An alloy of iron (options) and method thereof

 

The invention relates to ferrous metallurgy and can be used in the disc brake devices of automobiles and other vehicles. Iron alloy contains 1.5-to 43.5 wt.% carbon, 1,5-4.35 wt.% silicon, 1,2-6.5 weight. % molybdenum, iron, and incidental impurities rest. The total content of molybdenum, Nickel, copper does not exceed 6.5 percent. Alloy is a cast iron with spheroidal graphite. The invention allows to obtain an alloy for the manufacture of rotors disc brake device of the cars. 3 S. and 33 C.p. f-crystals, 3 tab., 8 Il.

The present invention relates to alloys of iron and methods for their preparation. Iron alloys according to the invention are particularly suitable for use in disc brakes of automobiles and other vehicles, especially in parts of automobiles.

Disc brakes were used in the engines of cars in the late 1950's. Disc brake device containing the disk or rotor which is rigidly attached to the wheel hub of the vehicle. Two or more liners tightly under the action clamps the disc or rotor and thus slow down the vehicle. The liners have the lock away from heat and solid materials. However, due to the high toxicity of asbestos sleeve brake device currently consist of a friction material, which contains 10-20% vol. polymers, 0-10 about. % friction modifiers, 0-10% vol. metal powders, about 20-40. % fillers and 10-50 vol.% fibers (asbestos, metal, fiberglass and synthetic mineral fibres).

After the introduction of disc brakes as a material for the manufacture of disks or rotors was selected gray cast iron. Compared with nodular cast iron grey cast iron has a higher thermal conductivity, lower modulus and dimensional stability at temperatures above 500oC. Believe that the nodular cast unsuitable for use in the disc brake devices because of its low heat resistance.

Although grey cast iron and has many properties that make it particularly suitable for use in the disc brake device, its disadvantage is the relatively low tensile strength. Many authors refer to this deficiency.

In the publication SAE 900002, Jimbo al. entitled "Development of cast iron with high heat conductivity for d who came to the conclusion, that grey cast iron may be more suitable material for rotors from the point of view of resistance to fracture due to its high thermal conductivity. The authors also concluded that grey cast iron should have a high carbon content for maximum conductivity), low silicon content and low content of alloying element to increase the strength. The authors decided to add in grey cast iron molybdenum as the only alloying element. The authors tried numerous alloy cast iron containing molybdenum in the range of 0.32 and 0.68%, and concluded that the alloyed cast iron should have a 3,7-4,0%, 1,4-2,0% Si and 0.5-0.6% of Mo, and the remainder iron and incidental impurities.

From the patent Australia 426529 (19758/67) known composition foundry alloy for the manufacture of rotors disc brake device. This patent deals with the problems associated with the destruction of the core of the rotor braking devices made of grey cast iron. One of the decisions was to use the nodular cast iron or ductile cast iron, which has sufficient strength to avoid destruction, however, the braking surface was subjected to warping. This was the OS is the left 3,20-3.55% of carbon, 0,15-0,25% chromium, from 1.15 to 1.35% Nickel, from 0.30 to 0.50% molybdenum, from 0.50 to 0.80 manganese from 1.80 to 2.00% silicon, less than 0,10% phosphorus, less than 0.08% sulfur, the remainder iron. The alloy has a microstructure containing a homogeneous fine-grained perlite, which are evenly distributed at least 75% of lamellar graphite type A.

In the patent application of Japan 60-52553 proposed steel for the manufacture of rotors disc brake devices containing 0.1 to 0.6% of carbon, less than 0.8% of silicon, less than 3% manganese, and 0.2 to 5.0% Nickel and optionally containing one or more elements from 0.5 to 5.0% aluminum, 0.1 to 3.0 percent copper, 0.2 to 3.0% of titanium and 0.1 to 5.0% Mo. As described, this steel has a brake resistance equivalent to the braking resistance of cast iron, without sacrificing the high resistance to thermal cracking forged steel rotors.

U.S. patent 5323883 relates to brake systems of vehicles. The brake system includes a rotor made of graphitized cast iron containing 3.5-4.0% carbon, 1,6-2,0% silicon, 0.5 to 0.8% manganese, 0.4 to 1.2% molybdenum, the remainder is mainly iron. The matrix structure of the alloy is in the form of perlite. This patent is also very important to obtain high thermal conductivity materials used for discovey or casting defects, eliminating thereby the level of molybdenum in excess of 1.2%. An important component of the metal alloy is manganese.

In U.S. patent 1762109 proposed alloyed cast iron, which can easily be strengthened and more easily machined than conventional cast iron. Alloyed cast iron contains 1.0 to 4.0% carbon, 0.5-2.5% silicon, 1.0 to 4.0% Nickel and up to 1.0% molybdenum, the remainder iron and incidental impurities. Alloy suitable for the production of products in which some parts have hardened surface, and the other parts are relatively soft for machining, and for other purposes, such as Cams, cylinder heads and pistons.

In U.S. patent 3095300 proposed composition of pig iron, which comprises 1,2-5.3% manganese and 0,40-0,80% molybdenum, and which is cast iron, which can be machined in the as-cast condition and which can harden in the air.

In U.S. patent 3798027 proposed grey cast iron with high strength and low hardness, which contains 1-3% aluminum, 2-4% carbon, up to 1% silicon, the remainder iron, the alloy modify with the use of a modifier selected from calcium, strontium and barium. This patent proposed for certain concretamente, including 0-6% copper, 0-12% Nickel, 0-5% chromium, 0 to 2% molybdenum and 0-1% zirconium.

In U.S. patent 3902897 proposed nodular cast iron containing 2,3-4,2% C, 1.5 to 5.0% of Si, not more than 1.0% MP, 1.5 to 6.0% of Ni, 0.1 to 1.0 Mo, 0.2 To 2.0% Of Al, 0.1% spheroidizing agent, and the rest Fe. In the patent clearly considered the importance of Al in the alloy, and also argues that the content of Mo in the amount of more than 1.0% of calls result in melted condition of a large number of carbides, resulting in high hardness. In the patent clearly defined that the maximum amount of Mo is 1.0%.

U.S. patent 4166756 refers to the metallurgical process of manufacturing wear-resistant cushioning elements used in railroad freight cars. In particular, this patent relates to a chemical composition and method of adjusting such parameters as the temperature of the casting, the temperature of extraction from the mold and the cooling rate to obtain a desired microstructure of the castings. Used alloy has a chemical composition containing 3,00-3,30% carbon, 1,20-1,50% silicon, of 0.85 to 1.00% manganese, 0,80-0,90% molybdenum, 1,40-1,60% (Nickel plus copper), the rest of the iron. The process of obtaining castings of the alloy with the same chemical composition is described as critical.

In the patent Cricelli fatigue when used as a material for exhaust pipes of cars. Cast iron contains 2.5% to 3.8% carbon, 3.5 to 4.8 percent silicon, and 1.0% or less mn, 0.1% or less of phosphorus, 0.1% or less of sulfur, 0.5 to 2.0% molybdenum, 0.03 to 0.1% magnesium, at least one element of cerium and lanthanum in an amount of 0.02 to 0.5%, the rest of the iron. If silicon is present in amount of less than 3.5%, the exhaust pipe is formed of a protective layer of SiO2and because carbon saturation occurs as the result of the trend towards the emergence of such casting defects such as shrinkage of the shell. Cerium and lanthanum are the important components of the composition. If CE and La are present in a quantity smaller than the lower limit of 0.02%, the silicon will not diffuse in the direction of the surface region of the casting (which is required for formation of a protective layer of SiO2in the casting) and to promote the manifestation of the properties of Mo satisfactorily to slow down the oxidation resistance. Thus, CE and La must be present to counteract the suppression properties of molybdenum present in the alloy.

In U.S. patent 4153017 described manufacturing Cams for internal combustion engines of an alloy of iron containing 3,10-3,60% carbon, from 2.00-2,90% silicon, 0.60 and 0.90% manganese, 0.20 to 0.80 per cent chromium, from 0.30 to 0.60% Nickel, 1.50 to 5.00% molybdenum, 0,10-0,50% vanadium, and the rest gelam, the molybdenum forms two types of carbides: zhelezomargantsevye carbide M23With6with a face-centered cubic lattice and the carbide Fe3With the type of cementite with a rhombic lattice. Carbide type M23With6is more stable. Chromium and vanadium are added to the alloy to dissolve the carbides of the type of cementite, which crucially depends on the addition of CR and V.

Also made attempts to produce automotive parts, such as rotors, brakes, composite metal matrix (MMC). For example, in U.S. patent 5261511 described the rotor braking device of the composition having 20-80 vol.% carbides of silicon and 80-20% vol. iron alloy. In the patent it is noted that the alloy of iron mainly contains, in wt.%: 0,4-4,0 carbon, 1.8 to 18.0 silicon, 1.0 to 10 X, where X is chosen from the group consisting of CR, Mo, si, Mn, Ni, P and S, the rest of the iron. Although this patent has a wide range of 1.0 to 10.0% for X, the only example that X is present in the amount 1,51 weight. % and contains CR (0,13%), Mo (0,08%), si (0,28%), Mn (0,75%), Ni (0,13%), P (0,06%) and S (0,08%). The patent also noted that the composite material with a metal matrix, which includes 20-80% of particles of silicon carbide and 80-20% iron alloy, is an effective material for shotable production of the rotor braking device, and in the patent specifically noted that required the presence of particles of silicon carbide.

In U.S. patent 3909252 described self-lubricating cast iron with high resistance to wear. Cast iron contains from 1.0 to 3.5% of carbon, 0.5 to 3.5% silicon, 0.1 to 1.5% manganese, from 0.1 to 2.0% chromium, 1.0 to 15.0% cobalt, 0.5 to 10.0% molybdenum, 0.1 to 5.0% Nickel, 0.05 to 2.0% of NB, 0.001 to 0.1% of boron, the remainder iron. This cast iron, which contains a large amount of cobalt and chromium supplements and niobium, is particularly suitable for the manufacture of piston rings.

In U.S. patent 3559775 described rotor braking device, made of zaevtektoidnoj gray cast iron, which includes a 3.6-4.0% carbon, 2.5 to 4.0% silicon, up to 2% or more elements, stabilizing the perlite, the rest of the iron. Elements, stabilizing perlite can be manganese, chromium, copper, tin, and molybdenum. Although in the patent noted that specific pearlite stabilizing elements can be used individually or in combination, in a single example, which was introduced molybdenum as a stabilizer perlite, used 0,10-0,20% molybdenum, and it was used in combination with chromium. Chemically unbound carbon was present in the form of relatively large inclusions of graphite type And according to retene is the creation of an alloy of iron, which is especially suitable for the manufacture of rotors disc brake devices, and can also be used for the manufacture of a wide range of other parts of automobiles and other products.

According to the first aspect of the invention proposed an alloy of iron containing 1.5 to 4.5 weight. % carbon, 1.5 to 4.5 wt.% silicon and from 1.2 to 6.5 wt.% molybdenum and, optionally, Nickel and copper, and in which the number (molybdenum + Nickel + copper) not more than 6.5 wt.%, the rest of the iron and incidental impurities.

All of the following compositions are expressed in weight percent.

The amount of carbon preferably is within the range from 1.5 to 3.8%, more preferably from 3.0 to 3.5%, more preferably from 3.0 to 3,35%, most preferably about 3.25 per cent.

The amount of silicon in the alloy of iron, preferably, is within the range from 1.9 to 2.5%, and more preferably from 2.1 to 2.3%.

Molybdenum is an important component of the alloy and is present in amount of at least 1.2 percent. Preferably, the molybdenum is present in amount of at least 1.2 to 4.5%, more preferably at least 1.2 to 3.0%. It was found that the alloy containing 1.5% molybdenum, suitable for use in the mouth is the effective automobiles contain a 3.0% molybdenum.

In a particularly preferred embodiment, an alloy of iron is a cast iron with spheroidal graphite.

Nickel and/or copper may also be present in the alloy and function modifiers alloy for increased strength and crushing of grains in the alloy structure. Nickel is present preferably in amounts of from 0.1 to 4.5%, more preferably from 0.1 to 3.5%, and most preferably 1%. The amount of copper is preferably from 0.1 to 4.5%, more preferably from 0.1 to 3.5%, and most preferably 1%. The total amount of molybdenum and Nickel and/or copper should not exceed 6.5 per cent.

Random impurities may include manganese, sulfur and phosphorus. In the above example, the alloy according to the invention contains a total of contamination in an amount of 0.1 to 0.8%, preferably 0.04% of sulfur and 0.04% of phosphorus. As indicated below, the content of manganese in the ideal case can mainly be on the zero level.

Particularly preferred alloy according to the invention contains from 3 to 3,35% carbon, from 1.9 to 2.5% silicon and at least 1 to 3% molybdenum, the remainder iron and incidental impurities.

The preferred composition of the alloy for rotors disc brake device of vcle preferably 3.7% to 3.8% carbon, approximately 3.0% of molybdenum, of 2.1-2.3% of silicon, the remainder iron and incidental impurities. The composition of the alloy optionally may include Nickel and/or copper in the amounts specified above.

Carbon equivalent (CE) in this preferred alloy, as a rule, is 3.8.

The carbon equivalent is determined by the following formula: CE=%C+1/3 (% Si) (1) Although the Nickel and/or copper may not necessarily be included in the alloy according to the invention in quantities above, almost without any harmful influence, in one embodiment, it is preferable that the respective additives in the alloy of Nickel and copper have been minimized or eliminated altogether. Particularly preferably, the iron alloy according to the invention, the Nickel and/or copper was present only in amounts corresponding impurities.

Similarly, eliminated adding additional alloying components. In particular, chromium, manganese, vanadium and rare earth metals must be present in the alloy of iron, mainly at the zero level, and certainly not higher levels of impurities. Chromium and manganese increases the hardness of the alloy, thereby making it difficult machining. In addition, alloying elements can the microstructure and/or physical properties of the alloy.

In preferred embodiments of the present invention, where the iron alloys are cast iron with spheroidal graphite (also known as nodular cast iron, alloy iron also contains small amounts of one or more of spheroidizing agents. Spheroidizing agents include, typically, a certain amount of magnesium, and therefore the iron alloy may contain small amounts of magnesium. Alternatively, or additionally, the iron alloy may contain small amounts of elements that are used in other suitable agents, spheroidizing, well-known specialists in this field of technology. The spheroidizing agent is present, preferably, in the maximum amount of from 0.1 to 0.2%.

The most preferred alloy of iron according to the invention contains from 3 to 3,35% carbon, 2.1 to 2.3% of silicon, at least from 1.0 to 3% molybdenum, the remainder iron and incidental impurities, in which the alloy of iron is a cast iron with spheroidal graphite.

Molybdenum is the primary alloying element added to the iron alloy according to the invention. It was found that molybdenum has a stabilizing effect on the alloy so that it suppresses phase transformations in splash brake device, braking causes the heating and cooling of the rotors. The stabilizing effect of molybdenum minimizes or eliminates phase transformations, which thereby helps to maintain dimensional stability of rotors and minimizes or eliminates the destruction of the rotor. I believe that the molybdenum also increases thermal conductivity of the alloy and thereby improves heat dissipation rotors. Molybdenum also grinds grain with obtaining an alloy having a small grain size.

The applicant of the present invention extensively studied materials according to the prior art and found no documents that describe the iron alloy having the composition specified in the present description. Another hallmark of the invention is the specific composition of the alloy in the form of nodular cast iron.

According to the invention the alloy has a microstructure containing very soft spherical grains of graphite surrounded by a relatively soft and plastic ferrite, and these soft components strengthened with increasing hardness pearlitic phase of this alloy and very solid phase complex carbides.

In an alternative implementation, the alloy has a microstructure containing very soft globular see increasing hardness very solid phase complex carbides and preferably pearlitic phase of the above mentioned alloy.

Iron alloy according to the invention is particularly suitable for the manufacture of rotors disc brake device for vehicles, such as cars, airplanes and trains.

In accordance with another aspect of the present invention proposed a rotor disc brake device, characterized in that it consists wholly or partly of iron alloy in accordance with the first aspect of the present invention. When for the production of rotors disc brake devices used iron alloy according to the invention, it was discovered that the disk rotors have low wear. Vibration, cracks and gnashing also reduced compared with the conventional disc brake devices made from grey cast iron.

Although the iron alloy according to the invention is particularly suitable for the manufacture of rotors disc brake device, it should be considered that may be obtained from a wide range of other products from the alloy of iron according to the invention. Examples of other products that may be obtained from the alloy according to the invention, include details of vehicles, aircraft and ships, including the fins, cylinder heads, engine blocks and wheels; system & and is orania, especially for use in power stations; housing and cover pumps; piping systems; details of crushers; gears and pistons; a protective plate koloshnikov; gate valves for dust; water valves; couplings and other pipe connectors; ladles; cover and frame observation wells; grates; rollers; camshafts; crankshafts; swivel on the suspension systems; flywheels and clutch; a rotor braking device, trucks and brake drums vehicles.

In accordance with another aspect of the present invention, a method for producing an alloy of iron containing, as described later, the following steps: a) obtaining a melt containing iron, silicon, carbon, molybdenum and, optionally, copper and/or Nickel; and (b) casting the melt.

Step (a) preferably includes the melting of pig iron, ferro-alloys, silicon, nauglerozhivatelya and Ferroalloy of manganese. In the melt can also be added modifier. The melt is also preferable to process spheroidizing agent, which ensures the presence of the cooled alloy of any chemically unrelated carbon in spheroidal or spherical, and not in a plate form the oven. Subjected to melting of the components are preferably mixed well to obtain a homogeneous distribution of elements in the alloy. The temperature in the furnace, preferably, is approximately 1350oC. Then, the melt is preferably produced from a furnace into a preheated ladle. The iron alloy may be cast iron, cast iron with spheroidal graphite (CG) or structural steel. Preferably, the iron alloy is, for example, the alloy BHP-300PLUS, which contains 0,22%, and 0.50% Si, 1.6% of Mn, 0.040% For P, 0.040% For S and the carbon equivalent (CE) of 0.45. In the base alloy of iron may be present also other elements, such as of 0.40% cu and 0.50% Ni, 0.30% to Cr and 0.10% Mo, provided that their total content does not exceed 1,00%.

In ferrocene preferably contains from 70 to 75% Si and 1.5 to 2% Al, the remainder iron and incidental impurities.

Nauglerozhivatelya serves to increase the amount of carbon present in the alloy, and may be a powdered electrode material, for example Carbonin 101, which contains 98,0% carbon, 1.0% moisture 0.5% of volatile substances, 1.0% ash, 0,07% sulfur and 0.02% of nitrogen.

In the Ferroalloy molybdenum preferably contains 67% Mo, 1% Si, 0.6% of S and 0.04% P, and the remainder iron and incidental impurities.

After this the t lamellar graphite in spheroidal. This can be achieved by adding ferro-alloys silicon with magnesium, which usually contains 6.3% of MD, 46.6% of Si, 0,82% Al, 1,09% CA and 0.99% Re, the remainder iron and incidental impurities. You can also use spheroidizing agents known to specialists in this field of technology, including an alloy of silicon with Nickel and magnesium.

At stage (b) modifier grinds grain alloy and is preferably modifier ZL80, which contains 71% Si, 1.6% of Al, 1,89% Zr and 0,83% CA, and the remainder iron and incidental impurities.

If you want to melt you can add a modifier of spheroidizing, as Spheroflux.

This casting is preferably performed before changing the color of the melt when cooled, otherwise the casting may be of low quality. Generally, it is preferable to perform the casting after about 10 minutes or less after adding a modifier, more preferably after about 7 minutes. Casting, preferably, leave to cool in the molds, preferably during the night.

Hereinafter the invention is described with reference to the following examples and drawings. These examples and drawings in no way limit the invention.

In Fig. 1 presents a graph p is La of the rotor disk, made of iron alloy according to the invention.

In Fig. 2 presents a graph showing the results of an inertial dynamometer testing the wear of the disc brake device for a disk rotor according to the prior art.

In Fig. 3 shows the test results for wear at low pressure using a rotor according to the invention and the prior art. In Fig.4 shows the results of a second test for wear at low pressure using a rotor according to the invention and the prior art.

In Fig.5 shows a micrograph of a molded edge treatment must be performed investigated stereaming sample according to the invention increase the X100.

In Fig. 6 shows a micrograph at magnification X100 section in the middle of the radius of the investigated stereaming sample according to the invention.

In Fig. 7 shows a micrograph of the main areas investigated stereaming sample shown in Fig.6, but with increasing X500; and Fig.8 shows the micrograph, the same is shown in Fig.7, but with increasing h.

EXAMPLE 1 IN the induction furnace has introduced the following components in the indicated amounts, kg: Alloy iron Hungary-3000 PLUS - 400 is an alloy of silicon - 13,2 Nauglerozhivatelya Car what love was treated with 7 kg of ferro-alloys silicon, which acted as a spheroidizing agent, 1.2 kg modifier ZL80 and 0.8 kg Spheroflux'a, which acted as a modifier of spheroidizing. The melt was thoroughly mixed to ensure uniform distribution of the alloy components. The casting of the melt in chiniquy bottling bucket fulfilled within 7 minutes, to avoid the color change of the melt when cooled. Then the melt is poured into moulds and allowed to cool during the night.

The resulting alloy in the result, had the following composition:
3,25% carbon;
to 2.1% silicon;
1.5% molybdenum; and
93,5% of iron and incidental impurities.

Found that the obtained alloy was caused reduced vibration and rattle in the disk brake devices of conventional cars.

EXAMPLE 2
Performed the same procedure as described in example 1, except that in the induction furnace has introduced the following components in the indicated amounts, kg:
An alloy of iron Hungary-300 PLUS - 400
An alloy of silicon - 13,2
Nauglerozhivatelya Carbonin 101 - 16,2
An alloy of molybdenum - 16
The resulting alloy in the result, had the following composition:
3,25% carbon;
to 2.1% silicon;
to 3.0% molybdenum; and
91,65% iron and incidental impurities.

Found that the obtained alloy>To study the suitability of the iron alloy according to the invention for manufacturing a disk rotor of a disk brake devices manufactured kit disc rotors using iron alloy of example 1. Then the disk rotors subjected to tests in accordance with the methodology of the Australian firm brake company. Tests included:
- tested for wear at low pressure, which simulated the wear of the rotor at low pressure in the position of the removed load;
- dynamometer tests varying the thickness of the disk (DTV), which correspond to the mileage 20,000 km of normal vehicle;
- full inertial torque tests that simulate normal driving conditions;
- tests for depreciation, in which the measured noise in the disk rotor; and
- testing to destruction, which was conducted in the test bench conditions when modeling different speeds in different standard specifications.

In table. 1 and 2 shows some data obtained from inertial torque tests on the wear of the disc brake device for rotors made of alloy of iron according to the invention (table. 1) and for the disk rotor preceding equipment (OE) (table. 2). E. the ditch, made from an alloy according to the invention, was 0,069 mm, whereas the rotor of the previous equipment (OE) was detected total wear is 0.102 mm

In Fig.3 and 4 show the test results for wear at low pressure using a rotor made according to the invention (with reference to Fig. 3 and 4 as "rotor Camcast") and OE rotors. Unfortunately, arising in the process of testing difficulties, it is possible, with registration data, has led to some anomalous results shown in Fig.3 and 4, particularly in relation to reduced wear, identified under increased loads. These tests were performed again, but the results were again poor. However, the data in Fig.3 and 4, which can be reliably interpreted, show that the disk rotors in accordance with the present invention demonstrate superior wear characteristics compared with the data for the rotors of the prior equipment (OE).

We also conducted tests, vibration tests. The manufacturer of braking devices that conducted these tests, used its own classification scale and assessed the disk rotor according to the invention the size of 8.5 out of 10. The OE rotors usually is some data logging.

EXAMPLE 4
Tests varying the thickness of the disk (DTV) were conducted on four disk rotors made of alloy according to the invention. The results of these tests are given in table. 3 and shows only very minor changes in the thickness of the rotor disk.

Tests conducted on disk rotors in accordance with the invention, carried out only at an early stage, and before there could be obtained the final results that required further tests. However, according to this test showed that the disk rotors according to the invention are superior in the properties of disk rotors previous equipment (OE). Indeed, suppose that the disk rotors according to the invention in comparison with the disk rotors OE will have the following advantages:
- eliminate vibration;
- do not fail;
lower value of changes in the thickness of the disk;
- lower rate of deceleration;
- safe product;
- longer service life;
minimum rust;
- lower the deposition of carbonaceous residue on the wheels of alloy;
- more stable material;
- high technology in manufacturing.

Was conducted by the but the invention. Samples for testing was in the form of a rod with a diameter of 30 mm and had the following composition, %:
Carbon - 3,7
Silicon - 2,58
Manganese - 0,259
Phosphorus - 0,037
Sulfur - 0,010
Chrome - 0,034
Nickel - 0,070
Molybdenum - 1,28
Magnesium - 0,039
Iron - Rest
In Fig.5 shows a micrograph obtained at magnification X100, cast edges of the studied core. Studied starinavity the sample was treated with 2% nitelines solution.

In Fig. 5 shows a typical structure of nodular cast iron, where visible spheroidal graphite (especially on the surface in areas below the surface) in the matrix, which consists of ferrite and pearlite and complex carbide formed during initial solidification. It is considered that as the cooling of the melt from the liquid state are spherical inclusions of graphite, which then serve as crystallization nuclei, around which is formed of ferrite. With the growth of the ferrite remaining liquid enriched in carbon and alloy components, especially molybdenum) is adjudged to be in an intermediate cavity. In this fluid are complex carbides, and they form the austenite phase containing the associated complex carbides. Then, as further kleinedler rather homogeneous.

As the field of view is moved into casting (away from edges), the spheroidal graphite structure has a tendency to degradation (from form VI, back to forms V and IV).

In Fig.6 shows a micrograph obtained at magnification X100 investigated stereaming sample, treatment must be performed in 2% natalina solution. It is seen that the microstructure is present spheroidal graphite (with a predominance of "degraded" or less spherical structures) along with ferrite, perlite and complex carbide components. Present perlite is approximately 20% (as part of the surface area) of the microstructure.

In Fig.7 shows a micrograph obtained at magnification X500, studied stereaming sample, treatment must be performed in 2% natalina solution, in the same basic area of the sample, as shown in Fig.6. Fig.8 are identical with Fig.7, but made with increasing h. The elements of the microstructure in Fig.7 labeled. Were also measuring the microhardness of the phases at a load of 100 g Hv (hardness Vickers), and the obtained data are given below:
A - degraded spherical grain graphite (form IV);
In the ferrite surrounding the spherical grain graphite, microhardness Hv when the th is, typically, 400;
D - complex carbide, presumably of type M6C, where M can be Fe, Mo and other carbidopa elements in various combinations. Complex carbides are as skeletone connection in the former dendritic areas and approximately 5% (as part of the surface area) of the microstructure. The values of microhardness "skeletons" (including carbide plus perlite) is, as a rule, 550 and above.

Before cutting and polishing of parts of the study sterzhnevykh samples measured their microtarget Hv at a load of 20 kg, which averaged 214 (mid-radius) and 204 (broken edge).

We investigated stereaming sample observed degraded spheroidal graphite in the direction of the centre of the sample. However, the investigated starinavity sample more accurately classified as nodular cast iron. Degradation near the center was probably caused by a slower cooling in this area because of the relatively large diameter (30 mm) of the studied sample. I believe that the parts with thinner cross-sections, such as the rotor of the disc brake devices, the thickness of which, as a rule, is 10-12 mm, will not experience degradation of steroidogenic carbides was unexpected, and conducted testing specialist said that he had never seen before such a phase in cast iron. The alloy had a microstructure containing very soft spherical grains of graphite surrounded by a relatively soft and plastic ferrite. These soft components strengthens and gives them the hardness of the pearlite phase and phase is very solid complex carbides. It is interesting to note that held the microstructure has not established any presence of bainite. It is important to note that the above-described microstructure can be obtained in terms of casting.

Specialists in the art will understand that the invention described here allows for the emergence of variants and modifications other than those specifically listed in the description. It goes without saying that the invention includes all such variations and modifications that correspond to its essence and scope of protection defined by the formula.


Claims

1. An alloy of iron containing carbon, silicon, molybdenum, iron, and incidental impurities, characterized in that it optionally contains Nickel and/or copper at the following content, wt. %: carbon of 1.5 - 4.5; silicon of 1.5 - 4.5; molybdenum - 1,2-6,5; iron and smelt iron on p. 1, characterized in that it is a cast iron with spheroidal graphite.

3. An alloy of iron under item 1 or 2, characterized in that it contains carbon in an amount of 1.5% to 3.8%.

4. An alloy of iron under item 1 or 2, characterized in that it contains carbon in an amount of 3.0-3.5%.

5. Iron alloy according to any one of paragraphs. 1-4, characterized in that it contains carbon in an amount of from 3.0 to 3.35%.

6. Iron alloy according to any one of paragraphs. 1-5, characterized in that it contains silicon in an amount of 1.9 2.58 per cent.

7. Iron alloy according to any one of paragraphs. 1-6, characterized in that it contains silicon in an amount of from 2.1 to 2.3 per cent.

8. Iron alloy according to any one of paragraphs. 1-7, characterized in that it contains molybdenum in an amount of 1.2 to 4.5%.

9. Iron alloy according to any one of paragraphs. 1-8, characterized in that it contains molybdenum in the amount of 1,2-3,0%.

10. Iron alloy according to any one of paragraphs. 1-9, characterized in that it contains Nickel in an amount of 0.1 to 4.5%.

11. Iron alloy according to any one of paragraphs. 1-10, characterized in that it contains Nickel in an amount of 0.1-4,35%.

12. Iron alloy according to any one of paragraphs. 1-11, characterized in that it contains Nickel in an amount of about 1.0%.

13. Iron alloy according to any one of paragraphs. 1-12, characterized in that it contains copper in an amount of 0.1 to 4.5%.

14. Iron alloy according to any one of paragraphs. 1-13, Otley is that it contains copper in an amount of about 1.0%.

16. Iron alloy according to any one of paragraphs. 1-8, characterized in that it contains Nickel in a quantity at the level of impurities.

17. Iron alloy according to any one of paragraphs. 1-8, characterized in that it contains copper in amounts on the level of impurities.

18. The alloy according to any one of paragraphs. 1-17, characterized in that it contains 0.1 to 0.2% of the alloying components as a spheroidizing agent.

19. Iron alloy according to any one of paragraphs. 1-18, characterized in that it contains other alloying elements in amounts on the level of impurities.

20. An alloy of iron under item 1, characterized in that it contains from 3.0 to 3.5% carbon, 1,9-2,58% silicon, 1.2 to 1.5% molybdenum, the remainder iron and incidental impurities, the alloy is a cast iron with spheroidal graphite.

21. An alloy of iron under item 1, characterized in that it contains from 3.0 to 3.35% carbon, 1,9-2,58% silicon and approximately 3.0% molybdenum, the remainder iron and incidental impurities, the alloy is a cast iron with spheroidal graphite.

22. An alloy of iron under item 1, characterized in that it contains 3.5 to 4.5% carbon, 2.1 to 2.3% of silicon, 2.5 to 3.5% molybdenum, the remainder iron and incidental impurities.

23. An alloy of iron on p. 22, characterized in that it contains a 3.0% molybdenum and 3.7% of carbon.

24. Iron alloy according to any one of paragraphs. 1-23, otlichayushiesya fact, that random impurities include up to 0.04% sulfur, up to 0.04% phosphorus.

26. Alloy under item 1, characterized in that it contains 1.5 to 4.5% carbon, 1.5 to 4.5% silicon, 1.2 to 4.5% molybdenum, up to 0.2% of spheroidizing agent, the rest is iron, and in which the remaining impurities are present only at the level of incidental impurities.

27. An alloy of iron on PP. 1-26, characterized in that it contains mainly carbon, silicon, molybdenum and iron in the above-mentioned weight percent.

28. Iron alloy according to any one of paragraphs. 1-27, wherein the alloy has a microstructure containing very soft spherical grains of graphite surrounded by a relatively soft and plastic ferrite, and these soft components strengthened with increasing hardness pearlitic phase of this alloy.

29. Rafting on p. 28, characterized in that the soft spherical grains of graphite reinforced with very solid phase complex carbides.

30. The alloy according to any one of paragraphs. 1-27, characterized in that it has a microstructure containing very soft spherical grains of graphite surrounded by a relatively soft and plastic ferrite, and these soft components hardened to increase their hardness very solid phase complex carbides.

31. How procedimenti copper and/or Nickel and its casting, characterized in that the iron alloy according to any one of paragraphs. 1-30.

32. The method according to p. 31, characterized in that it produces. tons of molten pig iron or steel, ferro-alloys, silicon, nauglerozhivatelya and Ferroalloy of manganese.

33. The method according to p. 31 or 32, characterized in that the melt process spheroidizing agent, to provide education in a chilled alloy of any chemically unrelated carbon inclusions spheroidal shape.

34. The method according to any of the PD. 31-33, characterized in that the melt receive at temperatures above 135oC.

35. The method according to any of paragraphs. 30-34, characterized in that the casting carried out before changing colors.

36. The rotor disc brake device, made entirely or partly of iron alloy, characterized in that it is made of iron alloy according to any one of paragraphs. 1-30.

 

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