material in the insulating layer 4 was used benzocyclobutene (BCV). The solution benzocyclobutene 1:2 mesitylene applied by centrifugation in a layer on top of the first electrode and the substrate for 30 seconds at a speed of 1000 Rev/min Solidification of the insulating layer lasts for 1 hour at 200oC. the Thickness can vary from 200 to 400 nm depending on the temperature of the solution before coating by centrifugation.

In one embodiment, the implementation of the gold electrode was deposited from the vapor phase on top of the insulating layer 4. The mechanical stability of the gold benzocyclobutene however, is poor and, therefore, the deposition of the gold electrode was deposited from the vapor phase layer of chromium with a thickness of 2 nm. The actual thickness of the gold electrode was 50 nm. As mentioned above, the area of the insulating layer 4, which is not covered with the second electrode 2, are removed. Using reactive ion etching, this removal process required less than 2 min and then appeared tool with the structure as shown in Fig.2b.

Now on top of both of the electrodes 1 and 2 is provided with a contact layer 3 of conductive or semiconductor material, which is electrically contactor contactnum layer shown in the top view in Fig.2C. Along two opposite side edges of the second electrode 2 and to the side of the first electrode 1, a contact layer 3 forms the active region 3'. These areas have a much smaller extension than in the case of implementation with a three-layer structure, but the difference in current will be negligible when the electrodes 1 and 2 are doing extremely narrow. In the following discussion, the narrow implementation of the contact layer 3 starting point is that the conductive or semiconductor material in the contact layer is anisotropic conductor or semiconductor. Discussion in particular is directed towards the application of the anisotropic conductor, obtained from polymer materials. This however does not contradict the fact that in some implementations can often be necessary to use an anisotropic material in the contact layer 3. When the first and second electrodes 1 and 2, for example, containing a metal with a high or low output operation, or Vice versa, the contact layer 3, as mentioned above, forms a rectifying electrical contact with the first electrode 1 and the ohmic contact with the second electrode 2, or Vice versa.

Contact layer 3 with an anisotropic conductor is shown schematically in Fig. 2. Contact is about, at least one electrically conductive polymer material 5. As shown in Fig.2A, conductive polymer material 5 is divided into domains with an extension at least equal to the thickness of the contact layer 3. The person skilled in the art will easily understand that, if the contact layer 3 with an anisotropic conductor forms an ohmic contact with the first and second electrodes 1 and 2, it will be impossible to selectively address the intersection point between the electrodes. Selective addressing requires that exactly one of the contacts were rectifying contact. It is well known that the metal contacts of undoped or doped conjugated polymers can be rectifying. For example, as in the case of contact between aluminum and doped or undoped substituted compounds polythiophenes. On the other hand, the gold forms an ohmic contact with these materials in their doped and undoped States. With the first electrode 1 made of aluminum, an anisotropic conductor, if it is formed from a mixture of polymers, always forms a rectifying contact, while his contact with the gold electrode 2 above it will be ohmic.

In the construction consolesource in isotropic forms. In the presence of extremely low anisotropic conductivity of these properties manifest as a macroscopic anisotropic conductivity is only used when the single crystals of metal or semiconductor materials. However, there are some situations in which the anisotropic conductivity can be attractive, and a number of hybrid materials and devices with these properties is used in the art. These materials often consist of compositions of conductors to insulators, which were obtained by one or other way, to ensure anisotropic conductivity. For example, the elastomers used in the so-called contact method of inverted crystal. Also known anisotropic conductive adhesives based on a matrix containing metal particles. They are usually used in thick-film structures.

A very simple implementation of anisotropic conductivity can be obtained with films of polymer blends between conjugated and conducting polymers and at least one matrix polymer, which is insulating. Usually in a mixture of this type is observed phase separation (see, for example, International patent application PCT/SE 95/00549 with nasah comparable to the film thickness, i.e., the thickness of the contact layer so that the conductive domains are open both at the top and on the bottom side of the film, it is possible to provide these tapes between conductors for forming electrical contact. When choosing such a stoichiometry of polymer mixtures in which the conductivity parallel to the film, is very low due to the lack of a two-dimensional tracks leakage, easy to form a thin anisotropic conductor, as schematically shown in Fig.2d. The anisotropy ratio between the conductivity along the perpendicular to the film and the conductivity parallel to the direction of extension of the film, may well be several orders of magnitude. A film of this type can be easily obtained by centrifugation of the solution of one or more conjugated polymers, or one or more insulating polymers. The film can also be obtained by casting from a solvent, by immersion in a melt or even surface with the use solution, or gel.

Preferably a non-conductive material selected from a class of Homo - and copolymers of polyacrylates, polyesters, polycarbonates, polystyrenes, polyolefins or other polymers with nesaprasanas basis. Particularly preferably, neprovadely material, which provides a contact layer with its anisotropic conductive properties and may be selected from among a class polyheterocyclic polymers, such as substituted polythiophene, substituted politikfeldanalyse, substituted polypyrrole, polyaniline and substituted polyaniline, substituted poly-para-phenylindane and their copolymers. Particularly preferably, electrically conductive polymer material was poly[3-(4-octylphenyl)-2,2'-Bethoven] (START).

A contact layer with a thickness of 100 nm, consisting of START in PMMA matrix was deposited on a gold surface. By atomic force microscopy (AFM), it was confirmed that the domains through a contact layer with a thickness of 100 nm to the surface, were fairly evenly distributed in it and had a typical diameter in the transverse direction in a few tens of nanometers.

Now will be described electrode means with the functional element 7, which may have the function of detecting, storing information and/or display information. In particular, the functional element 7 can be electroacoustically, chemically sensitive, photosensitive or radiating element, and the use of electrode means in compliance the element 7 is provided near the intersection of the electrodes 1 and 2 or in the intersection and may be either secured, or formed as a segment of a contact layer 3 on top of the intersection of the electrodes and is then, essentially, to be on the same level with him, so that the functional element 7 essentially corresponds to the active regions 3', as shown in Fig.2. But the functional element 7 can also be implemented as a separate element and secured at the intersection of the electrodes 1 and 2, but on top of the contact material 3. As shown in perspective in Fig.3A, the first electrode 1 is provided on a substrate not shown, for example, made of aluminum. Above aluminum electrode provided with a dielectric layer 4 and over the insulating layer, the second electrode 2 of the second electrically conductive material, for example gold. Wherever the insulation layer 4 not covered gold electrode 2, it is discharged, so that there is no direct contact at the intersection between the electrodes 1 and 2 and any other electrical contact. Over the intersection of the electrodes 1 and 2 is provided a contact layer 3, and the functional element 7 is provided, for example, in the form of sensitive polymer on top of the contact layer and at the intersection, so he essentially is somewhat beyond the latter.

The EU is it discussed in connection with Fig.7, he must be either connected in a diode structure, or have inherent rectifying properties to avoid the problem of crosstalk in passive matrix addressing of the device.

The fundamental structure of the functional element 7, which is realized by the function of detecting, as shown in Fig.3b. The first electrode 1, here shown as a metal electrode made of aluminum, formed with a first polymer material P1 from START rectifying the transition of Schottky, in which the metal forms a cathode. The second polymer material P2 itself forms the active or the detecting element and can be designed so that it alters its conductivity under the influence of a physical or chemical stimulus. The second electrode, which is constructed as a metal electrode made of gold, includes an anode structure and forms naviplay contact with the polymer P1 (START).

Aluminium was selected as the first metal electrode, as it has such a low work function, as 4.3 eV. Gold anode has a higher work function, namely to 5.2 eV.

When using patterns or geometry, as shown in Fig.3b, it is possible to control the state of conduction sensitive polymer P2, which is here designated as Roy transition between aluminum and alloyed RETORT was worse than the transition, which was used unalloyed TORT, even if the electrical current for a given voltage was much higher. However, it is believed that the rectifying property of the transition is more important than the bulk conductivity and therefore receiving element preferably used unalloyed START.

As START soluble in nonpolar solvents, the polymer soluble in polar solvents should be used as a sensitive polymeric material, as otherwise RETORT layer will be destroyed during application by centrifugation layer of this polymer. Was selected water-soluble polythiophene, namely poly[3-((S)-5-amino-5-carboxyl-3-occupancy)-2.5-difenilgidantoin] (POWT). This molecule has unprotected amino acid side chain, which shows remarkable dependent on solvent range specific rotation and circular dichroism, that is what is interpreted as caused by the mutual transformation between Cenerentola and antialienation neighboring side chains along the polymer chains. This polymer is also soluble in methanol and dimethyl sulfoxide. It can be doped with iodine (J2) or a solution of nitrosylhemoglobin is, what it can bind different protein substances with amino acid side chains of the molecule. Therefore, you can use the protein, which has the effect of changing the conductivity of the polymer, such as a biochemical reaction to a stimulus that may be of great interest, if the functional element should be used as a detector specific chemical reagents. The functional element 7 is constructed in the form of sensitive polymer, may be applied or deposited by centrifugation so that it forms a pattern on top of the contact layer 3, as shown in Fig.3A. In this geometry, the current will pass through the sensitive polymeric material and on the said conductive path, namely from the second electrode 2 gold to START layer and then through sensitive polymer POWT to transition between START and the first electrode made of aluminum.

The functional element 7 itself may be the area of the contact layer 3, which corresponds to the area covered by the functional element, as shown in Fig. 3A, and the active area of functional elements will then be feasible to match the active area 3', as shown in Fig.2b, namely the area of the contact layer 3, which is sekhet the other electrode. In Fig.3c and Fig.3d shows respectively a sectional view and a top view of the electrode means in which the functional element 7 is provided as a separate component on top of the contact layer 3 and above the intersection of the electrodes 1 and 2. Access to the functional element 7 may be in any case provided as from the first and second electrodes. Depending on the material used in the functional element, it can have the function of detection, i.e., the function of the receiving element, have the function of storing information, i.e., be designed as a storage element with an electrical addressing, or it can have the function display information, for example, be designed as a radiating element.

If the functional element 7 is implemented with a perceiving function, it can be manufactured in a way that provides a variable resistance in the feedback stimulus, for example, as a reaction to a biological material, a chemical reagent, the light or radiation pressure, and the output signal is current. Functional elements can be constructed in the material, the electrical properties of which can be controlled or changed by applying voltage or injection current Il is about higher electric or photovoltaic properties of these materials make it possible to determine the presence of the alloying substances or incident light by changing the conductivity of the material. In addition, conjugated polymers, as mentioned, can also emit light in the formation of the 5 domains, which function as light-emitting domains. You can also modify properties of conjugated polymers in this respect by setting their sensitivity and selectivity in relation to specific chemical or specific wavelength. A number of conjugated polymers has these properties, particularly preferably substituted polythiophene (START).

Now will be described with reference to Fig.4, 5 and 6, as can be addressed and managed functional element.

In Fig. 4 shows a section through the electrode means with the functional element 7 in the form of the receiving element, provided on top of the contact layer 3 at the intersection of the electrodes 1 and 2. The material of the functional element 7 should be the guide, for example, organic or inorganic metal or semiconductor. In particular, in Fig.4 shows an electrode tool for addressing napravo element 7. Liquid crystal element can be considered as a pixel in the LCD screen. The liquid crystal element 8 is in contact with the electronic conductor, which forms the third electrode of the electrode means. The intention now is that the addressing voltage occurred in this form of signal, when provided by the management of some specific process, which in this case is the state of orientation of liquid crystal element 8.

If the electrode means in Fig.3A is used to control the LCD display, it is only necessary to use voltage as the control does not require particularly high currents. If the liquid crystal element in Fig.4 is replaced by the electroluminescent element 10, it will require much higher currents, but the principle management remains very similar to the management principle of liquid crystal display. In this case, an electronic insulator 8, i.e., the liquid crystal element is replaced by a homogeneous layer 10 of electroluminescent material, preferably a conjugated polymer, as shown in Fig.5. On top of the electroluminescent layer 10 is available again-thirds of the national element 7, so the current passes through the electroluminescent layer 10. In this regard, it is important that a sufficiently high current could be injective functional element 7 to the polymeric material in the electroluminescent layer 10 was emitting. Here the functional element 7 is an inorganic or organic metal with injection current, or semiconductor with the injection current.

If the functional element 7 is implemented as inorganic or organic metal charge accumulation, or a semiconductor with a charge accumulation, it may also contain electroactive or electrochromic materials. The electrochromic material may be again preferably conjugated polymer and the functional element can now be implemented as an electrochromic pixel in the screen, as shown in Fig.6. On top of the functional element 7 in this case is provided by a layer 11 of a solid electrolyte is preferably in the form of a thin film of polymer electrolyte and on top of it the third electrode 12 of the electroactive material. When the current and the charge of the addressing of the functional element 7 state of the electrochromic material with the functional element 7 will change when the current passes through poloumnogo material in the functional element 7 is changed and this change will continue, while the injected charge again will not disappear. This is the basis of the electrical addressing electrochromic thin-film screens that can be used for reversible registration information. Addressing and writing to the electrochromic film screen in this case should be combined with the reading state of the functional element 7. Since most of the electrochromic materials change their resistance when you change the state of doping, it is possible first of all to manage this through the injection current through the functional element 7 which is in contact with the electroactive the counter-electrode 12 above introduced solid electrolyte 11 or polymer electrolyte. This altered state of doping can then be found by addressing the functional element 7 current and reading the resistance of the functional element. Preferably in this regard, it may also be provided for the electronic conductor 9 on top of the electroactive electrode 12. It can be used to implement the storage element. Even if writing and reading in this case occurs at a low speed, this embodiment makes it possible to integrate such storage Elo devices for data storage.

Electrode means shown in Fig.3A and Fig.4, 5 and 6, can be easily integrated in quasidiagonal matrix with the electrode device 13, in which the electrodes 1 and 2 in a separate electrode means now form a continuous strip patterns, which contain respectively the rows and columns of electrodes 1 and 2 in the matrix, in this series, as listed below, marked as x electrodes and column as the electrodes of the electrode device.

Electrode device 13 is implemented as a two-dimensional matrix, shown in the form of an approximate block diagram of Fig.7. Matrix, which is more correctly could be identified as quasidiagonal matrix, since it must have a certain thickness, a bus 14 to a control voltage or ordinary electrodes of the x electrodes is connected to the plate 16 of the Converter input-output, and a bus 15 to the output signals from the electrodes are similarly connected to the plate 16 of the Converter input-output. The output signals from the electrodes is converted into a voltage and output bus 17 on a charge of 20 A/d Converter, where the digital output signals or response signals can be transferred to the appropriate device data bus 21 is given. Bus 19 voltage control rows of electrodes, i.e., the bias voltage, similarly comes from the card 20 A/d Converter and to the circuit Board 16 of the Converter input-output together with the party bus for selection of electrode number to control them. In the matrix of the electrode device 13, a contact layer 3 can now be integrated form solid contact layer in the matrix, so that the conductive or semiconductor material of the contact layer is located on top of both of the electrode layers and electrically in contact with them. Functional elements 7 for each of the electrode means can be provided in the contact layer and to form part of it, with the functional element is formed at the intersection of the x electrode and y electrode in each electrode means, which is inserted into the matrix of the electrode device 13. The functional element 7 may also be provided as a separate element and is inserted in each of the electrode means, as shown in Fig.2A. In principle this can occur when ensuring that the functional element 7 in the layer above the contact layer 10 and at its structuring to functional elements were created for each electrode means 2. This is a structured layer of material, which forms the functional elements and which is deposited over the contact layer 3. First addressing formed functional layer 7 as an active structure intended for separate electrode means in the matrix.

The electrode device of Fig.7 may also be provided with more than one layer of functional elements 7, as a separate layer of the functional element can then be separated by a layer of electronic or ionic conductor.

In Fig. 8 shows a simplified electrical equivalent model of the schema generated x electrodes and y electrodes 1 and 2 in the matrix of the electrode device 13 in Fig.7. At each intersection between row electrodes and column electrodes is formed by a diode 23, which in each case has the same direction of conduction. It is possible that the electrode device may also be implemented with inherent rectifying function, in order to avoid crosstalk problems when addressing, cf. the above description of the functional element in connection with Fig.3A and with the immediately preceding section. Selective addressing of individual electrode means 26 it requires a rectifying contact was present in each electrogram the tool 26 in the x -, y-position in the matrix will be read, there must be no transfer of current between adjacent locations (x+1,y), (x-1,y), (x,y+1) or (x,y-1). It is obvious from Fig.8, which shows that two opposite diode blocking current transition of this type.

When the electrodes provided in a matrix form in the electrode device, such as shown in Fig.8, the current will only pass through the contact layer 3 or between the electrodes 1 and 2 in the active region 3', as shown in Fig. 2A. If, for example, physical or chemical stimulus alters the conductive properties of the polymer material in this area, for example, due to the incident light, the change will be detected by the supply voltage and reading the corresponding current output signal. If the electrodes 1 and 2 in the electrode device are floating, i.e., the x electrode 1 is not electrically biased, the current from the functional element will pass through the adjacent functional elements in the electrode tool with floating electrodes. This problem is solved by grounding the electrodes 2, as shown in Fig.8, when using converters 22 current-voltage all columns between the output and ground. Since the input impedance of these converters 22 current-voltage avails on selected Sadovy electrode 1; 25, since all other electrodes 1; 24 were floating. You get two benefits, namely, the current in each other column electrodes 2 only depends on the functional element identified by this column and the selected next, and all functional elements in the same row, in principle, can be controlled simultaneously. For the control electrode of the device in one implementation we used a specially designed Board 16 of the Converter current-voltage, which also gave a positive bias current to the selected number 1', we used commercially available Board A/d Converter. Electrode device 13 can preferably be software-controlled, such as a PC, as shown in Fig.7, and through the interface of this type, you can choose the voltage that can be applied to series, and may require a waiting time before the first measurement. The last distinctive feature is necessary in order to avoid transient phenomena, such as capacitive currents, and has proven to be advantageous to wait for about 200 MS. Detected output currents can have a value of several PA, so that the noise arising from the scheme in the matrix, mooching a simple implementation of a low pass filter when reading each functional element several times on the frequency, selected by the user and which is the average of the measured values. As expected, the best results were achieved by using the control periods that were a multiple of the period of the supply voltage in the circuit.

If the functional element in the layer is not implemented as a continuous and as a relief layer, it will be in contact with both x and y layers through the anisotropic conductor contact layer 3. Structuring the functional element 7 in the layer is no separate functional element will not zamorachivatsja with neighboring functional element. Of course, it is possible for applications in which the functional layer of the element is flat and solid. Then layer the functional element may be of a material which is in ohmic contact with an anisotropic conductor, but it can also be made such that it forms a rectifying contact with an anisotropic conductor in the contact layer 3. If the functional element 7 is formed with ohmic contact resistance in a separate functional element can be measured by the individual addressing of the functional element, i.e. addressing the x -, y-position in the matrix. In this case, the material functionality signal in the form of altered resistance, when he comes into contact with the chemical substance. They can also be bioculturally material that provides resistance change in the interaction with biomolecules and biological systems, piezo-resistive material where the applied pressure changes the resistance of the functional element, a photoconductive material, in which light changes the resistance of the functional element, or heat-sensitive material, in which heat changes the resistance of the functional element. Recent cases cover a range of beneficial applications of the invention, each of which may be referred to respectively as chemical Luggage, bicamera, the camera and the heat chamber. In General, any interaction, which changes the conductivity or resistance of the functional element can be read by using such embodiments of the electrode device 13 regardless of whether the interaction of physical, chemical or biological cause. Depending on the function or application of the appropriate size of each separate functional element, which when used in the camera can be considered as individual pixels camera, can be from 1 μm is ichino pH in the biological cell, will be selected functional element with dimensions of the order of several micrometers.

If the electrode device is made as a series of identical and reproducible devices, they can be made of a size between 10 μm and 1 cm, so that the electrode layers in the device become homogeneous at these sizes. It is also possible that the implementation of the electrode device in accordance with the invention for use in a camera, especially for the detection of chemicals or biomolecules in the chemical chamber, respectively, may be in the form of a biosensor for simultaneous detection of many substances and interactions and functional elements that are used only once and may combine with positioning of functional elements on different parts of the surface. Another possible application is to use chemically sensitive, but not specialized polymers and combining a number of different materials in a functional element, for example, deposited by ink jet printing on a variety of functional elements in the device, so that it becomes possible to realize what can be described as artificial chemical or bio the food, where it is desirable to detect the presence of chemical or biological interactions.

Electrode device 13 in accordance with the invention can also contain contact layer 3, which has no anisotropic conductor, but in which a contact layer consisting of a homogeneous material that can react with biomolecules, chemicals, light, or pressure, is deposited directly on the electrode structure. The functional element 7 is then introduced into the contact layer 3, forming part of the past, and will function as detectors, where the active region again correspond to the boundary regions 3', as shown in Fig.2, and allow the detection of changes or specific characteristics in these active regions 3', when they are exposed to special excitation signals. Specific changes can, for example, be changes in resistivity, capacitance, or volt-ampere characteristics.

Electrode device 13 in accordance with the invention can find application as a device for data processing, if the functional elements 7 are adapted so that they can be switched between different States and in which the group is the use of the electrode device 13 in accordance with the invention as a memory electrically addressable for data storage. Then there is the entry in each memory cell in a memory device as a memory cell corresponds to a separate electrode means 26 and the storage device corresponds to the electrode device 13. Contact layer 3 itself may in this case primarily to function as a storage material, and write to the storage area, i.e. in a separate storage element can be made by changing the electrical properties of the contact layer in the active area of each electrode means 26 or the storage element. For example, the record can be a violation of conductivity so that there was no electrical contact between the electrodes 1 and 2 on a given storage area. Perhaps the storage device 13 can be implemented so that gradually decreased conductivity. If this reduction occurs at pre-defined stages, each storage area can store more than one bit can be stored bits in accordance with a specific multilevel code. Therefore, the memory capacity can be increased substantially. A more detailed description of how electrical addressing zapominayusche atentos application 972803, registered on 17 June 1997 and issued to the present applicant. Storage devices of this type can be constructed in three-dimensional form, positioning the electrode of one device on another. Especially with the use of coding in each storage area will then be possible to obtain a storage device with electrical addressing extreme high volumetric storage capacity.

Electrode device 13 in accordance with the invention can also be used as an optical camera or electronic camera with the implementation of a contact layer or the functional layer as a photodiode array. This can for example happen when using the well-known photodiode material, such as mating polythiophene mixed with buckministerfullerene60in the contact layer. The camera function of this type is shown schematically in Fig.9.

Electrode device 13 can, as mentioned above, also be used as chemical Luggage, strictly speaking, as a chemical sensor, for example, to determine the specific distribution of chemical substances, as schematically shown in Fig.10. It can then be used as a functional element that contains p is m device, making it suitable for detecting chemical substances, i.e., for chemical camera. Due to the fact that the mating polythiophene can interact with the oxidizing chemical substance with the formation of very conductive polymer material, such a system can, for example, be considered as a model system for chemical cameras of this type. For example, it is well known that pairs of iodine will oxidize polythiophene, including RETORT, which is preferably used in the present invention. This leads to increased conductivity many times. Therefore, the functional element can be addressed electronically so that it can follow that the process of doping, which may be represented in the form of increased conductivity.

In Fig. 10 schematically shows the result of detection of iodine crystals on the chemical detector camera constructed in accordance with the invention and with the electrodes, respectively, of aluminum and gold when using the insulating layer from benzocyclobutene covered RETORT, which forms as a contact layer, and the layer of the functional element.

Electrode device 13 can also be used in the device display is carolinianum. In the same structure that is used in the application described in connection with Fig.9, may also emit light. In a variant implementation of conjugated polythiophene used in the functional layer of the element, and was deposited on top of the electrodes of indium oxide and tin, to which was applied a voltage of +30 V while grounding the aluminum electrodes (electrode layers). The pixels of the light source is easily visible to the naked eye. In a variant implementation polymer pixels emit red light. When a voltage is applied to a special electrode means in the electrode device, the light will radiate from the electrode means.

With electrode means 26 and the electrode device 13 in accordance with the invention achieves a very great advantage in that the functional element or material in the functional layer of the element simultaneously open and accessible from the environment, as it can be addressed electrically and therefore gives the possibility of detecting substances and specific excitation signals to which the sensitive material of the functional element.

Manufacture of individual parts of the electrode means in accordance with the ne patent application PCT/SE 95/00549 and article Berggren, O. Ingans & al. "Light emitting diodes with variable colours from polymer blends". Nature, 1994, 372 so, page 44. However, as a guide for professionals in this field in a separate Appendix provides examples that are specific and informative in connection with the funds in accordance with the present invention. These examples relate to the production of anisotropic conductive material, the manufacture of the electrode means on the substrate and applying a layer of the functional element in the electrode means in accordance with the invention and with and without the use of an anisotropic conductor.

EXAMPLE 1
The formation of anisotropic conductive material
5 mg/ml poly[3-(4-octylphenyl)-2,2'-bithiophene] (START) is dissolved in chloroform and 5 mg/ml (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) similarly dissolved in chloroform. From these solutions get the mixture to prepare a 6% solution START in PMMA. This solution in the form of a coating applied to the substrate by centrifugation speed (800 rpm to obtain a film thickness of about 100 nm. In this case, the film thickness is comparable to the domains of conjugated polymer, therefore, the conductivity perpendicular to the film is high, and electrop is consistent shape, exposing it to the influence of gaseous oxidants or oxidizers in solutions that do not dissolve two polymer. If the polymer mixture is deposited on a conductive substrate, can also be legitemate it to the state of conduction of electrochemical doping.

EXAMPLE 2
The formation of anisotropic conductive material
5 mg/ml poly(3-octyl)thiophene (SWEAT) is dissolved in chloroform and 5 mg/ml (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) similarly dissolved in chloroform. From these solutions get the mixture to prepare a 5% solution of SWEAT in PMMA. This solution is then applied to the substrate by centrifugation speed (800 rpm to obtain a film thickness of about 100 nm. In this case, the film thickness is comparable to the domains of conjugated polymer, therefore, the conductivity perpendicular to the film is high, and the conductivity parallel to the film, is negligible. If you want, you can convert the SWEAT in alloy form, subjecting it to the influence of gaseous oxidants or oxidizers in solutions that will not dissolve two polymer. If the polymer mixture is then precipitated onto a conductive substrate, it is possible to legitamate it to the state of conductivity of electrochemi Ievy crystal cover aluminum tracks (x electrodes of thickness 250 nm), sputtered through a shadow mask. Layer benzocyclobutene (BCB; Cyclotene, trade name manufacturer Dow Chemical) is applied by centrifugation at 1000 rpm for 30 s from a solution BSB in mesitylene with a ratio of 1:10 to obtain a film thickness of 200-400 nm. The film is subjected to curing at 250oC for 60 min. Layer of gold (50 nm) underlayer of chromium with a thickness of 2 nm for the adhesion of the sprayed through a shadow mask, defining the electrodes. Crystal poison in plasma reactive ion etching for 2 minutes In the gold electrodes remain intact, but all other surfaces is removed BSB. Aluminum electrodes are opened after this etching. Anisotropic layers are precipitated according to example 1.

EXAMPLE 4
The formation of the electrode device on the glass substrate
The glass substrate is covered with benzocyclobutene (BCB) by centrifugation and drying. It is used as a substrate for the deposition of further layers. Cover the surface of the aluminum tracks (x electrode with a thickness of 50 nm) sputtered through a shadow mask. Layer PCB (Cyclotene in accordance with the commercial name of the manufacturer of the DOE Chemical) put centrifuger is another 200-400 nm. Film utverjdayut at 250oC for 60 min. Layer of gold (50 nm) underlayer of chromium with a thickness of 2 nm for the adhesion of the sprayed through a shadow mask, defining the electrodes. Crystal poison reactive ion etching for 2 minutes as a result of this gold electrodes remain undamaged and with all other surfaces is removed BSB. Aluminum electrodes are opened after this etching. Anisotropic layers are precipitated according to example 1.

EXAMPLE 5
The deposition of the layer of functional elements
The device in accordance with example 3 cover homogeneous thin film of poly[3-((S)-5-amino-5-carboxyl-3-occupancy)-2,5-thiophenemethylamine] (POWT) casting solvent of the polymer solution. Record the resistance of each pixel of the POWT. A small crystal of iodine is in pixel. Iodine is doping impurity for the POWT and the presence of iodine can be read as a reduction of the resistance of the pixel.

EXAMPLE 6
Electrode device without anisotropic conductor
The device in accordance with example 3, but without anisotropic conductors cover homogeneous film of poly[3-(4-octylphenyl)-2,2'-bithiophene] (START) 5 mg/ml solution of xylene and from C60(buckministerfullerene solution (50oC). This film is photosensitive, and can be detected local changes in the photocurrent or the resistance when exposed to light.


Claims

1. Electrode tool especially for addressing the functional element, comprising first (1) and second (2) electrodes, characterized in that the first electrode (1) is essentially a strip structure of electrically conductive material, the second electrode (2) is located on top of the first electrode (1) and represents a similar, essentially, the strip structure of electrically conductive material and, in fact, orthogonal intersecting relation to the first electrode (1) that the layer (4) is an electrically insulating material, located at the intersection between the first (1) and second (2) electrodes so that the electrodes (1, 2) overlap one another without direct physical and electrical contact and thereby form a structure in the form of a bridge, and that the contact layer (3) is a conductive or semiconductive organic material located over the first electrode (1) and second electrode (2), with the possibility of electrical contact with the PE the d (1) is located on the substrate (3).

3. Electrode means on p. 1, characterized in that the first (1) and second (2) the electrodes are composed of metal with a variety of work output to the first metal electrode had a lower work function than the metal of the second electrode, or Vice versa.

4. Electrode means on p. 3, characterized in that the first electrode (1) is composed of aluminum or aluminum alloy.

5. Electrode means on p. 3, characterized in that the second electrode (2) is made of gold.

6. Electrode means on p. 1, characterized in that the second electrode (2) is composed of indium oxide and tin.

7. Electrode means on p. 1, characterized in that the contact layer (3) forms a rectifying contact with the first electrode (1) and ohmic contact with the second electrode (2) or Vice versa.

8. Electrode means on p. 1, wherein the conductive or semiconductive organic material in the contact layer (3) is anisotropic organic conductor or semiconductor.

9. Electrode means on p. 8, characterized in that the anisotropic organic conductor contains insulating matrix (6) in the form of a non-conductive polymeric material and embedded in it, at meal is divided into domains with an extension at least equal to the thickness of the contact layer (3).

10. Electrode means on p. 9, wherein the conductive polymer material (6) is selected from the class of Homo - and copolymers of polyacrylates, polyesters, polycarbonates, polystyrenes, polyolefins or other polymers with unpaired basis.

11. Electrode means on p. 10, wherein the non-conductive polymer material (6) is polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA).

12. Electrode means on p. 9, characterized in that the electrically conductive polymer material (5) is selected from the class polyheterocyclic polymers, such as substituted polythiophene, politikfeldanalyse, substituted polypyrrole, polyaniline and substituted polyaniline, substituted polyparaphenylene and their copolymers.

13. Electrode means on p. 12, wherein the conductive polymer material (5) is poly(3-4-octyl-phenyl 2, 2'-Bethoven) (START).

14. Electrode means on p. 9, characterized in that the anisotropic electrical conductor (5) is obtained from the solution of the mixture of polymeric materials, which is applied as a layer by centrifugation, casting solvent casting solution.

15. Electrode means with the function of detection the social element (7) and with passive electrical addressing of the functional element (7), characterized in that the first electrode (1) is essentially strip structure of electrically conductive material, the second electrode (2) is located on top of the first electrode (1) and represents a similar, essentially, the strip structure of electrically conductive material and is essentially orthogonal intersecting relation to the first electrode (1) that the layer (4) is an insulating material, located at the intersection between the first (1) and second (2) electrodes so that the electrodes (1, 2) overlap one another without direct physical and electrical contact and thereby form a structure in the form of a bridge that the contact layer (3) is a conductive or semiconductive organic material located with the possibility of electrical contact with the first (1st) and second (2) electrodes, and that the functional element (7) is integral with the specified contact layer (3), adjacent to the electrodes (1, 2), or located on the overlap between the electrodes (1, 2), these functional elements (7) have a configuration or the like of the receiving element, or element for storing information and/or features is t or is formed as part of the contact layer (3) on the overlap of the electrodes (1, 2) and is flush with the contact layer (3) or is a separate element (7) on the contact layer (3) and is adjacent to it so that it is combined with the overlap of the electrodes (1, 2).

17. Electrode means on p. 16, wherein the conductive or semiconductive organic material in the contact layer (3) is anisotropic conductor or semiconductor.

18. Electrode means on p. 17, wherein the conductive organic material contains electrically insulating matrix in the form of a non-conductive polymeric material and embedded at least one conductive polymer material (5), the specified conductive material (5) is divided into domains with an extension at least equal to the thickness of the contact layer.

19. Electrode means on p. 16, characterized in that the functional element (7) is an inorganic or organic metal, a controlled potential, or semiconductor controlled potential.

20. Electrode means on p. 19, characterized in that the functional element (7) for volt addressing contacts above him liquid crystal layer (8), which, in turn, Comte is problemsa applying voltage between the functional element (7) and the electronic conductor (9).

21. Electrode means on p. 16, characterized in that the functional element (7) is an inorganic or organic metal with a current injection or a semiconductor with a current injection.

22. Electrode means on p. 21, characterized in that the functional element (7) for addressing current contacts above him electroluminescent layer (10), which, in turn, is in contact with located above it e-guide (9), in the electroluminescent layer (10) injected current when voltage is applied between the functional element (7) and the electronic conductor (9).

23. Electrode means on p. 16, characterized in that the functional element (7) is an inorganic or organic metal accumulation of charges or the semiconductor stacked charges, these materials contain electroactive and/or electrochromic materials, the optical properties of which change depending on the accumulated charge.

24. Electrode means on p. 23, characterized in that the functional element (7) for the current and charge addressing contact with above it a layer of solid electrolyte (11), which, in turn, is in contact with p is e (7) modify the application of voltage between the functional element (7) and electroactive material.

25. Electrode means on p. 22, characterized in that the solid electrolyte (11) is a polymeric electrolyte.

26. Electrode means on p. 23, wherein the electroactive material (12) is in contact with located above it e-guide (9).

27. Electrode device (13) with the function of detection, storage and/or display information containing two or more electrode means (26) according to any one of paragraphs. 15-26 and passive electrical addressing of the functional elements (7) in the electrode device (13), characterized in that the electrode means (26) are integrated in the form of quasidiagonal matrix that the first electrodes (1) form a relief layer of the electrode rows in the matrix that the second electrode (2) that are not in direct physical or electrical contact with the rows of electrodes (1), form a relief layer of the columns of electrodes in the matrix that the contact layer (3), or integrated, or relief, forms a continuous contact layer in the matrix, specific to each individual electrode means (21) that electrically conducting or semiconducting organic material in the contact layer (3) is located on top of both of the electrode layers and electricidade, form one or more relief or nieletnich layers of functional elements arranged in respective two-dimensional matrices, with a separate functional element (7) is combined with an appropriate overlap between the electrode (1) and the electrode (2) column electrode layers.

28. Electrode device according to p. 27, which is provided by more than one layer of functional elements, wherein individual layers of functional elements (7) are separated by a layer of electronic or ionic conductivity.

29. Electrode device according to p. 27, characterized in that a separate functional element (7) is an inorganic or organic metal or semiconductor that generates a response signal in response to a specific physical excitation signal.

30. Electrode device according to p. 27, characterized in that a separate functional element (7) is an inorganic or organic metal or semiconductor which generates a response signal in response to exposure to specific chemical reagent.

31. Electrode device according to p. 27, in which the conductive material in the contact layer (10) is anisotropic pruvodnimi electrodes (2), you get samootkryvayuschiesya electrical connection between the two electrode layers.

32. Electrode device according to p. 27, characterized in that it is implemented by thin-film technology.

33. Electrode device according to p. 27, characterized in that the functional layer formed by deposition of a polymer layer from a solution of one conductive polymer or mixture of polymers containing at least one conductive polymer, with the specified conductive polymer is doped or undoped state.

34. Electrode device according to p. 33, characterized in that the deposition of a layer of functional elements is performed by centrifugation of the solution of polymer or mix of polymers, casting solvent casting solution.

35. Electrode device according to p. 27, characterized in that the functional elements (17) of the electrode device when it is installed in an optical or electronic camera, form the pixels in the receiving means (13) in the chamber.

36. Electrode device according to p. 27, characterized in that the functional elements (7) of the electrode device when it is installed in the chemical chamber, to form pixels in perceiving elektrodnogo device, when it is installed in the storage device with electrical addressing or processing unit with an electrical addressing, form storage elements or logic elements.

38. Electrode device according to p. 27, characterized in that the functional elements (7) of the electrode device when it is installed in the display device with electrical addressing, form the pixels in the display device.

 

Same patents:

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FIELD: colored displays engineering.

SUBSTANCE: presented data of image are multicolor data in format of bit-wise imaging and one pixel is expressed by assembly of data of each color, plane of which on plane of image data is separated on multiple groups of many pixels near each other. Each group matches each lamp of one of colors. Selection of data of each color of many pixels in one group is repeated at high speed, and lamp of matching color is activated for emitting of light in accordance to selected data of this color. Data planes of each color are grouped in such a way, that they are mutually displaced by position on plane of image data with partial overlapping in interconnection to displacement of position in order of positioning of lamp of appropriate color on display screen.

EFFECT: higher clarity and quality.

2 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: image correction technologies.

SUBSTANCE: image quality correction circuit has a counter of frequency of appearance of brightness levels for counting frequency of appearance of multiple brightness levels, selection of which is performed from video signals, sent to video signal input, linear interpolator for forming correcting characteristics by means of interpolation on basis of points of calculated value, taken from output of appearance frequency counter, and image quality corrector for correction of received video signals in accordance to correcting characteristic points.

EFFECT: better image quality.

5 cl, 21 dwg

FIELD: graphic data indication means.

SUBSTANCE: device has block for calculation of average brightness, block for data conversion and block for calculation of output video data, while block for average brightness calculations determines average brightness level, average image level for images with length n frames on basis of input video data X(X≥0) in coordinate system X-Y, conversion block determines data Xc and Yc with appropriate central point on basis of average image level, and block for calculation of output video data determines output video data Y(Y≥0) gathered after adjustment of contrast level in accordance to formula Y=A·X+Xc·(1-A), where A>0 is steepness, set by variable for adjusting contrast, as a result of which, when A increases and contrast also increases, brightness increase at low level is suppressed for contrast adjustment in accordance to average image level for images with length of certain number of frames.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: operations with images.

SUBSTANCE: video signal is outputted, number of scanning rows of which is doubled by integration of interpolated scanning row of input video signals of scanning rows into it, positioned above and below, accordingly adjacent to interpolated scanning row. Circuit has block for detecting direction having greatest correlation, centered in interpolation point, including vertical and slanting directions, on basis of input video signal, and block for calculation of average value of image signals in two points of selection on scanning points, positioned above and below, appropriate for detected direction. Block for detecting direction estimates, that correlation in direction with slant is greatest, and block for calculation of average value calculates average value of signals of image in two slanting points, allowing in such a way to correctly process interpolation of slanting line in moving image.

EFFECT: higher quality, higher efficiency.

2 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: matrix indication devices.

SUBSTANCE: method presumes mounting an arbitrary number of sub-pixels in one pixel, estimation of properties of each sub-pixel, forming of control signal for each sub-pixel, calculation of difference between produced and required color signals in selected linear-independent basis and serial transfer to next sub-pixel with consideration of priorities.

EFFECT: higher efficiency, higher quality, lower costs.

4 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: indication technique; advertisement information representation devices.

SUBSTANCE: construction and location of light clusters in informational columns is optimized; necessary sizes of informational columns and the distance between them during forming of image area are determined.

EFFECT: increased quality of represented information, operation reliability, and lowered cost.

8 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: matrix display devices.

SUBSTANCE: device consists of a set of display elements compiled into a matrix; every element contains display pixel connected to a switch. Every display element also contains addressable trigger with output connected to switch control input. Addressable trigger has row and column address input.

EFFECT: creation of working mode, in which some display elements are activated on first refresh frequency, and the other display elements are activated on the second refresh frequency, which is less than first refresh frequency, by selective display elements addressing.

20 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: information technologies.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to process of conversion intended for realisation of conversion to higher frequency of frames, for instance, conversion of image frequency of 60 Hz into image of frequency of 120 Hz. Device of image processing converts frequency of frames by separation of inlet image into subframes and display of these subframes, and comprises facility of preliminary processing, intended to realise preliminary treatment, consisting in the fact that value of pixel, inherent in pixel of interest, is replaced with minimum value of pixel from peripheral pixels of pixel of interest in input frame, processing facility with low pass filter for generation of the first subframe by realisation of process of low frequencies filtration above input frame, exposed to preliminary treatment, generating facility to generate the second subframe from the first subframe and input subframe, and switching facility for display of the first subframe and the second subframe by switching of the first subframe and the second subframe into previously identified moment of time.

EFFECT: provision of high quality of image when displayed, when input image is exposed to conversion with double frequency.

14 cl, 20 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: motion detection module 100 detects image motion in input image signal. Subfield formation module 200 generates input image signals in subfields. Light intensity integration module 300 calculates by simulation light intensity integrated on human eye retina when person observes image input from direction of image motion, and displays said image, on the basis of subfield light radiation structure, with calculated light intensity on first display device.

EFFECT: invention may be used when, on using LCD state is reproduced whereat image is displayed in semiconductor display with characteristics other than those of LCD.

9 cl, 39 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: proposed processing module 33 uses processing that emulates beam current automatic limiter (ACL) for image signal. Rate modulation (RM) processing module 34 performs processing to emulate RM processing for said processed image signal. Module 35 of CRT γ-processing performs gamma-correction for said processed image signal.

EFFECT: possibility of natural representation equivalent to CRT display design.

5 cl, 31 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: light-emitting diode lamp has an aluminium radiating housing with a power supply unit in its top part, formed by a hollow rotation body with external radial-longitudinal arms which form the outline of the lamp, fitted with internal radial-longitudinal arms with windows between them and a circular area on the butt-end of the external radial-longitudinal arms in its inner part, on which light-emitting diodes are tightly mounted. The design of the radiating housing with windows between the internal radial-longitudinal arms and guides in the top and bottom parts of the radiating housing, provides efficient convectional heat removal from powerful light-emitting diodes separated from each other by inner and outer streams. The light-emitting diode module has a light-emitting diode fitted into an optical lens and tightly joined to a printed circuit board through a flexible sealing element encircling the light-emitting diode, and the light-emitting diode is rigidly joined to a heat-removing copper plate through a hole in the printed circuit board.

EFFECT: stable light output and colour temperature over the entire service life, high light flux is ensured by a set of structural solutions of the radiating housing and compact light-emitting diode modules.

5 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: light-emitting diode (LED) assembly 20, LED former, comprising a FET 42 (field-effect transistor, current regulating transistor, excitation section) and a thermistor 30 lie on a substrate 10. A plurality of such LED assemblies 20 lie on a substrate 10, whereby an area 50 and area 60, each defined by vertices corresponding to LED assemblies 20, are formed on the substrate 10. The thermistor 30 lies in area 50, and the FET 42 lies on the area 60, which lies outside the area 50. The thermistor 30 detects temperature on area 50. Such a configuration enables the thermistor 30 to detect, in accordance with temperature in area 50, temperature due to heat transferred from the LED assemblies 20, without being affected by heat generated by the FET 42.

EFFECT: efficient temperature correction in order to stabilise colour temperature and brightness.

14 cl, 13 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: nitride semiconductor device comprises n-doped semiconductor nitride layer, p-doped semiconductor nitride layer, active layer made between aforesaid layers by alternative application of layers with quantum wells and quantum barrier layers, electron blocking layer arranged between active layer and p-doped semiconductor nitride layer, and collector layer of holes arranged between active layer and said blocking layer and including region with higher-power valence zone compared with level of p-doped semiconductor nitride layer doping.

EFFECT: higher light intensity, reduced quantum efficiency.

10 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: illuminator has a primary radiation source, a heat-removing base, a radiation converter and a reflector. The primary radiation source consists of one or more light-emitting diodes. Said light-emitting diodes are mounted on the surface of heat-removing base. The converter is in form of a layer of conversion material which converts primary radiation incident on its surface from light-emitting diodes into secondary radiation. The surface of the reflector reflects radiation incident on it. The radiation converter lies between the source of primary radiation and the reflector near said surface of the reflector. The reflector and converter lie at a distance from the primary radiation source. The heat-removing base has a hole for outlet of radiation. Said surface of the converter, which is illuminated with light-emitting diodes, and the surface of the reflector have a concave shape whose concave side face said hole and light-emitting diodes. The light-emitting diodes lie near the perimetre of the hole.

EFFECT: ensuring maximum efficiency of the light-emitting diode source of white light with a remote converter, ensuring high colour uniformity and rendering, as well as a wide angular solution of the emitted light flux with small shape factor of the illuminator.

11 cl, 12 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: array of semiconductor light-emitting elements comprises: a semiconductor crystalline substrate; an insulating film lying on the surface of the substrate, wherein the insulating film is divided into two or more regions, each having two or more openings which expose the surface of the substrate; semiconductor rods stretching from the surface of the substrate upwards through the openings. Each of the semiconductor rods has a layer of an n-type semiconductor and a layer of a p-type semiconductor layered in the direction of its stretching, thus providing a p-n junction; a first electrode connected to the semiconductor crystalline substrate; and a second electrode connected to top parts of the semiconductor rods; wherein the height of the semiconductor rods, measured from the surface of the substrate, varies in each of said two or more regions.

EFFECT: easy formation of a plurality of light-emitting elements which emit light beams with different wavelengths and are formed on the same substrate.

15 cl, 25 dwg

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