X-ray thickness meter
The invention relates to x-ray measurement technology. Meter as radiation detectors includes three ionization chambers. The feature of the meter is the presence of a third secondary camera, control unit anode voltage of the emitter and the control unit anode current of the emitter, the value of the effective atomic number of the third camera more (or less) of the value of the effective atomic number of the second camera. The technical result of the claimed invention is to stabilize the accuracy of the thickness measurement rolled across the range of acceptable operation time measurement in the dynamics. 5 Il. The invention relates to measurement techniques, in particular x-ray thickness gauges, and can be used when measuring the thickness of the metal strips, the strips in the rolling mill and the thickness of paper, cardboard and rubber bands as in statics and dynamics.Known x-ray thickness gauges containing the x-ray emitter, power supply oscillator output connected to the input of the emitter, two radiation detector, which is placed between the controlled product, and the processing unit is the quiet contain between cameras in addition to the controlled object, removable filter with the reference patterns [US, Patent 4727561, 378-54, MKI G 01 B 15/02, 1988].These meters allow you to control the thickness of the products in the dynamics and the specified thickness range, however, due to the presence of time-frequency fluctuation error of measurement of the thickness they do not provide high stability precision control.The closest technical solution to the claimed represented the x-ray thickness meter, containing the x-ray emitter, power supply unit, two radiation detector, which is placed between the filter and the controlled product, a divider, an adder, a memory unit and processing with DVR [RF Patent 2159408, B, 2000, 32 (prototype)].This tester also provides not specified, i.e., high stability precision thickness measurement technologically acceptable service life of the thickness, which is required when the thickness control of particularly strategic materials in modern production, such as rental material for the production of metallic money.In this regard, the actual task was the creation of a precise means to control the thickness of the materials from non-ferrous metals.The essence of the invention lies in the fact that x is the input of the emitter, the first and the second ionization chamber, removable filter with the possibility of rotation around its axis and test object placed between the first and second chambers, blocks division and summation, the processor with the DVR, and exit the second chamber connected to the first input of the processor, the first output of which is connected to the input of videoregistratore entered the third additional ionization chamber with a large (or less) effective atomic number than the effective number of the first camera, the control unit anode voltage of the emitter and the control unit anode current of the emitter, the third secondary camera placed between the emitter and the first camera, the output of the first chamber is connected with the first inputs of the block division and summation, the output of the third secondary camera is connected to the second inputs of the block division and summation, and outputs blocks of division and summation is connected to the second and third inputs of the processor, respectively, the second output processor connected through the control unit of the anode voltage to the first input power source emitter, and the third output processor connected through the control unit anode current with a second input power source will emit the entire range of permissible operating time measurement by controlling the anode voltage and current of the x-ray emitter.In Fig.1 shows a functional diagram of the x-ray thickness meter; Fig. 2 - dependence of the ratio of the ionization currents of the first and third chambers in function of the energy of x-ray radiation (anode voltage emitter) of Fig.3 - the dependence of the amount of ionization currents of the first and third chambers in a function of anode current emitter for different energies, Fig. 4 - dependence of a current of the second camera in the function from the reference thickness of specimens made from an alloy based on Nickel, Fig.5 - dependence of the current of the second camera in the function from working thickness of the test object from an alloy based on Nickel.The meter contains an x-ray emitter 1, the source 2 power emitter 1, the first and second ionization chambers 3 and 4, between which is placed a removable disk filter 5 samples sample thickness (not shown) and rotatably around its axis in the plane perpendicular to the x-ray flux, and test object 6, a third additional ionization chamber 7, the blocks 8 and 9 of division and summation blocks 10 and 11 of regulation anode voltage and current of the emitter 1, the processor 12 and the DVR 13. In the process of calibration of measuring the thickness between the first and second to airwave article 6.The output of the source 2 power emitter 1 high-voltage voltage and current connected to the input of the emitter 1, the output of the first chamber 3 is connected to the first inputs of the blocks 8 and 9 of division and summation, the output of the third secondary camera 7 is connected to the second inputs of the blocks 8 and 9 of division and summation, the output of the second camera 4 is connected to the first input of the processor 12, the output unit 8 division connected with a second input of the processor 12 and the output of summation block 9 is connected to the third input of the processor 12. The first output of the processor 12 is connected to the input of the DVR 13, the second output of the processor is connected through the block 10 of regulation anode voltage to the first input source 2 anode voltage and current of the emitter 1, the third output of the processor is connected through the block 11 of the regulation of the anode current from the second input source 2 anode voltage and current of the emitter 1.The value of the effective atomic number Z7the third secondary camera 7 is assigned 4-6 times less or more than the value of the effective atomic number Z3the first chamber 3. For example, if Z350, Z713 (or Vice versa). Ensure the difference between the atomic number of chambers 3, 7 is necessary to ensure that p is) depending on the effective energy of the x-ray emitter 1 and the fixed value of ionization current i3+i7=f(ja) in a function of anode current of the emitter 1.Emitter 1 may be made in the form of x-ray tube with a tungsten anode.Blocks 10 and 11 are designed for automatic or manual adjustment of the anode voltage Uaand anode current jaemitter 1 respectively through the unit 2 power supply. Automatic adjustment is carried out by software of the processor 12. Manual correction is carried out directly on the blocks 10 and 11.The processor 12 is designed to handle a separate output signals (signals from the second ionization chamber 4) to determine the working current of the thickness of the product 6 (Fig. 5) and memorizing the curves generated from the outputs of blocks 8, 9 division, summation, and the second camera 4 (Fig.2, 3, 4, 5). In Fig.4 and Fig.5 provides fragments of the dependencies i4=f(d) from an alloy based on Nickel (Ni). As the processor 12 and the DVR 13 can be used a personal computer with a monitor.It is known that the intensity of the x-ray emitter 1 is described by the expression J=ZKUanja, (1) where J is the intensity of the x-ray emitter 1, normalized to the second chamber 4 in the absence of filtrowa, wear and aging of the material of the anode emitter 1; UaI , ja- anode voltage and anode current of the emitter 1; n= 2-5 power - law index, which is a function of the anode voltage Uaits pulsations and the thickness d of the test object (or reference model) [see Rechentechnik. Handbook edited by centuries Klyuyev. Book 1. M - 1992, S. 7, formula (11), where n=2 for unfiltered radiation. Copy attached].When washing emitter 1 high-voltage Uafrom the source 2 power supply, the anode of the emitter 1 is heated and its temperature reaches about 3000oWith that causes aging (amorphous material), and although slow, the mirror surface of the anode, which in turn reduces the intensity J of x-ray radiation at a relatively constant Uaand jaon 3-8%.At the same time as the aging of the anode emitter 1 in the course of its operation penetrating power brake x-ray anode emitter 1 is increased, and therefore, the effective energy of x-ray radiation also increases Eeff=Ua, (2) by filtering out radiation in the anode as it is wear and tear; where K - coefficient of proportionality, which is always less than the, the via which is passed the x-ray flux on the product, the x-ray emitter 1, which also leads to increase in effective energy Eeff(2) and the decrease in the intensity J (1) x-ray emitter 1.To improve technically Metrology of the present invention is only possible while maintaining the values of Eeffand intensity values J radiation constant.This requires periodically depending on the rise time of operation of the thickness gauge to lower the anode voltage Uaemitter 1. However, this action will cause a decrease in the intensity J of the radiation emerging from the x-ray emitter 1 (1). To maintain the value of J=const must simultaneously reduce the value Uato increase the anode current of jaemitter 1 to ensure the constancy of the x-ray intensity J (1) during operation of the gauge.The procedure of lowering the Uaand enhancement of jais done either automatically by the program incorporated in the processor 12, the blocks 10 and 11 of regulation Uaand jaand the unit 2 power supply, or manually directly on the blocks 10 and 11 of the conditions which ensure the implementation of Eeff=const zschech value adjustments of ia on the block 11 so that so i3+i7=const (Fig.3) when the found new value Ua.The quantitative magnitude of decrease in Uaproviding Eeff=const, set on the basis of statistical data obtained by the authors. Thus, during operation of the x-ray emitter 1 with a tungsten anode for 40 hours effective energy Eeffx-ray emitter 1 is increased by the amount of about 1.5%. If the adjustment value Uato carry out periodically at equal intervals of time between the emitter 1, the increase in Eefffrom time proportionally. Therefore, with the help of block 10 of the regulation magnitude of the anode voltage Uathrough the source 2 power either automatically or manually lower the anode voltage Uaby an amount equivalent to increasing values of Eefffrom the time of the emitter 1. At the same time, using the total ionization current cameras 3 and 7, block 9, stored in the processor 12, to increase the anode current of jaoscillator 1 through the block 11 of the regulation of the anode current of the emitter 1 and source 2 power by an amount sufficient to provide J=const or i3+i7=const (Fig.3).The operation of the meter is zlecenia from the emitter 1, which is converted into electrical current pulses of constant amplitude, determined only by the parameters of the emitted x-ray flux emitter 1. As the effective atomic number of the first and third chambers 3, 7 and is fixed in size, it is possible to obtain the dependence of i3/i7=f(Ua). Dependence (Fig.2 and 3) build by changing the anode voltage Uaand the current jandon the source 2 power emitter 1, and the outputs of the blocks 10 and 11 on the operation of removing the dependency is disconnected from the input source 2 power. After completion of build dependencies, shown in Fig.2 and Fig.3, the outputs of blocks 10 and 11 is again connected to the inputs of the source 2 and the captured characteristics memorize the processor 12.The second chamber 4, the flow passes through transparent to x-ray camera 3 and 7, either through a reference filter 5, or through a controlled product 6, which is converted into an electrical current pulses with an amplitude determined or reference thickness and material of the sample filter 5 and the parameters of the emitted x-ray flux, or working with the thickness and material of the test object 6 and the parameters of the emitted x-ray is 4 position filter samples sample thickness and the specified material and relieve family dependency of the ionization current i4the second chamber 4 from the reference values of the thickness of the i4= f(dFL) and different materials (in our case, Ni) samples and the obtained characteristics (Fig.4) memorize the processor 12. Then the filter 5 is removed, and introduce in its place a test object 6 with the operating parameters under which is removed from the second chamber 4 the dependence of the current of the second chamber 4 from the values of the working thickness of the i4= f(dslave), and the resulting response (Fig.5) stored in the processor 12, where according to Fig.4 and 5 sluchautsya for a specific material. For values of i4obtained in the graph of Fig.5, the abscissa axis determine the values of working thickness dslave. Compare according to Fig. 4 and 5 are displayed on the screen of the DVR 13.With increasing operating time of the thickness of its anode voltage Uareduced, and the anode current of ja- raise by the specified amounts, to be J= const. Next, the procedure of controlling the thickness of the product continue according to the aforementioned method.The technical result of the invention is to stabilize the accuracy of the thickness measurement rolled across the range of acceptable operation time measurement by controlling the anode voltage and current reinowski measuring the thickness, containing the x-ray emitter, power supply oscillator output connected to the input of the emitter, the first and second ionization chamber, removable filter with the possibility of rotation around its axis and test object placed between the first and second chambers, blocks division and summation processor, to the first output of which is connected to the DVR, and exit the second chamber connected to the first input of the processor, characterized in that it introduced additional third ionization chamber with a large (or less) effective atomic number than the effective atomic number of the first chamber, the control unit of the anode voltage of the x-ray emitter and the control unit anode current of the x-ray emitter, while the secondary camera is placed between the emitter and the first chamber, the outlet of the first chamber is connected with the first inputs of the block division and summation, the output of the additional camera is connected to the second inputs of the block division and summation, and outputs blocks of division and summation is connected to the second and third inputs of the processor, respectively, the second output processor connected through the control unit anode voltage emitter to the first input of the motor with a second input power source emitter.
SUBSTANCE: method includes recording number of particles emitted by radioactive layer on basis of number of voltage or current pulses recorded by counting device, then to measuring detector a flow of ionizing radiation is directed from calibrating standard electrode and also registered is number of particles, position of covered electrode is change no less than two times, by turning it in horizontal plane around its axis for arbitrary angle, while repeating measurement of pulses number, while measurement time is selected to be such that number of recorded pulses was no less than 3600 pulses for each measurement position, and then selection of necessary number of electrodes is calculated for forming electrode system in chamber.
EFFECT: higher precision, higher safety.
FIELD: MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGY.
SUBSTANCE: electromagnet wave is induced by means of directed aerial. The wave is incident to dielectric plate. Brusterain angle of incident wave is defined from minimum value of reflected wave and value of dielectric permeability is calculated. Power of incident and reflected waves are measured and the value of reflectivity and specific conductivity are calculated as well as value of dielectric loss of dielectric plate. Then incident angle of electromagnet wave is increased till achieving value providing total internal reflection of electromagnet wave and attenuation of intensity is measured at normal plane relatively direction of wave propagation. Factors of normal attenuation and thickness of dielectric plate are calculated. Method allows to find complex dielectric permeability and thickness of dielectric plates free of dielectric substrates.
EFFECT: improved reliability.
FIELD: electrical measurements.
SUBSTANCE: device is proposed for measurement of dielectric and magnetic permeability as well as thickness of spin coatings on surface of metal and can be used in chemical industry for inspecting composition and properties of liquid and solid media. Electro-magnetic field is induced in body of dielectric material to be inspected which material is applied onto dielectric substrate, by means of sequent excitation of slow surface waves: two E-waves are excited at different, but having almost the same value, wavelengths λr1 and λr2 and one H-wave having wavelength of λr3. Attenuation of field intensity is measured t normal plane in relation to direction of wave propagation by means of receiving vibrators system for different values of base d between them. Normal attenuation factors αE1,αE2 and αH are found from ratio of E(y)= E0 exp[-α(y) y]. Magnetic and dielectric permeability and thickness of magneto-dielectric coating are found from relations of and where has to be phase coefficient of H-wave.
EFFECT: improved precision of measurement.
FIELD: measuring engineering.
SUBSTANCE: meter determines dielectric permittivity and thickness of the oil layer by measuring at two angles unequal to the Brewster angle.
EFFECT: simplified design and expanded functional capabilities.
FIELD: radiometric testing.
SUBSTANCE: counting of electric pulses of all the detectors stops simultaneously as soon as any detector registers no less than specified number of electric pulses caused by ionizing radiation.
EFFECT: improved reliability.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: non-destructive inspection.
SUBSTANCE: primary and secondary n detectors are made of multielement converting elements made of materials having different atomic numbers. Materials are disposed in detectors subsequently starting from lower number to higher ones. Converting elements of primary and secondary n detectors are electrically connected with inputs of (1+n) analog-to-digital converters. Primary detector is rigidly fastened to collimator of radiation source and is turned to item with side having been made of material with higher atomic number. Secondary n detectors are turned to item with sides having lower atomic number. Points of stop of discrete displacement of radiator with primary detector along the rail are coincided with radial directions being placed in the middle of radial directions which form sectors and cross the items at lateral cross-section through their longitudinal axis and centers of secondary n detectors. Value of equivalent atomic number of any layer of coating is calculated from algorithm introduced into processor.
EFFECT: improved precision of inspection.
FIELD: the invention refers to the field of non-destructive control of objects with using of x-ray radiation.
SUBSTANCE: the arrangement has a source of x-ray radiation, three detectors of radiation and a scheme of processing. The characteristic feature of the arrangement is using of detectors with three-sectional converting elements with different spectral sensitivity. The technical result of the invention is increasing of energetic resolution expanding functional possibilities conditioned simultaneous measuring of the thickness of sheet material out of ferrous and non-ferrous metals.
EFFECT: the invention provides high metrological parameters.
FIELD: inspection of dynamics of changes in cellular structures.
SUBSTANCE: method concludes angular collimation of α-radiation by means of Soller collimator, registration of energy spectrum of collimated flux of particles, determination of lateral structures from the shape of registered spectrum on the base of its mathematical model.
EFFECT: improved precision; improved speed of measurement.
FIELD: measurement technology.
SUBSTANCE: microwave electromagnetic fields of running surface slow E-waves and E1 and E2 at two wavelengths λosc1 and λosc2 of oscillator being close in value above dielectric-metal surface at single-mode regime. Damping factors αe1 and αe2 of electric field strength are measured at normal plane relatively direction of propagation of slow surface of wave. Real value of dielectric constant and thickness of coating are calculated. Taking measured values of damping factors into account, values of deceleration are calculated for those wavelengths by relation of Directional pattern maximum angle of inclination θdp max(fz)=θe1(e2) is measured at far zone by means of vertically oriented receiving vibrator. Length of dielectric coating le1 and le2 is determined from relation of le1(e2)=0.552·λosc e1(e2)/(νdf e1(e2)-cosθe1(e2) and its value l=(le1+le2)/2 is subject to averaging.
EFFECT: improved precision of measurement of longitudinal sizes of dielectric coating.
FIELD: non-destructive inspection; X-ray technology.
SUBSTANCE: device has X-ray radiation source, first and second radiation detectors, processing circuit and registrar. Detectors with different spectral sensitivities are used. The detectors are disposed one after another in such a way to make contact to each other at the side being opposite to where X-ray source is located.
EFFECT: improved precision of measurement; improved sensitivity.