Ecr-plasma source for processing of semiconductor structures, the method of processing semiconductor structures, the method of manufacturing semiconductor devices and integrated circuits (options), semiconductor device or integrated circuit (options)

 

The invention relates to microelectronics, and more particularly to a technique of manufacturing solid-state devices and integrated circuits using microwave plasma stimulation under conditions of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR), as well as to technology plasma treatment in the process of manufacturing various semiconductor structures. ECR-plasma source for processing of semiconductor structures in the manufacturing process of semiconductor devices or integrated circuits contains the reactor podarkticules for placing semiconductor structures, the pumping system to provide ultra-high vacuum, a magnetic system, a microwave generator, the input microwave power radiation, the gas switching system and the dosing of the reagents, high frequency generator with a tuner for the formation of permanent samospaseniyu sample. The reactor is designed such that it has resonant volume at a frequency of 2.45 and to 1.23 GHz to maintain a stable discharge. The magnetic system is arranged to create a magnetic field on the inner cut of a quarter-wave input window of the microwave radiation with the intensity of 910-940 GS, and on the longitudinal axis of the source in its Central part on a length of at least 3 is the resultant cross section of the source is less than 3%. Also proposed is a semiconductor device and integrated circuit and methods for their manufacture. The technical result - improving the reproducibility of the parameters of the processed semiconductor structures and devices, improvement of the parameters of the devices, eliminating the possibility of defects in various fields, the acceleration process. 7 C. and 12 C.p. f-crystals, 9 Il.

The invention relates to microelectronics, and more particularly to a technique of manufacturing solid-state devices and integrated circuits using microwave plasma stimulation under conditions of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR), as well as to technology plasma treatment in the process of manufacturing various semiconductor structures.

A known method of manufacturing a solid-state devices and integrated circuits (Ultra-Short 25-nm-Gate Lattice-Matched InAlAs/InGaAs HEMTs within the Range of 400 GHz Cutoff Frequency, Yoshimi Yamashita, Akira Endoh, Keisuke Shinihara, Masataka Higashiwaki, Kohki Hikosaka, Takashi Mimura, IEEE Electron device letters, vol.22, No.8, August 2001), which includes applying a layer of SiO2thickness of 200 nm by plasma assisted deposition from the gas phase at the temperature of the substrate 250oWith the radiofrequency generator, the application of a single layer of electron resist, uh, incotne etching the contact layer, applying a second layer of SiO2thickness of 200 nm by plasma assisted deposition from the gas phase at the temperature of the substrate 250oWith using the radio frequency generator.

The disadvantage of this method is the application of stimulating the deposition of silicon oxide and plasma-chemical etching using RF plasma having a significantly lower density and higher energy particles compared to the microwave plasma under conditions of electron cyclotron resonance and, as a result, the smaller the speed of etching and deposition, the higher the temperature of the substrate when the build-up dielectric layer.

The closest technical solution to a method of processing semiconductor structures, the method of manufacturing various semiconductor devices and integrated circuits, and semiconductor devices and integrated circuits is a method implemented using a semiconductor device (Subcomment micron technology field-effect transistors on pseudomorphs heterostructures with quantum pit Century, Makarov, Y. C. Fedorov, A. C. Huk, W. E. Kaminski, C. D. Amelin, L. E. Velikovsky, E. N. S the safety 600 nm layer of electron resist, 60 nm metal layer, a 500 nm layer of SiO2the exposure and the manifestation of the electronic resist, forming a metal layer by ion beam etching ions AG+with the energy of 200-300 eV narrow gap (0.15 to 0.3 μm), plasma etching of grooves in the layer of SiO2, liquid etching of the bolt groove, coated metal shutter.

The disadvantage of the prototype is the use of ion-beam etching ions Ar+with the energy of 200-300 eV, which causes the formation of radiation defects in channel transistors and in turn leads to the deterioration of the basic parameters of transistors, such as saturation current, breakdown voltage, output power, noise figure and efficiency.

The technical result of the invention consists in improving the reproducibility of the parameters of the processed semiconductor structures and devices - improving basic parameters of devices and integrated circuits, such as limiting the operating frequency, the packing density of elements per unit area, power output, reliability, reduce noise by improving the quality and reducing the size of the active areas of the devices and integrated circuits - Troubleshooting capabilities alasta generated patterns.

The technical result of the invention is achieved by the fact that ECR-plasma source for processing of semiconductor structures in the manufacturing process of semiconductor devices or integrated circuits contains the reactor podarkticules for placing semiconductor structures, the pumping system to provide ultra-high vacuum, a magnetic system, a microwave generator, the input microwave power radiation, the gas switching system and the dosing of the reagents, high frequency generator with a tuner for the formation of permanent samospaseniyu sample, while the reactor is designed so that it has a resonant volume at a frequency of 2.45 and to 1.23 GHz to maintain a stable discharge, the magnet system is arranged to create a magnetic field on the inner cut of a quarter-wave input window of microwave radiation on the longitudinal axis of the source with intensity 910-940 GS, and on the longitudinal axis of the source in its Central part on a length of at least 3 cm - 875 Gauss for the formation of a uniform fashion plasma discharge inhomogeneity of the plasma density on the cross section of the source is less than 3%.

In the plasma source can be provided for two-way asymmetrical shift at led waves with circular polarization, the same direction with the rotation of electrons in a magnetic field, providing the conditions of electron cyclotron resonance, where k is an odd number,- wave length.

The technical result of the invention is also achieved by the fact that in the method of processing semiconductor structures are increasing and/or carry out etching at least one of the layers of the structure using microwave ECR plasma source in the presence of the reactor nonresonant volume at a frequency of 2.45 and to 1.23 GHz to maintain a stable discharge with a magnetic system that provides a magnetic field having an internal cut of a quarter-wave input window of microwave radiation on the longitudinal axis of the source intensity 910-940 GS, and on the longitudinal axis of the source in its Central part on a length of at least 3 cm 875 Gauss for the formation of a uniform fashion plasma discharge inhomogeneity of the plasma density on the cross section of the source is less than 3%.

The technical result of the invention is also achieved by the fact that in the method of manufacturing semiconductor devices or integrated circuits formed on a substrate of a semiconductor structure with active areas form a conductive and/or Upadesha and/or control elements on the surface of the structure increasing, at least one thin dielectric layer, put a layer of resist, hold lithography and precision etching of the dielectric in the areas of location of conductive and/or control elements, sprayed metal(s) and remove the resist, and etching and capacity dielectric is performed with the use of microwave plasma stimulation under conditions of electron cyclotron resonance with the radio frequency bias of the substrate in a plasma source with a resonant volume of the reactor at a frequency of 2.45 and to 1.23 GHz with a magnetic system that creates a magnetic field on the inner cut of a quarter-wave input window of microwave radiation on the longitudinal axis of the source intensity 910-940 GS, and on the longitudinal axis of the source in its Central part on a length of at least 3 cm 875 Gauss, while ensuring a homogeneous fashion of the plasma discharge with the inhomogeneity of the plasma density on the cross section of the source is less than 3%.

When forming the control element of the T-shaped gate and/or conductive elements of the T-shaped conductors or microstrip lines as a dielectric layer build up a layer of silicon nitride at a temperature of the substrate 20-300oWith a mixture of monosilane and nitrogen using explodey cold plasma environment galogensoderjasimi gases.

When forming the T-shaped gate of the transistor on GaAs grow a layer of silicon nitride of a thickness of 100-120 nm, put a layer of resist with a thickness of 0.1-0.4 μm and spend the first electron-beam lithography for formation of regions under sub-100 nm part of the shutter, ECR plasma etching of silicon nitride is carried out in a mixture of CF4with AG or fluoride at a flow rate of 10-100 cm3/min CF4or fluorine, 10-50 cm3/min AG with a total pressure in the reactor 1-7 of mtorr, put the second layer of resist and holding a second electron-beam lithography for formation region under the upper portion of the bolt with cross-sectional dimension in terms of 600 nm, conduct liquid etching channel transistor, form a Ti/Pt/Au metallization.

When forming the T-shaped conductors on a substrate with active elements put a layer of polyimide with a thickness of 50-250 nm, it grow a layer of silicon nitride of a thickness of 100-120 nm, put a layer of PMMA resist with a thickness of 0.1-0.4 μm and spend the first electron-beam lithography for formation of regions under sub-100 nm part of the conductor, ECR plasma etching of silicon nitride is carried out in a mixture of CF4with AG or fluoride at a flow rate of 10-100 cm3/min CF4or fluorine, 10-50 cm3/min AG with a total pressure in the enjoyment of the area under the upper part of the conductor with cross-sectional dimension in terms of 600 nm, form a Ti/Pt/Au metallization, conduct liquid or ECR-plasma removal of silicon nitride and polyimide.

The technical result of the invention is also achieved by the fact that in the method of manufacturing semiconductor devices or integrated circuits with a suspended microstructure for the formation of at least one element of the device or circuitry on a substrate grow thin dielectric layer at a low temperature, applied electronic or photoresist, conduct the process of lithography and precision etching of the dielectric, and etching and capacity dielectric is performed with the use of microwave plasma stimulation under conditions of electron cyclotron resonance with the radio frequency bias of the substrate in a plasma source with a resonant volume of the reactor at a frequency of 2.45 and to 1.23 GHz with a magnetic system, creating a magnetic field on the inner cut of a quarter-wave input window of microwave radiation on the longitudinal axis of the source intensity 910-940 GS, and on the longitudinal axis of the source in its Central part on a length of at least 3 cm 875 Gauss, while ensuring a homogeneous fashion of the plasma discharge with the inhomogeneity of the plasma density on the cross section of the source is less than 3%.

When fed thickness of 1-3 μm, as the dielectric layer build up a layer of silicon nitride from a mixture of monosilane and nitrogen using super-dense cold plasma under conditions of electron cyclotron resonance at a temperature of the substrate 20-300oWith, put a layer of heat sensitive material, conduct electronic or photolithography, conduct precision etching with the use of super-dense cold plasma under conditions of electron cyclotron resonance at a temperature of the substrate 77-400 K with radio-frequency bias of the substrate in the environment galogensoderjasimi gases and oxygen, followed by deposition of metals and remove the resist, and the deposition of layers and etching is carried out in ECR plasma installation in UHV performance.

When forming the air bridge interconnection of microwave transistors and integrated circuits on a substrate applied a layer of polyimide with a thickness of 0.5-3 μm, conduct electronic or photolithography to form a predetermined surface relief polyimide spend his precision etching with the use of super-dense cold plasma under conditions of electron cyclotron resonance at a temperature of the substrate 77-400 K with radio-frequency bias of the substrate in the environment galogensoderjasimi gases and plasma under conditions of electron cyclotron resonance at a temperature of the substrate 20-300oWith, put a layer of metal, hold e or photolithography, conduct precision etching with the use of super-dense cold plasma under conditions of electron cyclotron resonance at a temperature of the substrate 77-400 K with radio-frequency bias of the substrate in the environment galogensoderjasimi gases and oxygen, and the deposition of layers and etching is carried out in ECR plasma installation in UHV performance.

When forming the adjustment elements of microwave transistors, solid-state or hybrid integrated circuits on a substrate applied a layer of polyimide with a thickness of 0.5-3 μm, conduct electronic or photolithography to form a predetermined surface relief polyimide spend his precision with the use of super-dense cold plasma under conditions of electron cyclotron resonance at a temperature of the substrate 77-400 K with radio-frequency bias of the substrate in the environment galogensoderjasimi gases and oxygen, increasing the layer of silicon nitride from a mixture of monosilane and nitrogen using super-dense cold plasma under conditions of electron cyclotron resonance at a temperature of the substrate 20-300oWith, put a layer of metal, hold e or photolithography, conduct precision terperature substrate 77-400 K with radio-frequency bias of the substrate in the environment galogensoderjasimi gases and oxygen moreover, the deposition of layers and etching is carried out in ECR plasma installation in UHV execution, and setup elements carried out by changing a voltage between the substrate and the upper conductor layer, due to Coulomb forces changing the distance between the substrate and the top conductor, the result is set to the value of the impedance circuit of the transistor or node of the integrated circuit.

The technical result of the invention is also achieved by the fact that in the method of manufacturing semiconductor devices or integrated circuits on a substrate to form a semiconductor structure with active regions, isolation regions, metallization and pestiviruses coating to form pestiviruses the surface patterns are increasing, at least one thin dielectric layer and the build-up dielectric is performed with the use of microwave plasma stimulation under conditions of electron cyclotron resonance with the radio frequency bias of the substrate in a plasma source with a resonant volume of the reactor at a frequency of 2.45 and to 1.23 GHz with a magnetic system, creating a magnetic field on the inner cut of a quarter-wave window is the Central part of the length of at least 3 cm 875 Gauss, while providing a uniform fashion plasma discharge inhomogeneity of the plasma density on the cross section of the source is less than 3%. As a semiconductor device or integrated circuit may be manufactured in a microwave device with a structure-based compounds, group III-V compounds, or compounds of a wide gap semiconductor AlGaN, or SiC. As pestiviruses dielectric layer may be formed from a layer of silicon nitride from a mixture of monosilane and nitrogen at a temperature of 20-300oWith the use of super-dense cold plasma, the content of hydrogen bonds (Si-H and N-H) support in the range of 4-15%, and the voltage samospaseniyu in the range of 0-50 C.

The technical result of the invention is achieved by the fact that the semiconductor device or integrated circuit with conductive and/or controls with cross-sectional sizes in terms not exceeding 100 nm, manufactured by a process which is formed on a substrate of a semiconductor structure with active areas form a conductive and/or control elements with cross-sectional sizes in terms not exceeding 100 nm, to form the conductive and/or control elements on the surface of the structure build up a thin layer dialect conductive and/or control elements, sprayed metal(s) and remove the resist, and etching and capacity dielectric is performed with the use of microwave plasma stimulation under conditions of electron cyclotron resonance with the radio frequency bias of the substrate in a plasma source with a resonant volume of the reactor at a frequency of 2.45 and to 1.23 GHz with a magnetic system that creates a magnetic field on the inner cut of a quarter-wave input window of microwave radiation on the longitudinal axis of the source intensity 910-940 GS, and on the longitudinal axis of the source in its Central part on a length of at least 3 cm 875 Gauss, while ensuring a homogeneous fashion of the plasma discharge with the inhomogeneity of the plasma density on the cross section of the source is less than 3%.

Semiconductor device or integrated circuit comprises a control T-shaped gate and/or conductive elements of the T-shaped conductors or microstrip line, as a dielectric layer containing a layer of silicon nitride of a thickness of 100-120 nm grown at the temperature of the substrate 20-300oWith a mixture of monosilane and nitrogen using super-dense cold plasma, and the layout area of conductive and/or control elements in the dielectric is made of PRECISIO Ganoderma gases.

The technical result of the invention is achieved by the fact that the semiconductor device or integrated circuit with a suspended microstructure manufactured by a process in which the formation of at least one element of the device or circuitry on a substrate are increasing at least one thin dielectric layer at a low temperature, applied electronic or photoresist, conduct the process of lithography and precision etching of the dielectric, and etching and capacity dielectric is performed with the use of microwave plasma stimulation under conditions of electron cyclotron resonance with the radio frequency bias of the substrate in a plasma source with a resonant volume of the reactor at a frequency of 2.45 and to 1.23 GHz with a magnetic system, creating a magnetic field on the inner cut of a quarter-wave input window of microwave radiation on the longitudinal axis of the source intensity 910-940 GS, and on the longitudinal axis of the source in its Central part on a length of at least 3 cm 875 Gauss, while ensuring a homogeneous fashion of the plasma discharge with the inhomogeneity of the plasma density on the cross section of the source is less than 3%.

Semiconductor device or integrated circuit as a layer or layers dielectric device or integrated circuit may be an uncooled barometrically matrix, or microwave transistor, or microwave integrated circuit.

It was established experimentally that the density of ions in the volume of ECR-plasma source reaches values up to 2x1013cm-3(when using a source with a circular polarization microwave waves up to 4x1013cm-3) at an energy of less than 25 eV. Plasma is distributed in the divergent magnetic field and is in the area of the sample density of more than 1012cm-3. The application of the radio frequency bias to the sample allows to form in the vicinity of the sample in the plasma of the electric double layer (due to differences in the mobility of electrons and ions), which provides an opportunity regardless of the ECR plasma to control the energy of ions. This, in turn, provides the ability to control the ratio of tangential and normal components of the velocities etching or growth layer, the composition of the layers. Geometrically volume ECR plasma source is designed in such a way that he had nonresonant volume at frequencies of 2.45 and to 1.23 GHz, i.e. its geometrical dimensions are not a multiple of a quarter wavelength at these frequencies. This greatly facilitates the creation of stable conditions in the time of discharge, no beating. Microwave energy on the ohms is inserted through the quarter-wave quartz or ceramic window. ECR plasma is generated in a cylindrical source and depending on the level of the absorbed power and the structure of the magnetic field can be of three types (modes): rod, ring and homogeneous. The transition from rod to a homogeneous fashion plasma is carried out by increasing the magnetic field to 910-940 GS at the lower edge of the input window of the microwave radiation. In this case propositione plasma waves (FFC) not dissipate in terms of ECR heating, and are distributed along the plasma source through a superdense plasma with a density much higher critical and transformed into villarosa waves. The latter have a high refractive index of n>>1 (short wave) can propagate through super dense magnetized plasma in the radial and axial directions. In the region where the magnetic field B=875 Gauss, villarosa wave is converted into electron-cyclotron waves, the energy of which is at the resonant heating of the electron subsystem, which leads to sustained burning plasma under conditions of electron cyclotron resonance. For efficient excitation ECR plasma spatial region with the condition In=875 Gauss should be more than half the wavelength of the microwave radiation. Radialnaya field. At a magnetic field B=910-940 GS at the lower edge of the input window of the microwave radiation and the absorbed power output over 200 watts implemented a uniform fashion burning plasma with a density of more than 1012cm-3. Such a plasma is distributed in the divergent magnetic field in the form of directed flow in the region of the sample location. With the increase of the absorbed microwave power up to 500-600 watts reflected power is reduced to 3-6%, which leads to further increase of the plasma density.

The use of such plasma allows you to create sub-100 nm structures by forming a homogeneous stable over time superdense plasma and permanent samospaseniyu due to the application of the radio frequency signal to the substrate. In this case, the type of substrate (dielectric, metal, semiconductor) does not affect the constant samospaseniyu. In Fig.1 illustrates the T-shaped gate field effect transistor gallium arsenide, manufactured using ECR plasma deposition of silicon nitride and precision etching according to the technology described in the example. The use of such shutters can significantly improve the basic parameters of transistors: produced by the proposed method transistors have a slope of more than 270 MS/mm, usne shutter 120 microns.

It is experimentally shown that the use of ECR-plasma discharge under the conditions listed in the description of this patent, allows to increase the silicon nitride or oxynitride silicon on polymer materials such as polyimide, at a low temperature substrate (20-50o(C) without damage to polymeric materials. Lower content of hydrogen bonds (Si-H and N-H), inherent ECR plasma deposition, and ease of management ratio of hydrogen bonds in the silicon nitride provides the necessary mechanical (low internal mechanical stress, low porosity) and electrical (high breakdown voltage and low leakage currents) properties of the layer of silicon nitride as the structural material for the formation of suspended microstructures, such as pixel-site bolometric matrix. The properties also allow you to perform high-quality passivation of semiconductor devices. Studies have shown that the formation of the bolometric matrix directly on the plates with chips multiplexers performing the detection and processing of signals with bolometric matrix does not degrade the electrophysical parameters of integrated circuits, Podwale the zali, they have high mechanical strength and successfully withstand the impact test with an acceleration of more than 1000 g. Selection voltage samospaseniyu (power control and impedance RF path of the RF generator to achieve an isotropic mode etching is used to completely delete the "sacrificial" layers of polyimide, on which are formed a suspended microstructure, with preservation of all electrical and mechanical properties of these structures.

In addition, it is experimentally shown that the application of the ECR plasma deposition for passivation silicon nitride transistor structures on gallium arsenide and gallium nitride-aluminum on condition of formation of plasma according to the method described in this patent, allows to increase the basic parameters of transistors: power output breakdown voltage, efficiency. After fulfilling the conditions of formation of ECR-plasma discharge is an important factor contributing to the increase of parameters of transistor structures in the passivation is the selection ratio and the concentration of the hydrogen bonds in the silicon nitride: silicon-hydrogen (Si-H) and nitrogen-hydrogen (N-H), ensuring the absence of oxides at the interface of the dielectric and passivation process. (Si-H) bond in the design and technology is mainly determined by the size of the integrated charge in the silicon nitride, and (N-H) the magnitude of the mechanical stresses. In the example of the application of passivation transistors with two-dimensional electron gas on the basis of the undoped epitaxial gallium nitride-aluminum on the electron density distribution across the channel is affected by traps at the semiconductor surface, the integrated charge in pestiviruses layer of dielectric and mechanical stress. Two-dimensional electron gas in undoped epitaxial gallium nitride-aluminum formed near the heterojunction due to the polarization effect, in these structures the high level of piezo-effect. Experimental investigation and mathematical modeling has shown that in the range of 4-15% concentrations of hydrogen bonds in the silicon nitride for the specific semiconductor devices always able to match the desired ratio of concentrations of hydrogen bonds, resulting in can significantly improve the basic parameters of the transistor structures. In our example, the output power at a frequency of 10 GHz was increased from 10 to 16 dB, the efficiency from 20% to 42%.

Also experimentally ostrovni to the design of the plasma source and the magnetic field allows to obtain a directed flow of plasma to the sample in a homogeneous fashion with a density of 1.5-3 times greater than in the case of non-polarized microwave waves. The increase of plasma density leads to a corresponding increase in the rate of growth and rate of etching by deposition and etching, respectively.

The present invention allows to produce a wide range of solid-state devices and integrated circuits.

Examples of implementation of the invention.

Example 1.

Use of epitaxial GaAs structure grown gas-phase epitaxy from ORGANOMETALLIC compounds. On politology GaAs substrate was restyles layers in the following sequence: 0.5 µm undoped GaAs buffer layer, 150 nm doped to 51017cm-3the active layer, 50 nm of a contact layer with impurity concentration 510 cm-3. Schematically the device, the T-shaped gate shown in Fig.1, where: 1 layer of silicon nitride; 2 - source 3 - drain; 4 - T-shaped gate.

The process sequence for the fabrication of T-shaped gate: after etching the Mesa structure, optical lithography to obtain ohmic contacts, deposition of metals forming the ohmic contact, and viginia ohmic contacts built up a layer of silicon nitride is another of 0.2-0.4 μm and is the first electron-beam lithography to form sub-100 nm part of the gate,
- conducted ECR plasma etching of silicon nitride in the mixture of CF4with Hypertension (30 cm3/min CF420 cm3/min Ah) when the total pressure in the reactor 3 mtorr,
- apply a layer of electron resist thickness of 0.4 μm and a second electron-beam lithography to form the upper 600 nm of the slide,
- held liquid etching channel transistor,
- coat is applied to the gate metallization Ti/Pt/Au.

Example 2.

Schematically the device of the T-shaped line metal wiring shown in Fig.2, where:
5 - layer silicon nitride;
6 - polyimide;
7 - T-shaped conductor.

The process sequence for the fabrication of T-shaped guide:
on the substrate a layer of polyimide required technology thickness,
- increasing layer of silicon nitride of a thickness of 100-120 nm using ECR plasma incentive
- apply a layer of electron resist thickness of 0.2-0.4 μm and is the first electron-beam lithography to form sub-100 nm part Explorer,
- conducted ECR plasma etching of silicon nitride in the mixture of CF4with Hypertension (30 cm3/min CF420 cm3/min Ah) when the total pressure in the reactor 3 mtorr, ECR plasma is a woman of 0.4 μm and a second electron-beam lithography to form the upper 600 nm part Explorer,
- apply the required process layers of metallization,
- is liquid or ECR-plasma removal of silicon nitride.

Example 3.

The device is T-shaped microstrip lines with sub-100 nm lateral size in the base is shown schematically in Fig.3, where:
8 - layer of silicon nitride;
9 - polyimide;
10 - T-shaped microstrip line.

The process sequence for the fabrication of T-shaped microstrip lines with sub-100 nm lateral size in base:
on a substrate made with the active elements is covered with a layer of polyimide with a thickness of 100-2000 nm,
- increasing layer of silicon nitride of a thickness of 100-120 nm using ECR plasma incentive
- apply a layer of electron resist thickness of 0.2-0.4 μm and is the first electron-beam lithography to form sub-100 nm part Explorer,
- conducted ECR plasma etching of silicon nitride in the mixture of CF4with Hypertension (30 cm3/min CF420 cm3/min Ah) when the total pressure in the reactor 3 mtorr, ECR plasma etching of polyimide in oxygen atmosphere at a pressure of 1 mtorr,
- apply a layer of electron resist thickness of 0.4 μm and a second electron is practical process layers of metallization,
- is liquid or ECR-plasma removal of silicon nitride and polyimide.

Example 4.

The device element suspended structure uncooled bolometric matrix is shown schematically in Fig.4 where:
11 - hour support,
12 - heat interchange
13 - the body is suspended microstructure with a heat sensitive layer.

The process sequence for the fabrication of suspended microstructures uncooled bolometric matrix:
- on a substrate applied a layer of polyimide with a thickness of 1-3 μm,
- conduct electronic or photolithography to form openings in the polyimide, which define the legs suspended structures
- increasing layer of silicon nitride from a mixture of monosilane and nitrogen using super-dense cold plasma under conditions of electron cyclotron resonance at a temperature of the substrate 20 to 100oWith,
- put a layer of heat sensitive material,
- conduct electronic or photolithography, forming a geometric size and shape (body and thermal junction) element of the matrix
- conduct precision etching with the use of super-dense cold plasma under conditions of electron cyclotron resonance at temperaturet deposition of metals and remove the layer of resist,
- remove the "sacrificial" layer of polyimide using super-dense cold plasma under conditions of electron cyclotron resonance at a temperature of the substrate 20 to 100oWith no application of the radio-frequency bias of the substrate in an oxygen atmosphere.

Example 5.

In Fig.5 shows a structural diagram of the ECR-plasma installation.

Installation is a metal reactor 14, is equipped with insulated from the housing by podarkticules 15, multi-gas system 16, otkachnoj system 17 to create a vacuum and pumping of reagents, the gateway and the manipulator for loading samples, the high-frequency generator 18 with the tuner to generate a desired DC samospaseniyu. ECR-plasma source 19 is made of metal (mainly made of stainless steel or aluminum) with water-cooled walls so that he had nonresonant volume at a frequency of 2.45 and to 1.23 GHz to maintain a stable discharge. Magnetic system 20 based on a pair of Helmholtz coils is made so that the lower edge of the quarter-wave dielectric window of the input microwave power of the magnetic field on the axis of the source was in the range of 910-940 GS, and on the longitudinal axis of the source in Causeway part of the source and hermetically sealed to provide input microwave power and create the necessary vacuum. Plasma-forming gas is introduced from the end face of the source through a distributed ring input. To a quarter-wave window is connected microwave tract, consisting of a tuner 22, a circulator 23 to protect magneton from the reflected wave, the monitor 24 for measuring forward and reflected power and magnetron in the case.

Example 6.

In Fig.6 shows a structural diagram of the ECR plasma unit with input microwave power with circular polarized electromagnetic waves, coinciding in direction with the rotation of electrons in a magnetic field.

Installation is a metal reactor 25, equipped with insulated from the housing by podarkticules 26, multi-gas system 27, otkachnoj system 28 to create a vacuum and pumping of reagents, the gateway and the manipulator for loading samples, the high-frequency generator 29 with the tuner to generate a desired DC samospaseniyu. ECR-plasma source 30 is made of metal (mainly made of stainless steel or aluminum) with water-cooled walls so that he had nonresonant volume at a frequency of 2.45 and to 1.23 GHz to maintain a stable discharge. Magnetic system 31 based on a pair of Helmholtz coils, izgotavlival in the range of 910-940 GS, and on the longitudinal axis of the source in its Central part on a length of at least 3 cm 875 Gauss. Dielectric quarter-wave window 32 is installed in the end part of the source and hermetically sealed to provide input microwave power and create the necessary vacuum. Plasma-forming gas is introduced from the end face of the source. To a quarter-wave window is connected composite resonator 33, consisting of a volume and ring resonators. The input microwave radiation in a ring resonator is shifted relative to its axis of symmetry at a length that is a multiple of the eighth part of the wavelength of the microwave radiation, resulting in entering the reactor microwave radiation circular polarization coinciding in direction with the rotation of electrons in a magnetic field.

Example 7.

On the basis of undoped AlGaN/GaN epitaxial structure on a sapphire substrate is made of microwave transistor structure with two gates size of 37.50,3 ám2. Then increase pestiviruses of silicon nitride that enhance the basic parameters of transistor structures, the following sequence of technological operations:
1. Is washing plates in a mixture of isopro the th water in a triple junction tub.

3. The plate is loaded into the ECR plasma reactor and processed in a mixture of argon, oxygen and cetarehhloristam carbon when the flow ratio of 1: 1:1 and a total pressure of 2.5 mtorr for 25 sec. The level of the absorbed microwave power is equal to 300 W, the temperature of the substrate 300oC.

4. Within 10 min is pumping out of the reactor from the residual gases.

5. The reactor was filled with nitrogen to a pressure of 0.5 mtorr.

6. Lit ECR plasma at the level of the absorbed power of 500 W and within 10 min the plate with the transistor structures is treated in nitrogen plasma.

7. In the reactor introduces a 20% mixture of monosilane to argon to a total pressure of 2.6 mtorr and within 30 minutes Is the build-up layer of silicon nitride with a thickness of 100 nm.

8. The plate is removed from the reactor and using photolithography and plasma etching is carried out opening contact Windows.

9. Using a microwave probe device measured output power and efficiency of transistor structures at a frequency of 10 GHz.

The measurement results before and after passivation is shown in Fig.7 and 8. Increasing power output and efficiency of transistor structures results in the 4 - volume resonator with two inputs
35 - the phase-shifting the shoulders of the ring resonator,
36 - single-ended input microwave power.

In a three-dimensional resonator of circular polarization of the microwave radiation is achieved by the fact that electromagnetic radiation is introduced into the volume resonator through mutually perpendicular to the inputs of two phase-shifting the shoulders of the ring resonator (two coaxial cable or waveguide). The input power from the microwave generator is shifted by the amount (1/8)krelative to the symmetry axis of the ring resonator, where k is an odd number,- wave length. Circular polarization is created by the phase shift of the electromagnetic waves introduced into the volume resonator, two shoulder ring resonator lengths, differing by the value of (1/4)k. In this case, the microwave radiation with circular polarization, coinciding in direction with the rotation of electrons in a magnetic field, according to the additional energy electrons, thereby increasing the plasma density in the volume of the source. The increase in plasma density leads to an increase in the rate of growth layers or etching rates of 1-4 times depending on the pressure in the chamber and the ratio of the flow of reagents. ellite structures in the manufacturing process of semiconductor devices or integrated circuits, containing reactor podarkticules for placing semiconductor structures, the pumping system to provide ultra-high vacuum, a magnetic system, a microwave generator, the input microwave power radiation, the gas switching system and the dosing of the reagents, high frequency generator with a tuner for the formation of permanent samospaseniyu sample, the reactor is designed such that it has resonant volume at a frequency of 2.45 and to 1.23 GHz to maintain a stable discharge, and the magnetic system is arranged to create a magnetic field on the inner cut of a quarter-wave input window of microwave radiation on the longitudinal axis of the source with intensity 910-940 GS, and on the longitudinal axis of the source in its Central part on a length of at least 3 cm - 875 Gauss, to form a homogeneous fashion of the plasma discharge with the inhomogeneity of the plasma density on the cross section of the source is less than 3%.

2. ECR-plasma source under item 1, characterized in that it provides two-way asymmetrical offset by the amount (1/8)kwith respect to an axis of symmetry of the resonator enter in the volume of plasma electromagnetic wave with circular polarization, coinciding in direction with the rotation of the electrons //img.russianpatents.com/chr/955.gif">- wave length.

3. The method of processing semiconductor structures, which are increasing and/or carry out etching at least one of the layers of the structure using microwave ECR plasma source, in the presence of the reactor nonresonant volume at a frequency of 2.45 and to 1.23 GHz to maintain a stable discharge with a magnetic system that provides a magnetic field having an internal cut of a quarter-wave input window of microwave radiation on the longitudinal axis of the source intensity 910-940 GS, and on the longitudinal axis of the source in its Central part on a length of at least 3 cm - 875 Gauss, to form a homogeneous fashion of the plasma discharge with the inhomogeneity of the plasma density on the cross section of the source is less than 3%.

4. The method of manufacture of semiconductor devices or integrated circuits, which are formed on a substrate of a semiconductor structure with active areas form a conductive and/or control elements with cross-sectional sizes in terms not exceeding 100 nm, characterized in that for the formation of conductive and/or control elements on the surface of the structure increasing, at least one thin dielectric layer, put a layer of resist, hold Liv, sprayed metal(s) and remove the resist, and etching and capacity dielectric is performed with the use of microwave plasma stimulation under conditions of electron cyclotron resonance with the radio frequency bias of the substrate in a plasma source with a resonant volume of the reactor at a frequency of 2.45 and to 1.23 GHz, with a magnetic system that creates a magnetic field on the inner cut of a quarter-wave input window of microwave radiation on the longitudinal axis of the source intensity 910-940 GS, and on the longitudinal axis of the source in its Central part on a length of at least 3 cm - 875 Gauss, while providing a uniform fashion plasma discharge inhomogeneity of the plasma density on the cross section of the source is less than 3%.

5. The method according to p. 4, characterized in that when forming the control element of the T-shaped gate and/or conductive elements of the T-shaped conductors or microstrip lines as a dielectric layer build up a layer of silicon nitride at a temperature of the substrate 20-300oWith a mixture of monosilane and nitrogen using super-dense cold plasma, and precision etching at a temperature of the substrate 77-400 To application of super-dense cold plasma in the environment of the halogen is on GaAs and a layer of silicon nitride increasing the thickness of 100-120 nm, put a layer of PMMA resist with a thickness of 0.1-0.4 μm and spend the first electron-beam lithography for formation of regions under sub-100 nm part of the shutter, ECR plasma etching of silicon nitride is carried out in a mixture of CF4with AG or fluoride at a flow rate of 10-100 cm3/min CF4or fluorine, 10-50 cm3/min of AG, when the total pressure in the reactor 1-7 of mtorr, put the second layer of resist and holding a second electron-beam lithography for formation region under the upper portion of the bolt with cross-sectional dimension in terms of 600 nm, conduct liquid etching channel transistor, form a Ti/Pt/Au metallization.

7. The method according to p. 5, characterized in that when forming the T-shaped conductors on a substrate with active elements put a layer of polyimide with a thickness of 50-250 nm, it grow a layer of silicon nitride of a thickness of 100-120 nm, put a layer of PMMA resist with a thickness of 0.1-0.4 μm and spend the first electron-beam lithography for formation of regions under sub-100 nm part of the conductor, ECR plasma etching of silicon nitride is carried out in a mixture of CF4with AG or fluoride at a flow rate of 10-100 cm3/min CF4or fluorine, 10-50 cm3/min of AG, when the total pressure in the reactor 1-7 of mtorr, put the second layer of resist and hold the second e is s in terms of 600 nm, form a Ti/Pt/Au metallization, conduct liquid or ECR-plasma removal of silicon nitride and polyimide.

8. The method of manufacture of semiconductor devices or integrated circuits with a suspended microstructure, in which for the formation of at least one element of the device or circuitry on a substrate grow thin dielectric layer at a low temperature, applied electronic or photoresist, conduct the process of lithography and precision etching of the dielectric, and etching and capacity dielectric is performed with the use of microwave plasma stimulation under conditions of electron cyclotron resonance with the radio frequency bias of the substrate in a plasma source with a resonant volume of the reactor at a frequency of 2.45 and to 1.23 GHz, with a magnetic system, creating a magnetic field on the inner cut of a quarter-wave input window of microwave radiation on the longitudinal axis of the source intensity 910-940 GS, and on the longitudinal axis of the source in its Central part on a length of at least 3 cm - 875 Gauss, while ensuring a homogeneous fashion of the plasma discharge with the inhomogeneity of the plasma density on the cross section of the source is less than 3%.

9. The method according to p. 8, characterized in that the formation on the 3 μm, as the dielectric layer build up a layer of silicon nitride from a mixture of monosilane and nitrogen using super-dense cold plasma under conditions of electron cyclotron resonance at a temperature of the substrate 20-300oWith, put a layer of heat sensitive material, conduct electronic or photolithography, conduct precision etching with the use of super-dense cold plasma under conditions of electron cyclotron resonance at a temperature of the substrate 77-400 K with radio-frequency bias of the substrate in the environment galogensoderjasimi gases and oxygen, followed by deposition of metals and remove the resist, and the deposition of layers and etching is carried out in ECR plasma installation in UHV performance.

10. The method according to p. 8, characterized in that when forming the air bridge interconnection of microwave transistors and integrated circuits on a substrate applied a layer of polyimide with a thickness of 0.2-3 μm, conduct electronic or photolithography to form a predetermined surface relief polyimide spend his precision etching with the use of super-dense cold plasma under conditions of electron cyclotron resonance at a temperature of the substrate 77-400 K with frequency offset podlog using super-dense cold plasma under conditions of electron cyclotron resonance at a temperature of the substrate 20-300oWith, put a layer of metal, hold e or photolithography, conduct precision etching with the use of super-dense cold plasma under conditions of electron cyclotron resonance at a temperature of the substrate 77-400 K with radio-frequency bias of the substrate in the environment galogensoderjasimi gases and oxygen, and the deposition of layers and etching is carried out in ECR plasma installation in UHV performance.

11. The method according to p. 8, characterized in that when forming the adjustment elements of microwave transistors, solid-state or hybrid integrated circuits on a substrate applied a layer of polyimide with a thickness of 0.2-3 μm, conduct electronic or photolithography to form a predetermined surface relief polyimide spend his precision etching with the use of super-dense cold plasma under conditions of electron cyclotron resonance at a temperature of the substrate 77-400 K with radio-frequency bias of the substrate in the environment galogensoderjasimi gases and oxygen, increasing the layer of silicon nitride from a mixture of monosilane and nitrogen using super-dense cold plasma under conditions of electron cyclotron resonance at a temperature of the substrate 20-300oWith, put a layer of the metal, carried out electronically the x electron cyclotron resonance at a temperature of the substrate 77-400 K with radio-frequency bias of the substrate in the environment galogensoderjasimi gases and oxygen moreover, the deposition of layers and etching is carried out in ECR plasma installation in UHV execution, and setup elements carried out by changing a voltage between the substrate and the upper conductor layer, due to Coulomb forces changing the distance between the substrate and the top conductor, the result is set to the value of the impedance circuit of the transistor or node of the integrated circuit.

12. The method of manufacture of semiconductor devices or integrated circuits, in which on a substrate to form a semiconductor structure with active regions, isolation regions, metallization and pestiviruses coating, characterized in that for forming pestiviruses the surface patterns are increasing, at least one thin dielectric layer and the build-up dielectric is performed with the use of microwave plasma stimulation under conditions of electron cyclotron resonance with the radio frequency bias of the substrate in a plasma source with a resonant volume of the reactor at a frequency of 2.45 and to 1.23 GHz, with a magnetic system, creating a magnetic field on the inner cut of a quarter-wave input window of microwave radiation on prodominate 3 cm - 875 Gauss, while ensuring a homogeneous fashion of the plasma discharge with the inhomogeneity of the plasma density on the cross section of the source is less than 3%.

13. The method according to p. 12, characterized in that, as a semiconductor device or an integrated circuit made microwave device with the structure-based compounds, group III-V compounds, or compounds of a wide gap semiconductor AlGaN, or SiC.

14. The method according to p. 12 or 13, characterized in that as pestiviruses dielectric layer build up a layer of silicon nitride from a mixture of monosilane and nitrogen at a temperature of 20-300oWith the use of super-dense cold plasma, the content of hydrogen bonds (Si-H and N-H) support in the range of 4-15%, and the voltage samospaseniyu in the range of 0 to -50 C.

15. Semiconductor device or integrated circuit with conductive and/or controls with cross-sectional sizes in terms not exceeding 100 nm, characterized in that it is manufactured by way of forming on a substrate a semiconductor structure with active areas form a conductive and/or control elements with cross-sectional sizes in terms not exceeding 100 nm, to form the conductive and/or control elements on the surface of the dielectric in the areas of location of conductive and/or control elements, sprayed metal(s) and remove the resist, and etching and capacity dielectric is performed with the use of microwave plasma stimulation under conditions of electron cyclotron resonance with the radio frequency bias of the substrate in a plasma source with a resonant volume of the reactor at a frequency of 2.45 and to 1.23 GHz, with a magnetic system that creates a magnetic field on the inner cut of a quarter-wave input window of microwave radiation on the longitudinal axis of the source intensity 910-940 GS, and on the longitudinal axis of the source in its Central part on a length of at least 3 cm - 875 Gauss, while providing a uniform fashion plasma discharge inhomogeneity of the plasma density on the cross section of the source is less than 3%.

16. Semiconductor device or integrated circuit under item 15, characterized in that they contain as the control element of the T-shaped gate and/or conductive elements of the T-shaped conductors or microstrip line, as a dielectric layer containing a layer of silicon nitride of a thickness of 100-120 nm grown at the temperature of the substrate 20-300oWith a mixture of monosilane and nitrogen using super-dense cold plasma, and the layout area of conductive and/or control elements is now cold plasma environment galogensoderjasimi gases.

17. Semiconductor device or integrated circuit with a suspended microstructure, characterized by the fact that made way for the formation of at least one element of the device or circuitry on a substrate are increasing at least one thin dielectric layer at a low temperature, applied electronic or photoresist, conduct the process of lithography and precision etching of the dielectric, and etching and capacity dielectric is performed with the use of microwave plasma stimulation under conditions of electron cyclotron resonance with the radio frequency bias of the substrate in a plasma source with a resonant volume of the reactor at a frequency of 2.45 and to 1.23 GHz, with a magnetic system, creating a magnetic field on the inner cut of a quarter-wave input window of microwave radiation on the longitudinal axis of the source intensity 910-940 GS, and on the longitudinal axis of the source in its Central part on a length of at least 3 cm - 875 Gauss, while ensuring a homogeneous fashion of the plasma discharge with the inhomogeneity of the plasma density on the cross section of the source is less than 3%.

18. Semiconductor device or integrated circuit under item 17, characterized in that as a layer or layers of dielectric sod. 7, wherein is an uncooled barometrically matrix, or microwave transistor, or microwave integrated circuit.

 

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