The way degreasing of sheepskin and fur raw materials
The method can be used in fur production in degreasing sheepskin and fur raw materials. He is in the handling of raw enzyme bacterial culture and preparation, where the enzyme culture using Pseudomonas Sp. in the amount of 106cells/cm3and bacterial drug produced by this culture, with the following parameters: concentration of BP - 1 to 2 g/DM3, SPAW - 0.5-1 g/DM3temperature 40-42oWith and constant mechanical mixing of the working bath. The technical result is an optimal removal of fatty substances from the surface of the fur and leather fur sheepskin maintain a link hair with Koshevoy tissue and by reducing the degree of toxicity of wastewater by reducing the consumption of detergents from 8 to 0.5-1 g/DM3exceptions to the working bath of sodium carbonate and formaldehyde. 3 table. The invention relates to light industry and can be used in fur production in degreasing sheepskin and fur raw materials.There is a method of cleaning-degreasing fur and fur sheepskin, which consists in the processing of fur raw material for enzyme preparations in the presence of synthetic surface-aktl. 2).However, this method may be used only for polysistic and nizkosernistyh sheepskin, when the mass of the party does not exceed the acceptable rate for equipment.A method of processing fur sheepskin using the enzyme preparation of protocolin G3x in washing and degreasing processes. In the process of degreasing processing of sheepskin is produced in the solution containing anionic surfactant or mixture of anionic and nonionic substances in the ratio of 1: 10 total concentration of 8-12 g/DM3alkaline reagent (sodium carbonate) - 0.5 g/DM3and it G3x - 1.0 g/DM3at a temperature of 42oAnd duration of process 1 h (see Kuryshev, N., Zueva Century, the Use of proteolytic enzyme preparation in the processing of fur - Sat.scient.Tr. /Research in the field of fur processing, improve the quality of fur raw materials and semi-finished / resp.ed. Besedin, A. N. - M., 1987, S. 8-21).However, the use of enzyme preparation, it G3x microbial origin containing alkaline protease, can affect mucopolysacharides complex, located in the basal membrane of the hair bags, destroying it. This leads to a weakening of fixing hair in the can hamper the process of biodegradation of wastewater generated.There is a method of degreasing fur sheepskin, in which the removal of organic substances washed out by using enzyme preparations lipolytic action (liposyn and/or lipase), isolated from porcine pancreas, as well as from cultures of Pseudomonas acrudinase with the addition of various adjuvants (bile, calcium chloride). In the case of the use of these enzyme preparations qualitative reactions on zagarenski negative. However, when degreasing the lipases of animal origin there is some weakening of bonds of the hair with Koshevoy cloth, which is undesirable for fur skins (see Fomin L. A., Rochwarger O. D., Zubin A. M. and others Research process enzymatic degreasing fur sheepskin - Sat. scientific papers VNIIMP - M., 1980, S. 3-7).The closest to the technical nature of the claimed invention is a Method of degreasing and weakening bristle pork skins". The method consists in the fact that after treatment with lime and washing the skins are treated in a bath containing the drug of mold Aspergillus Oryzae and ammonium sulphate. Under the action allocated to the preparation of lactic acid, there is no fat. As a result, lime plumping raw material falls down into the van which carried out the necessary weakening of the bristles, (see and.with. SU 61614, CL 14 With 1/08. Method of degreasing and weakening bristle pork skins. Publ. 31.08.1942).The disadvantage of the presented method is the weakening of the link bristle pork skins with Koshevoy cloth that is not acceptable in the processing of sheepskin and fur raw materials.The main disadvantage of the presented methods is the formation of toxic wastewater containing difficultly oxidizable organic compounds, such as synthetic surfactants and formaldehyde.Thus, the technical problem of the proposed method is to develop a resource-saving environmentally friendly technologies degreasing of sheepskin and fur raw materials, based on the use of microorganisms with lipolytic properties, able to degrade fatty substances (wool fat) in the presence of detergents.The technical result of the invention is the optimal removal of fatty substances from the surface of the fur and leather fur sheepskin maintain a link hair with Koshevoy tissue while reducing the degree of toxicity of wastewater by reducing the consumption of detergents from 8 to 0.5-1 g/DM3exceptions to the working bath of sodium carbonate and formaldehyde. The spent solution respectively.The technical result is achieved in that in the method for degreasing of sheepskin and fur raw materials, lies in its processing enzyme bacteriological culture and drug, according to the invention as an enzyme culture using Pseudomonas Sp. in the amount of 106cells/cm3and bacterial product (BP) produced by this culture, with the following parameters: concentration of BP - 1 to 2 g/DM3, SPAW - 0.5-1 g/DM3temperature 40-42oAnd the constant stirring in the working bath.New in the proposed method, biotech degreasing fur sheepskin is the processing of raw materials in the solution containing prokaryotic organisms isolated from specific biocenosis, adapted and cultured in a special medium containing mineral Foundation, organic substances and detergents, which allows not only to produce them enzymes with desired specific properties, but also to increase their tolerance to the external environment settings.The new method is that the proposed work structure contains bacterial drug produced by culture of Pseudomonas Sp., with both lipolytic and proteolytic properties in societaldemise the breakdown of lipids from microorganisms which is biocatalytic under the action of the enzyme lipase. In addition, bacterial drug helps remove protein contamination and hydrocarbon nature conservation due hair with Koshevoy tissue while decreasing the toxicity of wastewater and solids are washed out of the hair due to the minimal presence in the solution of detergents.In the known methods of degreasing of sheepskin and fur raw materials, the formation of toxic wastewater containing difficultly oxidizable organic compounds, such as synthetic surfactants and formaldehyde, which can be attributed to the formed water to hypertensionin, i.e. very dirty, and therefore requires significant material costs to clean them.Conducted by the applicant's analysis of the prior art, including searching by the patent and scientific and technical information sources and identify sources that contain information about the equivalents of the claimed invention, has allowed to establish that the applicant had not found the source, which is characterized by symptoms that are identical to all the essential features of the claimed method degreasing of sheepskin and fur raw materials. The definition from the list of identified Asistencia against perceived by the applicant to the technical result of the distinctive features, set forth in the claims.Therefore, the claimed invention meets the conditions of "novelty" and "inventive step".For the implementation of the present invention is a method of degreasing of sheepskin and fur raw materials experimental studies were performed, which were established conditions of culturing prokaryotic organism Pseudomonas Sp. optimal concentrations of BP, detergents and temperature settings.The obtained bacterial suspension containing bacterial drug produced by culture of Pseudomonas Sp., Detergents nonionic and prokaryotic organisms are subjected to analysis to determine the concentrations of the bacterial preparation (BP) and detergents, which must be not less than 2.5 and 0.5-1 g/DM3respectively.The bacterial suspension is prepared by introducing into a synthetic environment mineral bases, detergents, organic substances and culture of Pseudomonas species. Duration of cultivation for 72 hours with periodic mechanical action.Thus obtained suspension is subjected to analysis to estimate the concentration of BP, its lipolytic and proteolytic activities, content of detergents. Then, the suspension is poured into the boat, where d is p>. The temperature of the mixture should be in the range of 40-42oC. the processing time is 1 hour with periodic mechanical action. Sheepskin straightened as evenly loaded into the barge.The finished semi-finished product is characterized by a white, clean, crisp hair.The proposed method is as follows.To conduct biotechnological method of degreasing of sheepskin and fur raw materials pre-get bacterial suspension on the basis of culture of Pseudomonas Sp. The resulting suspension contribute to the working bath, determine the concentration of BP and detergents, download sheepskin in the expanded position. The continuous rotation. After degreasing the drain, flushing. The end of the degreasing was assessed by reaction Lieberman. Further processing was performed according to a Single processing technology fur sheepskin (1988).The proposed method degreasing fur sheepskin tested in semiindustrial conditions.For tests used a composition containing nonionic detergents - Prevotella W-OF-7-1 g/DM3bacterial drug - 2.5 g/DM3with the proteolytic activities - 212,00 u/g and lipolytic - 21,42 u/g, produced Kul is under Common processing technology fur sheepskin (1988). Further processing was carried out according to the scheme: Pressing, degreasing II, runoff, leaching, and runoff. Degreasing II was performed with the following parameters: liquid ratio - 7, duration 1 hour, the temperature of 40-42oC. working In a tub filled environment containing starter culture and bacterial drug, determined the concentration of detergents, BP and straightened as downloaded sheepskin. The continuous rotation. The end of the degreasing was determined by reaction Lieberman. After degreasing spent washing fur sheepskin running water at a temperature of 40oC for 30 minutes.In the control variant (the prototype) was used, comprising: paste "News" - 8 g/DM3, sodium carbonate and 0.5 g/DM3and formaldehyde - 0.5 cm3/DM3. The process of degreasing II was performed in compliance with the Uniform processing technology fur sheepskin.After the test and control degreasing were selected wastewater to assess their quality and level of toxic pollution. Evaluation of the quality of wastewater was carried out according to the following criteria: active reaction (pH); chemical oxygen demand (COD) and concentration of detergents. Characteristics of waste water after degreasing II performance and water after the model and the developed techniques. As a test object used rachek Daphnia magna Straus. Indicator of the degree of toxicity was the ratio of dilution, in which eliminates the acute toxic effects. The observation was carried out for 96 hours, the first 3 hours hourly, and then once a day, given the number of living individuals. For control options and for dilution of wastewater used tap water after settling for 24 hours. Survival in the control after 96 hours was 100%. The result is presented in table. 2.As can be seen from the table. 1 and 2, the waste water after degreasing, made by the developed technique based on the use of bacterial drug produced by culture of Pseudomonas Sp., less toxic.Next, the processing of fur sheepskin was conducted according to a Single production technology of fur sheepskin. Sheepskin manufactured to finished semi-finished product, and then determined the chemical and physico-mechanical properties. The results of comparative tests obtained by the proposed method and the method prototype is presented in table. 3.Thus, the proposed method degreasing allows optimal removal of fatty substances from the surface but contaminated by reducing the consumption of detergents, exceptions sodium carbonate and formaldehyde and used for degradation of fatty substances of bacterial drug produced by culture of Pseudomonas Sp.The characteristics of sheepskin fur tanned correspond the requirements of GOST 4661-76.On the basis of the foregoing that the inventive method degreasing of sheepskin and fur raw materials meets the condition of "industrial applicability".
ClaimsThe way degreasing of sheepskin and fur raw materials, lies in its processing enzyme bacterial culture and preparation, characterized in that the enzyme culture using Pseudomonas Sp. in the amount of 106cells/cm3and bacterial drug produced by this culture, with the following parameters: concentration of BP - 1 to 2 g/DM3, SPAW - 0.5-1 g/DM3temperature 40-42oWith and constant mechanical mixing of the working bath.
FIELD: fur industry, in particular, method for evaluating pickling quality of leather web in tanning of fur and sheepskin raw material.
SUBSTANCE: method involves providing testing on parallel groups of fur sheepskin after pickling on three topographic portions of sheep skin surface: skirt, spine and neck portions; processing samples of each group with acid-salt solution for 24 hours; withdrawing sheepskins of each group from acid-salt solution in predetermined time intervals; removing excessive liquid; placing said samples into tensile testing machine and stretching lengthwise of spine line by 40% relative to initial length thereof; holding samples in stretched state for 1 min and withdrawing from tensile-testing machine; leaving samples in free state for 10 min; determining residual elongation value in mm.
EFFECT: reduced time for determining quantitative pickling characteristic of skin web.
2 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: fur industry, in particular, method for evaluating pickling quality of leather web in tanning of fur and sheepskin raw material.
SUBSTANCE: method involves determining quantitative pickling characteristic of leather web of semi-finished product by using time of solving thereof in alkaline solutions, said time depending on number and kind of intermolecular bindings destructed during pickling. Solving of collagen in alkaline solutions depends upon nature of preliminary acidic preparing procedure. Solving is provided in aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide having concentration of 150 g/l and temperature of 18-20 C. Derma solving time is found after preliminary thermal processing at temperature of 60-65 C during 1.5 hours. Method may be employed both in production of fur and sheepskin products and in fur processing.
EFFECT: wider operational capabilities and reduced time for determining quantitative pickling characteristic of skin web.
1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: leather industry.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises pickling, tanning, and neutralizing the semifinished item. During pickling and subsequent tanning, the picking liquid is provided with acetate sodium in amount of 0.2-0.5 % and, then, chromic tanner in amount of 1.5-1.8%. The tanning is carried out until the pH of the solution reaches 4.2-4.4.
EFFECT: enhanced quality of tanning.
FIELD: defatting of crude sheepskin-and-fur material.
SUBSTANCE: method involves treating crude material in bacterial suspension having lipolytic activity of 20-30 units/g and proteolytic activity of 2.5-3.5 units/g. Suspension contains product of total microorganism vital activity used in an amount of 4-8 g/dm3, synthetic surfactant used in an amount of 0.25-0.5 g/dm3, and prokaryotic crop of Pseudomonas sp. type used in an amount of 107-109 cells/cm3, water the balance. Treatment is conducted at temperature of 40±2 C during 45 min by providing mechanical actions, and liquid coefficient of 7-10.
EFFECT: improved quality of defatting sheepskins, improved elastoplastic properties and reduced level of toxic contamination of sewage water.
3 dwg, 4 tbl
FIELD: fur industry, in particular, process for pickling of sheepskin fur coats and raw fur material.
SUBSTANCE: method involves pickling fur sheepskins in solution such as sour-milk composition having titratable acidity of at least 300 T, lactic acid concentration of at least 25 g/dm3 and medium active reaction below 3.5; providing said process at temperature of 30±2 C during 16 hours at variable mechanical action, with liquid to acid ratio of 7, sodium chloride consumption of 20 g/dm3.
EFFECT: improved quality of fur sheepskins due to reduced curling of hair-covering and improved elastoplastic properties thereof.
4 tbl, 4 ex
FIELD: fur industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention is directed to processing fur sheepskin intended for manufacturing clothing, headgears, footwear parts and other fur items. Crude fur sheepskin of all preservation types is subjected to soaking, first degreasing, squeezing, haircutting, and fleshing according to known technology. Then fur sheepskin is subjected to additional processing in aqueous solution of sodium chloride (15-20 g/L) and nonionic surfactant composition (1-2 g.L) for 2-6 h at 30-32°C. After second degreasing and washing, pickle salting is carried out for 20-24 h. 4-6 hours after the beginning of pickle salting, processing solution is supplemented by 3-5 g composition of nonionic surfactants (1:1 mixture of Neonol AF 9-12 and syntamide 5). Finally tanning and greasing are performed.
EFFECT: improved performance characteristics fur sheepskin intermediate product.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: leather and fur industry.
SUBSTANCE: method envisages culturing of kefir fungal or kurungal ferment (obtained in amount 50%) on a nutrient medium, which medium is pasteurized skim milk for four first culturing days, pasteurized mixture composed of skim milk and fat-free curds whey on 6-14th days, and pasteurized fat-free curds whey on 15-18th days. Culturing is carried out for 18 days at 22±1°C and mechanical shaking twice a day for 15 min to give ferment with acidity 350-360°T. Ferment may be added to pasteurized cooled milk or to pasteurized curds whey in amounts 25% followed by fermentation at 22±1°C and acidity 350-360°T.
EFFECT: increased stability of ferment (double storage time), its acid-generating capability, and population autoregulation, increased activity to accumulate lactic acid by 2 1/2 times, and reduced restoration time by 4-6 h.
2 cl, 4 tbl, 6 ex
FIELD: leather industry.
SUBSTANCE: method involves pickling leather depilated hide with sodium chloride and sulfuric acid, addition of chrome tanning agent to the same bath in its consumption 0.5-0.6% of depilated hide mass as measured for chrome oxide, and chrome-plating is carried out for 2-4 h. Aliphatic dialdehyde is added to same bath in the concentration 3-6% of depilated hide mass, and treatment is carried out for 2-3 h wherein glyoxal or glutaraldehyde is used as dialdehyde. Invention provides enhancing thermal stability and strength properties of leather and can be used in tanning leathers for different designation and assortment.
EFFECT: improved tanning method.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 9 ex
FIELD: material processing.
SUBSTANCE: method provides degreasing and/or drying of animals' skins. According to method, skins, being subject to degreasing and/or drying, are brought in contact with one or more extractants. At least one dissolvent, selected from group consisting of dimethyl ether, methylal, dioxolane, diethyl ether and methyl ethyl ketone, is used as single dissolvent. Sheep, cows', goat's or pig's skins are subject to degreasing and drying. Process is carried out in stator or rotor reactor under pressure of 1-12 bar and at temperature between 5°C and 40°C.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of cleaning; improved ecological safety of process.
14 cl, 1 dwg, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: method involves degreasing sheepskin-fur raw material and can be used in fur production during degreasing of sheepskin-fur coat and fur raw material. Processing of the raw material is carried out in a degreasing bath containing a bacterial suspension, which has both lipolytic 50-60 units/gram and proteolytic 8-10 units/gram activity, with the total product of life activity of the microorganisms at a value of 5-6 g/dm3, synthetic surface-active substance - 0.5-1.0 g/dm3, catalase-positive procariotic culture of genus Erwinia sp. in the quantity 109-1010 cells/cm3 in the degreasing bath hydrogen peroxide is additionally added in the quantity 0.1-1.0 g/dm3, preliminarily dissolved in a tenfold amount of piped water. Processing is carried out at a temperature of 40±2°C, for 60 min., with some mechanical action from time to time and liquid crystallisation=10.
EFFECT: increase in quality of degreasing sheepskin and reduction in the level of toxic sewage production.
4 tbl, 4 ex