X-ray thickness meter
The invention relates to x-ray measurement technology. Feature of the device is that the housing of the ionization chamber and the cable screen connection of the output of the camera with reinvestiruet the input of the amplifier is connected to the amplifier output and its inverting input and is isolated from ground. The technical result of the invention is to improve the measurement accuracy. 1 Il. The invention relates to the control and measurement technology, in particular to an x-ray thickness gauges, and can be used to measure wall thickness of tubes, tape, strip mills for hot and cold rolling as in statics and dynamics.Known x-ray thickness gauges containing the x-ray emitter, ionization chamber, between which is placed the controlled product, and connected in series amplifier, the processing circuitry and the Registrar, and the output of the camera is connected to the input of the amplifier shielded communication cable .In a known measure of the thickness of the housing of the ionization chamber and the screen of a communications cable connecting the outlet chamber with the input of the amplifier, typically grounded to the high impedance input of the amplifier has not received external pomena the impedance of the amplifier 1 Gω and capacitance 50 PF its time constant (RC) signal is high and equal to ~ 50 mc, that adds thickness measurements, and therefore reduces the performance of the meter. Another problem is the possible mechanical movement, shock, bending of the cable connection between the camera and the amplifier cause a change in capacitance of the cable, and consequently, the magnitude of the capacitive load at the input of the amplifier. This can lead to very large noise voltage. When the output voltage from the ionization chamber 10 In the capacitance of the cable 0.5% causes a tip of about 50 mV, which causes a large random component of the error of measurement of thickness.Known x-ray thickness meter, containing the x-ray emitter, ionization chamber, between which is placed the controlled product, and connected in series amplifier, the processing circuitry and the Registrar, and the output of the ionization chamber is connected to the input of the amplifier shielded communication cable .This thickness gauge is also not provided for measures to reduce its time constant, so the speed and accuracy of the measurement is limited due to the presence of the capacitive load between the camera body with the screen of the cable relative to the earth.The invention consists in that and in the controlled product, and consistently connected differential amplifier, the processing circuitry and the Registrar, and the output of the ionization chamber is connected with reinvestiruet input of the differential amplifier shielded communication cable, the output of the differential amplifier connected to the housing of the ionization chamber, the cable screen connection and its own inverting input, while the camera body and the cable shield is isolated from ground.A positive result is a significant increase speed and accuracy of measurement due to the electrical connection of the housing of the ionization chamber and cable screen connection with the output of the differential amplifier and its inverting input, and the insulation casing and screen from the earth. This means that the difference voltage between the camera body, the cable screen connection and information to residential zero. Therefore, capacitive noise is significantly reduced, since the potential difference between them is determined only by the bias voltage of the operational amplifier.The drawing shows a structural diagram of the proposed measuring the thickness.It contains the x-ray emitter 1, the ionization chamber 2, between which is placed a controlled product 3, and the face 6. The output of the ionization chamber 2 is connected via a shielded cable connection (on the drawing screen is depicted by the dashed line) with reinvestiruet (positive) input of differential amplifier 4. The camera body 2 and the cable screen connection is isolated from ground, but electrically connected with the output of the differential amplifier 4 and the inverting (negative) input. The latter forms a 100% negative feedback.Figure 5 processing the information signal provides its transformation into a form and format suitable for playback on the recorder 6, and can be performed on the chip type UD, transistors CT 315, 361.As recorder 6 may be a video or recording device.Has a thickness gauge as follows.The x-ray flux from the oscillator 1 passes through the test object 3 and enters the ionization chamber 2. The radiation in the chamber 2 is converted into an electrical pulse with an amplitude determined by the thickness of the product 3. Information electric signal from the camera 2 is amplified in the differential amplifier 4 and supplied to the processing circuit 5 where it is converted into a convenient shape and form, providing further analysis. In the controlled product. This signal is recorded in the recorder 6.The technical result of the invention are high performance and precision control of the thickness of the product due to the introduction of new technical solutions.Sources of information 1. Rechentechnik. The Handbook. Edited by centuries Klyuyev. Book 2. M: Engineering. 1992. - S. 322.2. RF patent N 2159408, CL G 01 15/02, BI N32, 2000.
ClaimsX-ray thickness meter, containing the x-ray emitter, ionization chamber, between which is placed the controlled product, and consistently connected differential amplifier, the processing circuitry and the Registrar, and the output of the ionization chamber is connected with reinvestiruet input of the differential amplifier shielded communication cable, characterized in that the output of the differential amplifier connected to the housing of the ionization chamber, with the screen of the communication cable and its own inverting input, but the camera body and the cable shield is isolated from ground.
SUBSTANCE: method includes recording number of particles emitted by radioactive layer on basis of number of voltage or current pulses recorded by counting device, then to measuring detector a flow of ionizing radiation is directed from calibrating standard electrode and also registered is number of particles, position of covered electrode is change no less than two times, by turning it in horizontal plane around its axis for arbitrary angle, while repeating measurement of pulses number, while measurement time is selected to be such that number of recorded pulses was no less than 3600 pulses for each measurement position, and then selection of necessary number of electrodes is calculated for forming electrode system in chamber.
EFFECT: higher precision, higher safety.
FIELD: MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGY.
SUBSTANCE: electromagnet wave is induced by means of directed aerial. The wave is incident to dielectric plate. Brusterain angle of incident wave is defined from minimum value of reflected wave and value of dielectric permeability is calculated. Power of incident and reflected waves are measured and the value of reflectivity and specific conductivity are calculated as well as value of dielectric loss of dielectric plate. Then incident angle of electromagnet wave is increased till achieving value providing total internal reflection of electromagnet wave and attenuation of intensity is measured at normal plane relatively direction of wave propagation. Factors of normal attenuation and thickness of dielectric plate are calculated. Method allows to find complex dielectric permeability and thickness of dielectric plates free of dielectric substrates.
EFFECT: improved reliability.
FIELD: electrical measurements.
SUBSTANCE: device is proposed for measurement of dielectric and magnetic permeability as well as thickness of spin coatings on surface of metal and can be used in chemical industry for inspecting composition and properties of liquid and solid media. Electro-magnetic field is induced in body of dielectric material to be inspected which material is applied onto dielectric substrate, by means of sequent excitation of slow surface waves: two E-waves are excited at different, but having almost the same value, wavelengths λr1 and λr2 and one H-wave having wavelength of λr3. Attenuation of field intensity is measured t normal plane in relation to direction of wave propagation by means of receiving vibrators system for different values of base d between them. Normal attenuation factors αE1,αE2 and αH are found from ratio of E(y)= E0 exp[-α(y) y]. Magnetic and dielectric permeability and thickness of magneto-dielectric coating are found from relations of and where has to be phase coefficient of H-wave.
EFFECT: improved precision of measurement.
FIELD: measuring engineering.
SUBSTANCE: meter determines dielectric permittivity and thickness of the oil layer by measuring at two angles unequal to the Brewster angle.
EFFECT: simplified design and expanded functional capabilities.
FIELD: radiometric testing.
SUBSTANCE: counting of electric pulses of all the detectors stops simultaneously as soon as any detector registers no less than specified number of electric pulses caused by ionizing radiation.
EFFECT: improved reliability.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: non-destructive inspection.
SUBSTANCE: primary and secondary n detectors are made of multielement converting elements made of materials having different atomic numbers. Materials are disposed in detectors subsequently starting from lower number to higher ones. Converting elements of primary and secondary n detectors are electrically connected with inputs of (1+n) analog-to-digital converters. Primary detector is rigidly fastened to collimator of radiation source and is turned to item with side having been made of material with higher atomic number. Secondary n detectors are turned to item with sides having lower atomic number. Points of stop of discrete displacement of radiator with primary detector along the rail are coincided with radial directions being placed in the middle of radial directions which form sectors and cross the items at lateral cross-section through their longitudinal axis and centers of secondary n detectors. Value of equivalent atomic number of any layer of coating is calculated from algorithm introduced into processor.
EFFECT: improved precision of inspection.
FIELD: the invention refers to the field of non-destructive control of objects with using of x-ray radiation.
SUBSTANCE: the arrangement has a source of x-ray radiation, three detectors of radiation and a scheme of processing. The characteristic feature of the arrangement is using of detectors with three-sectional converting elements with different spectral sensitivity. The technical result of the invention is increasing of energetic resolution expanding functional possibilities conditioned simultaneous measuring of the thickness of sheet material out of ferrous and non-ferrous metals.
EFFECT: the invention provides high metrological parameters.
FIELD: inspection of dynamics of changes in cellular structures.
SUBSTANCE: method concludes angular collimation of α-radiation by means of Soller collimator, registration of energy spectrum of collimated flux of particles, determination of lateral structures from the shape of registered spectrum on the base of its mathematical model.
EFFECT: improved precision; improved speed of measurement.
FIELD: measurement technology.
SUBSTANCE: microwave electromagnetic fields of running surface slow E-waves and E1 and E2 at two wavelengths λosc1 and λosc2 of oscillator being close in value above dielectric-metal surface at single-mode regime. Damping factors αe1 and αe2 of electric field strength are measured at normal plane relatively direction of propagation of slow surface of wave. Real value of dielectric constant and thickness of coating are calculated. Taking measured values of damping factors into account, values of deceleration are calculated for those wavelengths by relation of Directional pattern maximum angle of inclination θdp max(fz)=θe1(e2) is measured at far zone by means of vertically oriented receiving vibrator. Length of dielectric coating le1 and le2 is determined from relation of le1(e2)=0.552·λosc e1(e2)/(νdf e1(e2)-cosθe1(e2) and its value l=(le1+le2)/2 is subject to averaging.
EFFECT: improved precision of measurement of longitudinal sizes of dielectric coating.
FIELD: non-destructive inspection; X-ray technology.
SUBSTANCE: device has X-ray radiation source, first and second radiation detectors, processing circuit and registrar. Detectors with different spectral sensitivities are used. The detectors are disposed one after another in such a way to make contact to each other at the side being opposite to where X-ray source is located.
EFFECT: improved precision of measurement; improved sensitivity.