Differential electron-projection method for measuring a surface shape of the object
The invention relates to measurement devices, and in particular to methods for measuring the shape and movements of the object surface. The invention consists in projecting synthesized in the computer reference grid representing the alternating bands of light and dark, scanning the grid digital camera. Comparing the received image with the synthesized mesh and characterization of the surface at each point. Effect: increase the accuracy of the surface shape and the increasing automation of the control process. 3 Il. The invention relates to measurement devices, and in particular to methods for measuring the shape and movements of the surface of the object.A method of obtaining a moiré pattern, which gives qualitative information about the surface of the object, based on the design of the image grid from slide on the surface of the object, and then adding the obtained image of the grid on the surface of an object with another grid in front of the object .The disadvantage of this method is its complexity, the difficulty of obtaining results in real time.The known method for motion measurement, osnovannymi bands of light and getting moire patterns and counting the number of moiré patterns .The disadvantage of this method is the low accuracy and complexity.Known electron-projection method for measuring the shape and movements of the object surface  , which is the closest to the claimed consists in the fact that the grid from slide projected on the surface of the object so that the dark line was crossed by the main optical axis of the projector, and the main optical axis of the projector and the cameras intersect at a point on the surface of the object obtained using the camcorder raster object is introduced into the computer, where it is compared with the pre-formed imaginary raster and the results of the comparison determine the surface shape of the object.The disadvantage of this method is the lack of accuracy and the dependence of the result on the angle between the main optical axes of the projector and video camera.The problem to be solved in the proposed method, associated with the automated monitoring of surface production facilities. The technical result is achieved by using the described method increases the precision of the surface of an object, also increases the degree of automates the three video systems by combining the axes of the projector and camera at the point on the object surface, then carry out the projection of this surface with the projector grid with alternating light and dark lines, synthesize imaginary raster computer, put it with the adopted camera work pattern and define obtained by moiré picture taking into account the previously established correlation parameters of the surface of the object, and the parameters of the synthesized computer projected on the surface of the object reference grid and imaginary raster programmatically change and imaginary raster turn relative to its original position angle in the plane of the projection axis of the projector.In Fig. 1 shows a structural diagram for the implementation of the proposed method. It contains the control object 1 with designed for him by the grid, a digital projector 2, the digital video camera 3, a controller 4, the actuator 5, the personal computer 6, the plane of the imaginary raster 7 and rotated by the anglethe imaginary plane raster 8.The proposed method is implemented as follows.Using the computer 6 is synthesized grid view (set the grid spacing, the width of the bright and dark bands, the angle of rotation in the plane of the design), which is ZAT what about their main optical axis are focused at point a on the surface of the object. Is determined by the anglebetween the main optical axis of the projector 2 and the camera 3 and the distance L from the projector 2 to the point A. the Image projected on the surface of the object grid (raster work) is taken by the camera 3 and transmitted to the computer 6. After that, the computer 6 is synthesized second grid (imaginary raster) 7, spaced from the surface of an object at a distance of LIn. Later in the computer 6 using a special program is turning imaginary raster 7 relative to the point In lying on the axis of the projector, in the plane perpendicular to this axis, on the corner. Then in the computer 6 overprint working and rotated by the angleimaginary raster 8, getting moire patterns and the calculation on the specified dependencies of the parameters of the surface of the test object.Consider theoretical background for the development of this method. The formation of moiré patterns (the phenomenon of mechanical interference) is possible in the following cases: 1) two superimposed grid of straight parallel lines with the same steprotated relative to each other by the angle; 2) overlap DV the PTA between them; 3) are superimposed grid with different step and rotated relative to each other by the angle(the case in question).When overlaying two grids with spacing between lines, respectively1and2as shown in Fig.2, disposed at angles1and2to the axis of the abscissa x, moiré patterns are formed with a step S and rotated to the x-axis by the angle. At this fair the following expressions.The angle of inclination of the moire fringes to the x-axis is determined from the following expression:and does not depend on with1and C2(distance from the origin to the first line of the corresponding grid). Therefore, when the parallel movement of one or both lines, the angle of inclination of the moire fringes is not changed. The rotation of the moire fringes can be obtained only by relative rotation imposed systems of lines.Cut, clip moire stripe on the y axis, is defined as:Distance moiré patterns from the origin:Step strips S is determined by the formula:
=1-2= 0, then step moire fringes is equal to:
i.e., the smaller the difference between the steps of the mesh, the greater the step moiré patterns S, so it is advisable to reduce the step S to improve the accuracy of control. If the angle between the grids (0) the increase in the latter will lead to a reduction step S. Therefore, programmatically varying parameters1and2andyou can increase the resolution of the method.As follows from Fig.2 and Fig.3 vectordetermining the displacement in the direction perpendicular to the grid increments1(in the coordinate system x1,1), is :
where To order strips(-1, 0, 1,...),the grid spacing and band with K= 0 passes through the point of rotation (Fig.1), which is I formula according to the method of  and represents the change of the distance from the plane of the imaginary raster to the surface.Thus, each moire stripe carries information about the vector sum of the displacements - (W+U) (Fig.3). The vector W is determined from the pattern of bands produced by the electron-projection method . i.e. when applying in the computer scanned projection grid with an imaginary raster (both grid parallel to each other). The vector U is formed by the rotation of the imaginary raster angle(unlike the provisions of the imaginary raster in ).Therefore, to obtain the actual topology of the surface, defined by the vector W, it is necessary after treatment of the bands of the received picture (W+U) subtract the "imaginary" move U created due to rotation of the imaginary raster
Taking into account [3, 4], we have:
W = (h+K)sin= (h+K)sin(arccos(U/W+U)),
where- step lines of the original mesh in the projector,
mg- the scale of the projection grid in the plane of the "imaginary" raster
1and2- angles, respectively illumination and observation control raster
where Lp=L-LIn- Russ is a career.Sources of information
1. Theocaris So moiré patterns in the study of deformations. - M.: Mir, 1972. - S. 25-38.2. Domrachev Century, and other Circuitry digital converters movements. Reference manual / Century, Domrachev, C. R. Matveevskaya, Y. S. Smirnov. - M.: Energoatomizdat, 1987, S. 14-15.3. A. C. 2065570 EN, IPC 6 G 01 21/00, publ. 20.08.96. Bull. 23. Kucheruk C. I., Popov A. M., Kolesnikov A. C. Electron-projection method for measuring the shape and movements of the surface of the object (the prototype).4. Durelli A., Park, C. deformation Analysis using moire /Lane. from English. Ushakov B. N. - M.: Mir, 1974. - S. 46-58.
A method of measuring a surface shape of the object, comprising pre-configuring the video by combining the axes of the projector and camera at the point on the surface of the object projected onto the surface using the projector grid with alternating light and dark lines, the synthesis of imaginary raster computer, add it to the accepted camera work pattern and the definition received a moiré pattern with regard to previously established correlations of the parameters of the object surface, characterized in that the parameters of synthesized computer projected on powershotdigital its original position angle in the plane of the projection axis of the projector.
FIELD: measurement of planeness of strip in reel shaft of hot strip rolling mill.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes measurement of planeness in reel shaft of hot rolling mill; reel shaft is provided with movable and immovable strips between pulling device and reel; hot strip is fed to reel through its shaft by means of roller table and pulling roller of pulling device; reel is provided with drum, hold-down rollers and end guides; roller for measurement of planeness is closed in reel shaft turned inside guide strip. Moving roller used for measurement of planeness has working position at which hot strip passes around roller used for measurement of planeness retaining approximately constant wrapping angle α and lowered position; reel shaft is provided with swivel guide strip closing the roller used for measurement of planeness.
EFFECT: enhanced economical efficiency; enhanced protection of roller in lowered position.
15 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: physics, measurements.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of metering equipment, namely to measurement of moving surface parametres. Charge of explosive substance is initiated with the help of lens or detonation distributor on surface, which is speeded up by explosion products to velocity that causes glow of shock wave in front of it. Receiver of the same shape closed by screen is installed on motion route. Two or more groups of electro-optical detectors are installed in receiver along normal line to moving surface on different bases from initial position of surface. Surface of screen inverted to electro-optical detectors in process of motion interacts with their ends, besides, at the same time electric and light signals are generated, which are supplied to recorders. Recorders measure time of moving surface approach to the end of every detector. Diversity is defined by difference of times of electric and light signals in every group of detectors.
EFFECT: makes it possible to improve reliability and accuracy of measurements of time intervals in complex expensive experiments.
FIELD: physics, measurement.
SUBSTANCE: invention may be used for contactless detection of quality in items having medium and low classes of purity. Detection of surface roughness parametres is carried out by digital survey of investigated surface or its area by digital optical device with resolution of at least 3 megapixels at angle of illumination of 15°, 45°, 75° with normal location of lens to investigated surface. Digital pictures are sent to computer, pictures are processed and analysed on the basis of calculation of statistical criteria of each picture. Mean-square deviation is found between statistical criteria, which is correlated with arithmetical mean deviation of roughness sample Ra. Restoration coefficient k is determined. Electronic model of surface microrelief is built by transformation of picture pixels into three-dimensional coordinates, which are used for calculation of geometric parametres of surface roughness.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of surface roughness parametres measurement.
2 cl, 14 dwg, 8 tbl
FIELD: measurement technology.
SUBSTANCE: this method is based on the use of coherent electromagnetic radiation. Under this technology optical nonlinearity of the surface with microrelief and reference specimen are created. Measurement of the surface microrelief is made by the analysis of the interferences obtained as a result of interaction between nonlinear optical surface reflected from the microrelief of the giant second harmonic and giant second harmonic reflected from the surface of the reference specimen. Unambiguity of the microrelief altitude measurement is ensured by the analysis of the interferences of the derived part of radiation and radiation reflected from the surface with microrelief. Optical nonlinearity of the surfaces with microrelief and reference specimen can be created by the method of chemical chemical etching of the surfaces or by their covering with metal nanoparticles or semiconductor particles.
EFFECT: improvement of the accuracy and unambiguity of the measurements of the microrelief altitude with sharp drop of altitudes.
3 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of controlling surface roughness involves probing the surface with laser radiation and recording photoluminescence intensity using photosensitive devices. The rough surface is covered with a layer of nanoparticles. The detected information feature used is characteristic photoluminescence of these particles, induced by the probing laser radiation. Roughness of the surface is controlled by changing the nature of photoluminescence intensity when the angle between the axis of the probing radiation and the normal to the rough surface is changed.
EFFECT: integral evaluation of roughness, local evaluation of the section of interest and automation of the control process.
7 cl, 6 dwg, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: roller for measuring flatness defects of a strip has force transducers built into the lateral surface of the roller with formation of measurement sections and coatings for the force transducers which are flush with the surface of the roller. The coatings are surrounded by a gap for movement with formation of a clearance from the force transducers. The measurement sections are closed by one or more metal films adhesively connected to the surface of the roller. Also the measurement roller has an additional shell.
EFFECT: increased strength and wear-resistance of the measurement roller, prevention of shear deformation in coatings which form measurement sections of the roller.
9 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to measurement equipment, in particular, to facilities for control of relief and surface properties of samples with the help of sclerometers, and may be used to assess variation of surface properties along the scanning path. For this purpose they perform scanning of the controlled surface more than once with different extent of probe approaching to the controlled surface with simultaneous production of data on spatial and power parameters of scanning, and sample parameters are defined using them, which characterise relief and/or properties of the sample surface, extent of probe action at the surface or surface layers of the sample, and also value of residual deformation is defined by difference of produced values of spatial and power parameters. At the same time the first scanning is carried out with a load at the probe, not causing plastic deformation of the surface, and they assess vertical movements of the probe in process of scanning, on the basis of which they build a profilogram of the controlled surface and determine parameters of its roughness, then the probe is returned into the initial position, the probe is inserted into the surface layer for the required depth, reflecting volume properties of the surface layer, due to application of the permanent normal load, and the second scanning is performed, and vertical movements of the probe are assessed, on the basis of which they build the curve of the support surface and assess its characteristics, and also define the distribution of hardness of the surface layer along the scanning path.
EFFECT: expansion of functional capabilities of assessment of surface layer characteristics and production of more correct data reflecting volume properties of surface layers.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to measurement equipment, in particular, to devices for measurement of profile of surfaces of low-modular viscoelastic sheet materials of light industry, namely, man-made and natural leathers, etc. A device to detect profile of materials in deformed condition, comprising a base, a counting unit, a locating element, installed as capable of rotation around its axis, differing by the fact that the locating element is made in the form of a semi-cylinder with a hollow semi-cone and two limiting plates to fix a sample; the device comprises an additional counting unit fixed on the semi-cylinder, to detect bending radius of the investigated sample, arranged in parallel to the semi-cone guide, at the same time the main counting unit is made as combined, capable of displacement along the axis of rotation of the locating element and comprises a strain gauge motion sensor and a digital optical microscope.
EFFECT: device makes it possible to study hidden defects of natural leather and man-made materials, to determine variation of material relief under bending deformation.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: measuring equipment.
SUBSTANCE: device for measuring macro roughnesses surfaces can be used in hydropower control macro roughnesses, taper and deviation from the horizontal plane mirror surfaces disc thrust bearings of hydroelectric. Device for measuring macro roughnesses surfaces, comprising mounted horizontally and in parallel above one another rigid rectangular plates fixed together by vertical uprights disposed on the outer side of each plate at the corners three support adjustable legs installed at the inner side of the bottom plate two sensor inclination angle, the axes sensitivity are mutually perpendicular and parallel to the adjacent side of the plate and fixed by means of removable alignment ring on one of the plates with its outer side magnet, the center of which is located inside the right-angled triangle formed by the three bearing adjustable feet at the median from the vertex of the right angle.
EFFECT: technical result is to increase the accuracy of measurement macro roughnesses by measuring the angular displacement in the coordinate system associated with the survey surface, expanding the functionality of the device.
1 cl, 1 dwg