# Hierarchical image-based representation of still and animated three-dimensional object, the method and the device for use this view to render the object

The invention relates to the representation of three-dimensional objects obtained using photos of real objects. It should be used for rendering three-dimensional images allows to obtain a technical result in providing compact storage of the image information, fast rendering with high quality output image. This result is achieved due to the fact that the device comprises means for forming the original data of a three-dimensional object, means for converting the original data of a three-dimensional object in view binary volumetric ochoterena (BWO), a tool for visualizing the BVI. 6 C. and 9 C.p. f-crystals, 8 ill. The present invention relates to computer graphics and more specifically to the representation of three-dimensional stationary and animated objects, obtained using photos of real objects and their geometric representations, and to a method and apparatus for representing and rendering using binary volumetric oktodelete.In the near future the emphasis in modern graphics systems will be made on high-quality interactive visualization of creamchocolate efficient compression algorithms of these facilities and transmission networks in the areas as e-Commerce, computer games, scientific field, technology, medicine. The use of traditional polygonal models of three-dimensional objects to simultaneously meet all of these requirements in the past decades has not led to the desired result. Polygonal models have two main drawbacks: a large amount (i.e., realistic models require tens of millions of triangles) and the difficulty of construction. To overcome these difficulties, in recent years, proposed several approaches to three-dimensional graph. The most promising of these are methods based on the use of images, objects, and methods based on the use points instead of triangles in three-dimensional space.Methods based on the use of images of objects that represent the object as a set of images - "photos" of the object that completely cover the visible surface and obtained from several different camera positions. In addition, each image is considered together with the corresponding the depth map, which is a matrix of the distances from the pixels in the image plane to the object surface. The advantage of this is regardless of the complexity of its polygonal models and can be compressed by conventional methods of image compression without much loss of quality. In addition, the rendering time is proportional to the number of pixels in the reference and the output image, and not the complexity of the object.The disadvantages are that obtaining depth maps for real objects (e.g., sculpture) is a rather complex job. In addition, methods of treatment with such views are not yet developed.Methods based on the use points represent the object as a "point cloud" without imposing exact local polygonal patterns. In this way a set of images with depth determines the set of points (with appropriate color) on the surface of the object by moving each pixel of each reference image by an appropriate depth in the direction perpendicular to the image plane. Therefore, image-based representations are a special case of views based on points. In the following we will focus on representations based on the images, because they are closer to our approach.In the literature two above-mentioned directions is described in reference [1]-[13] , describing such a representation of three-dimensional objects and visualization techniques, as a method of relief t], method of surface elements (PE)[5] and some others that are known in the existing art. The following discussion of approaches current level of technology will cite the following publication (see the end of the description).A common problem for image-based methods is the appearance of holes in the resulting image. In contrast to polygonal models, which are "continuous" in the sense that the surface of the object linearly interpolated on the inside of all polygons (usually triangles), image-based and point-based representation, create a "discrete" approximation of objects. In the case of image-based representations of the surface of the object is actually approximated by small colored squares, i.e., shifted pixels of the reference image. When the viewing direction is significantly different from a normal direction to each of the planes of the reference image, the projection approximating squares in General does not fully cover the projection of the surface of the object. We call such holes holes of the first type. Another source of holes in a target image for image-based, what about becomes visible for some points of view (the holes of the second type). These holes appear due to insufficient information contained in the specific image-based representation.The way of relief textures [1] suppresses the holes of the first type by using a similar linear interpolation, which can lead to distortions and artifacts, because the interpolation is performed on a two-dimensional projection of the object, and not in three-dimensional space. More importantly, with this approach, the holes of the second type can be processed only by the same method. Because the method [1] uses only 6 of the reference image, i.e., projections of the object on the verge described Cuba, this imposes serious limitations on the application of this method to complex forms, when there are points invisible from all six faces of the cube. This approach was chosen to maximize speed visualization, namely by using a quick preliminary deformation (geometric transformation, is equivalent to the change of direction of view in orthographic projection), but it leads to deterioration of quality.A layered image with depth (MIG) [2] is a data structure designed to avoid problems with the holes of the second typowanie the location of the reference plane image. Rapid deformation algorithm of [1] applies also here. However, problems remain with the holes of the first type. To solve holes of the first type use splats (small color patches (introduced in [10]). Splats (small color patches are small two-dimensional surface area of a rectangular or elliptical shape, endowed with some color distribution, e.g. a Gaussian, centered at the center of this site or with a constant color distribution. The disadvantage MOMENT is its asymmetry, since this view is based on the projection with a certain fixed direction. This leads to difficulty filling holes for directions of view, very different from the specified fixed direction.Tree MIG [3] is ochoterena with MIG in each cell (node) ochoterena. The advantage of using hierarchical models is that not every MOMENT in oktodelete should be visualized. Those cells that are further removed, rendered less detail with filtered pixels that are stored in the higher hierarchy MOMENT. This view was developed to overcome the unbalance MOMENT due to the use of many reference images. However, the amount of memory stat [3], and about half of this volume contains a tree structure. According to [3], the render time for this object are also great: 2-3 seconds per frame on a Silicon Graphics Onyx2 with processors MIPS R10000 with frequency 32250 MHz (no concurrency).Another view, combining image-based data in a tree structure, is a recently proposed method PE [5]. He deals with a special tree [8], representing a multi-layered depth cube (MGK), where instead of a single tree MIG nodes contain three MIG, corresponding to the three orthogonal planes. The results presented in [5] , obtained for the original model containing 81000 triangles. When using the output buffer 256 x 256 was obtained a rate of 11 frames/sec on a Pentium III 700 MHz. PE represent the pixels of the reference image shifted in accordance with the vector of depth. The tree structure is used to speed up calculations of selecting visible items. Filling holes is achieved by the method of nearest neighbor filter or Gaussian filter. In this work uses the payment. The high quality of the resulting image is achieved by restrictions on the amount of data and speed vychegzhanina, and not on the images. This approach uses a hierarchical point-based nested spheres. At the stage of visualization used elliptical splats (small color patches of the desired size. In [4] it is complicated and takes a long time truncated selection. The data structure is also quite complex and requires a lot of time to process.The idea and the different ways embodiment for obtaining a three-dimensional model with a structured ochoterena of such range data as sets of images with depth, was developed in [11]-[12]. Source [13] deals with the design of a polygonal model from the original data using ochoterena.All of the above applies to stationary three-dimensional view based on the images. Speaking of animated three-dimensional objects, it should be noted that so far very little is known image-based methods for solving this problem. In [14] proposed the idea of modifying the image of the face for a little changing three-dimensional geometry of the face. It is applicable only to a limited class of animated objects and not an actual animation three-dimensional object. In [15] proposed to animate architectural types with savinase multiple photos.Thus, it is clear that there is a need for image-based representation that provides compact storage, faster rendering with high quality output image and is suitable for the purposes of animation.The task of the invention to provide representation of three-dimensional objects based on images with depth, requiring a relatively small space for storage and provide quick and high-quality rendering, in which reduced or eliminated the disadvantages of the above methods.In addition, the object of the invention is a method and device representation and visualization of three-dimensional object that provides fast calculation of the coordinate transformation, automatic calculation of the stacking order of the elements of the binary volumetric ochoterena (BVI) and the formation of Platov exactly a certain size.In addition, the object of the invention is to provide a method of compact representations of animated three-dimensional object that provides fast and accurate visualization.A compact representation of the data flow is carried out by dividing the geometric and color component of the BWO and IP is engaged in - compression of two-dimensional images.This result is achieved in that the method of representation and visualization of three-dimensional object in accordance with the invention includes steps which transform the original data of a three-dimensional object in view binary volumetric ochoterena (BVI), with each vertex of the BVI, the corresponding coordinates of surface points of the object match the average color of the surface points of the object whose coordinates are inside the cube, representing the element of the three-dimensional image of the voxel corresponding to the top of the BWO, visualize the BVI by hierarchical passing ochoterena from the root node to the leaves, you get a local three-dimensional coordinates of the centers of voxels, the respective sheets BWO, convert the three-dimensional coordinates into two-dimensional coordinates of the center of the voxel and the size information of the image projected voxel form for each sheet BWO and display the corresponding splat, the overlapping region of the image projected voxel and using the color information, and many displayed Platov visualize a three-dimensional object.In addition, hierarchical passage ochoterena preferably carried out in order from the voxels BWO, more distant from the observer to the voxels of the BVI, is less remote from the observer.To ensure minimal computational complexity of the conversion process before passing ochoterena compute f

_{T}(i,

^{i}) = T2

^{i-1}

^{i}where the T - matrix 4 x 4 species transformations of coordinates;

^{i}- any four-dimensional vector whose elements take the value 0 or 1; i is an integer taking values from 0 to the height of the BVI, and use the results obtained with the hierarchical transformation of three-dimensional coordinates into two-dimensional coordinates at each vertex BWO compute F

_{i}:and the result after going through the whole path from the root node to the leaves of the BVI, for each sheet BWO, asked the local coordinates (x, y, z), get Tv = F

_{1}(

^{1}F

_{2}(

^{2}..F

_{n}(

^{n})..)), where

^{i}determined virusrisultato is achieved by the fact that the device for representation and visualization of three-dimensional object includes a tool to generate the initial data of the three-dimensional object, means for converting the original data of a three-dimensional object in view binary volumetric ochoterena (BVI) associated with means for forming the original data of a three-dimensional object, with each vertex BWO corresponding to the coordinate points of the object that is mapped to the average color of the object points whose coordinates are inside the cube, representing the element of the three-dimensional image of the voxel corresponding to the top of the BWO, a tool for visualizing BWO, associated with means for converting the original data of a three-dimensional object in view the BVI.The tool to generate the initial data of the three-dimensional object made in the form of a three-dimensional scanner of the real three-dimensional object, providing the formation of the output of a variety of three-dimensional coordinates of points, or is a means for forming a polygonal model of a three-dimensional object or means for forming an image with depth.In addition, this technical result is achieved teddie data for each three-dimensional object in a sequence of three-dimensional objects in view binary volumetric ochoterena (BVI), with each vertex of the BVI, the corresponding coordinates of surface points of the object match the average color of the surface points of the object whose coordinates are inside the cube, representing the element of the three-dimensional image of the voxel corresponding to the top of the BWO, resulting form the sequence BWO for the sequence of three-dimensional objects corresponding to an animated three-dimensional object.In this project each BWO in the sequence BWO on the face of the cube corresponding to the root vertex BWO, resulting for each face of the cube receives a stream of video data corresponding to images of an animated object, and form a byte stream oktodelete, each byte corresponds to the top ochoterena, and each bit in the byte indicates the presence or absence of a subtree for the given top ochoterena, six video streams and byte stream oktodelete together form a representation of an animated three-dimensional object, and to store six streams of video data in a compact form using the format of a video compression standards groups MPEG, and to store the byte stream octadecenamide six streams of the reference images in the BVI to determine the color for each vertex of the BVI and the projection of the obtained colored BWO to render an animated three-dimensional object.The invention is illustrated in the embodiments illustrated by the drawings, which represent the following:

Fig. 1 is a functional diagram of the device representation and visualization of three-dimensional object from different types of source data;

Fig.2 - scheme for the BVI from a pair of images with depth obtained using orthogonal cameras (two-dimensional);

Fig. 3 - representation of schema matching three-dimensional points of different hierarchical levels BWO (two-dimensional);

Fig.4 is an illustration of a cube BVI and its subsidiaries on 8 podkopov;

Fig.5A,b is two-dimensional and three-dimensional illustration of a method for determining the order of vertices BWO at the same hierarchical level;

Fig.6 is an illustration of the process of projecting Platov in time and in space and geometric conditions determine the size of the payment;

Fig.7 - structure of the data stream that represents an animated three-dimensional object;

Fig.8 is a block diagram of the process of rendering an animated three-dimensional object represented by the data stream.As shown in Fig.1, the device representation and visualization of three-dimensional object from different types of source data includes a tool to generate the initial data required is armirovanie at the output of the set of three-dimensional coordinates of points or means 2 for forming a polygonal model of a three-dimensional object, or the means 3 for forming an image with depth, the means 4 for converting the original data of a three-dimensional object in view the BVI, which includes the tool 5 multiple six-dimensional vectors whose elements are the three Cartesian coordinates x, y, z and three color coordinates, such as RGB, and the tool 6 build the BVI. Tool 6 build BWO is connected with the tool 7 visualization BWO, which includes the buffer image, and with the tool 8 obtain the transformation matrix of coordinates.In Fig. 2 shows how real the surface of the created image with depth and how they are combined to produce the voxels for the case of two orthogonal cameras. In Fig.2 shows: 9 - cut the surface of a real object; 10 - projection of rectangles approximating the surface of a real object corresponding to discrete values of the image pixels with depth, filmed the first camera (not shown); 11 - discretized values of the depth of the surface 9, is removed a second camera (not shown); 12 - voxels, which correspond to the combined values of the depths of the surface of the output levels of the BWO (two-dimensional view). In Fig.3 marked: 13 - the set of points with three-dimensional coordinates, 14 - structure of the BWO, the corresponding points 13; 15 - scale levels BWO with a dedicated 16 voxels containing color information and located at the sites of the BVI.In Fig. 4 presents a view of the cube BWO 17 and its subdivisions 8 podkopov 18.In Fig.5 a and b illustrate the method of finding the order of vertices BWO at the same hierarchical level. In Fig.5 a, b denote: 19 - plane projection; 20 - projection direction; 21 - cube corresponding to one of the peaks of the BVI, broken into pieces planes 22, 23, 24 parallel to the cube faces 21; 25 - procedure (projection) of each of the eight podkopov cubes.In Fig. 6 illustrates the process of projecting Platov in time and in space and geometric conditions determine the size splat. In Fig.6 marked: 26 - full BWO 8 x 8, 16 - voxel, 27 - splat, 28 - direction of the orthogonal projection 29 - buffer image.In Fig.7 shows the structure of an animated sequence 30 BWO consisting of the sequence 31 byte streams BWO, corresponding to the change in the geometry of the animated object, and of the threads 32 of video data (sequence reference sortrecords object, presents data stream.The desired representation of a three dimensional object, the BVI can be obtained from most currently used representations of three-dimensional models. In Fig. 1 shows a known means for receiving input view data three-dimensional scanner 1, the polygon models generated by the tool 2, the sets of images with depth generated by the tool 3. The main applications BWO aimed at using as input the representation of sets of images with depth. An advantage of the present models images with depth is the ability to create three-dimensional models by the time-consuming process simulation models, and directly obtain from photographs of models of the real world.To obtain BWO input view generated by any of the means 1, 2, 3, translated into an intermediate representation using the 5 formation of set of six-dimensional vectors whose elements are the three Cartesian coordinates x, y, z and three RGB color coordinates. To create the BVI should set its height n, then the edge length of the cube BWO in local coordinates BWO is equal to L= 2

^{n}. Intermediate pre which I translate and scale, get all of the vertices of the polygon model in the cube, one vertex of which is located at the origin and the opposite vertex is at the point with coordinates (L, L, L). Using the methods of partitioning polygons, ensure that the distance between any two adjacent vertices of any polygon was not more than 1. Each vertex of the polygon color map using textures and texture coordinates of the original polygonal model.For images with depth:

Image with depth scale and transferred so that in terms of the image coordinate system, the linear dimensions of the corresponding pixel of the rectangle does not exceed 1, and all these rectangles were placed into the space bounded by the cube of the BVI. When converted into a common coordinate system uses information about the location of the cameras, which were obtained image, and the depth values corresponding to pixels in the image. The result is a set of points with color coordinates and coordinates common to all images in the Cartesian coordinate system. The color coordinates of the point corresponding to the colour of the pixel in the initial resized image.For data triple and family who all points of the scanned model in space limited cube BWO, one vertex of which is located at the origin and the opposite vertex is at the point with coordinates (L, L, L).After receiving the intermediate representation in the form of a set of points {x, y, z, R, G, B}, where the coordinates x, y, z are contained in the cube BWO, the tool 6 builds BVO, illustrated by means of Fig.3. Hierarchically subdivide the cube 17 (Fig. 4) 8 podkopov 18 corresponding to the vertices that are on the next hierarchical level after the root node, you get a BWO first large-scale level. BWO can be considered as a sequence of zoom levels 15 (Fig.3) BWO with increasing height, the use of trees with less height shall not need to handle trees with greater height for all the following algorithms. For further processing are stored subtrees BWO then and only then, when the corresponding subtree cube contains at least one point 13. From many points 13 get the structure BWO 14. Thus each vertex (not just the end) BWO is assigned a color. The color assigned to the vertex, is equal to the average color of pixels belonging to the cube corresponding to this node.Tool 7 of wizualizacje T 4 x 4 species transformations of coordinates. Coordinates, the resulting species conversion, specify the location of the observation point relative to the BVI.For visualization BWO necessary pass through all its vertices from the root node to the leaves of the tree. With the passage of leaves in the buffer 29 image (Fig. 6) includes a special type of figure called splata. As shown in Fig. 6, splat 27 of the node under consideration must cover the space of the projected cube 26 corresponding to the considered vertex. Color splat should match the color of the node under consideration BWO. Form of payment is selected from considerations of the speed of the overlay in the image buffer and is usually a square or a circle. The center coordinates of payment 27 should correspond to the coordinate of the center sproetsirovannoj cube 26 corresponding to this node.For a correct visualization of the BVI, taking into account the location of the cube relative to the observation point, it is necessary for the rendering process to ensure that at each point in the image buffer payment projected last, were placed in relation to the observer closer than the other splats (small color patches previously projected on a given point of the image buffer. The speed of Viswa the x centers of the cubes. In the presence of hardware graphics accelerator above problems can be solved by using a hardware z-buffer to solve the correct rendering and hardware acceleration operations of multiplication by a matrix calculation of the conversion points of the centers of the cubes.Visualization method BWO, do not use special graphics accelerator includes a method of determining the correct procedure BWO and how fast hierarchical species transformation of the coordinates of the centers of the cubes. Using the proposed procedure BWO ability to correctly project the payment without using the z-buffer.The method for determining the processing order of the BVI, which is the correct projection Platov, based on the definition for each vertex BWO-order traversal of the subtree root vertices which come from this vertex. As shown in Fig.5, to determine the order of vertices of the cube 21 corresponding to the considered top of the BWO, the cube 21 divide the plane into two equal parallelepiped all of three possible ways. In Fig.5 a, b these planes represented by the lines 22, 23, 24. For each of the sections define the procedure for the correct projection, selenium 19 projection. After performing this operation in each of the three cases, received the order of passage 25 of each of the eight podkopov cubes 21.Describes the process of determining the order of projection cubes carried out recursively, according to the following General description of the visualization process, including the identification procedure BWO and fast hierarchical transformation:

a) to carry out the process at each change of position of the observation;

b) to take root vertex as the current node;

C) to define proper projection of all eight podkopov corresponding to a current node. For orthographic projection, all nodes inherit the order of the unit cube corresponding root;

g) for all podkopov current node to perform the following:

1) to calculate required for a given vertex transformation of the coordinates of the center of the cube;

2) if the current node is a leaf of the tree, project splat, as described above (Fig.6);

3) if the current vertex is not a leaf of the tree, take a peak corresponding to this Podkova, as the current and recursively proceed to step b).Actions to be performed on the stages (a) and (d) are the four-dimensional space. Let n be the height of the BVI, v is the local normal coordinates of the voxel. Suppose that the coordinates of the voxels are stored in a standard implicit implied binary form (the standard binary representation of the BVI, where each byte corresponds to an internal vertex ochoterena (including the root node), and each bit in the byte indicates the presence or absence of a subtree for the given top ochoterena), and we can rewrite the coordinates of the node as (1):

Then convert the coordinates of a vertex is

Here

^{i}

_{(x,y,z)}are the components of the binary representation of the coordinates of the corresponding vertices (i.e., coordinates of the center of the cube),

^{i}is the vector composed of the component of the coordinates for a fixed number of components i. For each vertex BWO compute F

_{i}:

For fixed T, the elements of expression (3) are calculated at the step (a) preprocessing:

f

_{T}(i,

^{i}) = T2

^{i-2}

^{i}. (4)

These expressions are inserted into the table size n is 8, and then runs vitomirov. As a result, after going through the entire path from the root node to the leaves of the BVI, for each sheet BWO, asked the local coordinates (x, y, z), get

Tv = F

_{1}(

^{1}F

_{2}(

^{2}..F

_{n}(

^{n})..)).

This method of coordinate transformation provides an order of magnitude less computational capacity than by direct multiplication of the matrix of each leaf in the tree.It should be noted that the above-mentioned property of the multidimensionality of the BVI allows for direct selection of a specific multi-scale level BWO commensurate with the required level of detail of the three-dimensional model, represented as the BVI, and the distance from the model to the observer.Way to represent an animated three-dimensional object is performed as follows. The source data for each three-dimensional object in a sequence of three-dimensional objects transform in view of the BVI. For each frame, three-dimensional animation is constructed of 6 images with depth corresponding to the projection of the object on a face of the cube. Thus forming the stream, one on each side of the cube, and six maps g and video data compressed using any effective method of compression, such as MPEG 2. As shown in Fig.8, an animated sequence 30 of the BVI consists of a sequence of 31 byte streams BWO, corresponding to the change in the geometry of the animated object, and of the 6 mentioned above threads 32 video (a sequence of reference images for each animation frame).How to visualize an animated three-dimensional object is illustrated with the block diagram of the algorithm is shown in Fig. 9. On the stage 33 of the animated sequences retrieved data for the six reference images and data byte stream, formed as described above. At step 34 perform the decompression of the six images and the structure of the BVI. At step 35 the six streams of the reference images are projected on the BVI to determine the color for each vertex of the BVI. At step 36 decide to visualization depressionor BWO. If a positive decision at stage 37 visualize obtained BWO corresponding to the frame of the animated object. At step 38 the decision about the necessity of reading the next frame. If a positive decision is made by the stage 33, and a negative decision - go to step 39, which made the amount of one frame BWO view received the claimed method, 4-10 times lower than for the closest known orthogonal MIG view. Rendering speed BWO to resolve the reference and the output image 256 x 256 is about 20 frames/sec, PC Pentium Celeron 500 MHz (without the use of hardware acceleration, when fiksirovannom scale), which is 2-3 times greater than the speed of visualization in the known methods, also does not use hardware acceleration.

Claims

f

_{T}(i,

^{i}) = T2

^{i-1}

^{i},

where T is the matrix of 4x4 species transformations of coordinates;

^{i}- any four-dimensional vector whose elements take the value 0 or 1;

i - an integer taking values from 0 to the height of the BWO,

and use the results obtained with the hierarchical transformation of three-dimensional coordinates into two-dimensional coordinates at each vertex BWO compute F

_{i}:

constituent local coordinates (x,y, z), get

T

_{v}= F

_{1}(

^{1}F

_{2}(

^{2}..F

_{n}(

^{n})..)),

where

^{i}by the expression, using binary write coordinates:

5. Device for representation and visualization of three-dimensional object containing the means for forming the original data of a three-dimensional object, means for converting the original data of a three-dimensional object in view binary volumetric ochoterena (BVI) associated with means for forming the original data of a three-dimensional object, with each vertex BWO corresponding to the coordinate points of the object that is mapped to the average color of the object points whose coordinates are inside the cube, representing the element of the three-dimensional image of the voxel corresponding to the top of the BWO, a tool for visualizing BWO, associated with means for converting the original data of a three-dimensional object in view the BVI.6. The device under item 5, characterized in that the means for forming the original data of a three-dimensional object made in the form of three-dimensional Schock.7. The device under item 5, characterized in that the means for forming the original data of a three-dimensional object is a means for forming a polygonal model of a three-dimensional object.8. The device under item 5, characterized in that the means for forming the original data of a three-dimensional object is a means for forming an image with depth.9. Way to represent an animated three-dimensional object, which transform the raw data for each three-dimensional object in a sequence of three-dimensional objects in view binary volumetric ochoterena (BVI), with each vertex of the BVI, the corresponding coordinates of surface points of the object match the average color of the surface points of the object whose coordinates are inside the cube, representing the element of the three-dimensional image of the voxel corresponding to the top of the BWO, resulting form the sequence BWO for the sequence of three-dimensional objects corresponding to an animated three-dimensional object.10. The method according to p. 9, in which each project BWO in the sequence BWO on the face of the cube corresponding to the root vertex is consistent object, and form a byte stream oktodelete, each byte corresponds to the top ochoterena, and each bit in the byte indicates the presence or absence of a subtree for the given top ochoterena, six video streams and byte stream oktodelete together form a representation of an animated three-dimensional object.11. The method according to p. 10, characterized in that for storing six streams of video data in a compact form using the compression format of the video data group of the MPEG standards, and to store the byte stream oktodelete use entropy compression.12. How to visualize an animated three-dimensional object presented in accordance with the method according to p. 10 or 11, including decompression of video data and projecting six streams of the reference images in the BVI to determine the color for each vertex of the BVI and the projection of the obtained colored BWO to render an animated three-dimensional object.13. Way to represent an animated three-dimensional object, which transform the raw data for each three-dimensional object in a sequence of three-dimensional objects in view binary volumetric ochoterena (BVI)n the color of the surface points of the object, the coordinates are inside the cube, representing the element of the three-dimensional image of the voxel corresponding to the top of the BWO, resulting form the sequence BWO for the sequence of three-dimensional objects corresponding to an animated three-dimensional object, projecting each BWO in the sequence BWO on the face of the cube corresponding to the root vertex BWO, resulting for each face of the cube receives a stream of video data corresponding to images of an animated object, and form a byte stream oktodelete, each byte corresponds to the top ochoterena, and each bit in the byte indicates the presence or absence of a subtree for the given top ochoterena, this six video streams and byte stream oktodelete together form a representation of an animated three-dimensional object.14. The method according to p. 13, characterized in that for storing six streams of video data in a compact form using the compression format of the video data group of the MPEG standards, and to store the byte stream oktodelete use entropy compression.15. How to visualize an animated three-dimensional object represented in the corresponding images in the BVI to determine the color for each vertex of the BVI and the projection of the obtained colored BWO to render an animated three-dimensional object.

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1 dwg

FIELD: engineering of image processing devices.

SUBSTANCE: information is produced about position of surface of input three-dimensional object, this surface is simplified as a set of base polygons, information is produced about position of simplified surface of input three-dimensional object and information map of surface is generated on basis of information about position of surface of input three-dimensional object prior to simplification and information about position of simplified surface of input three-dimensional object; surface of each basic polygon is split in information map of surface on multiple area and excitations function is produced for each area; error is determined between object on basis of excitations function and by given three-dimensional object; it is determined whether error is less than threshold value; if error is less than threshold value, match is set between coefficients of excitation functions for basic polygons and information about basic polygons, while information map of surface is information about surface of input three-dimensional object, and if error is not less than threshold value, than surface of object, represented by information map, is split finer in comparison to previous splitting.

EFFECT: possible processing of three-dimensional object with highly efficient compression.

2 cl, 13 dwg

FIELD: computer-aided design, possible usage for video monitoring of development process of large-scale systems.

SUBSTANCE: method is based on using arrays of data about technical-economical characteristics of military equipment objects being developed with display and combination of this information in windows on screen of display.

EFFECT: provision of method for computer modeling of process of warfare, providing simplified modeling of warfare process.

10 dwg, 7 tbl

FIELD: technology for displaying multilevel text data on volumetric map.

SUBSTANCE: three-dimensional map is displayed on screen, and text data are displayed with varying density levels in accordance to distances from observation point of displayed three-dimensional map to assemblies, where text data are going to be displayed. Further, it is possible to display text data with use of local adjustment of density of text data on screen.

EFFECT: transformation of cartographic data with two-dimensional coordinates to cartographic data with three-dimensional coordinates, thus increasing readability of text data.

2 cl, 11 dwg

FIELD: metrological equipment for navigational systems of railroad transport.

SUBSTANCE: in accordance to method, working sides of railroad track are coordinated with given stationing interval by means of measuring-computing complex mounted on moving object. Measuring-computing complex includes rover, gyroscopic indicator of Euler angles, indicators of track and width of track, controller, personal computer. To provide unity of measurements on railroad main, single three-dimensional orthogonal system of coordinates is used in special projection. Abscissa axis on the surface of Earth ellipsoid is combined with geodesic line, coinciding with main direction of railroad main. As ordinates, geometrical perpendiculars to abscissa axis are used. Coordinates system base consists of system of temporary base stations of satellite radio-navigation system. Satellite radio-navigation system stations are positioned along the railroad with 50-100km intervals for the time of movement of measuring-computing complex. Continuous synchronous recording of indications of all devices and satellite receivers of base stations is performed. Coordinate models of railroad track having no substantial distortions of angles and distances are taken as standard. For compensating systematic errors, indications of Euler angle indicator on measuring-computer complex are smoothed by sliding average filter on sliding interval, equal to length of wheel circle of moving object. Corrections for inclination of antenna are introduced to satellite coordinates of receipt of rover of measuring-computing complex. Indications of course track indicator are calibrated by means of center-affine transformations, converting to series of directional angles and scaled horizontal projections. Joint estimation of complex measurements and parameters of statistic model is performed by means of recurrent generalized method of least squares.

EFFECT: increased precision when determining standard coordinate model.

2 cl, 3 dwg