The combustion chamber of a turbomachine

 

The invention relates to the field of gas turbine engines, primarily to the combustion chambers of ground turbomachines, running on gas fuel with low emissions. The invention allows to reduce the toxicity of products of combustion and increase the fuel efficiency of the combustion chamber. The combustion chamber contains a number of controls flow of fuel gas and flow controls an air-fuel mixture, as well as the drive mechanism of each of the flow regulators for gas fuel and each of the flow regulators air-fuel mixture to each of the flow regulators. Each of the flow regulators air-fuel mixture is made in the form of a burner with a tangential swirler and the Central body can move it along the axis of the burner. The drive mechanism of each of the flow regulators of the gas fuel and air regulators are made in the form of a rotatable roller, provided with eccentric Cam Central body, the throttle of the gas and air valves, the crank lever and device rotation. The Central body is provided with a perforated screen, forming Traktovaya surface inside the nozzle, and a Central hole, is the your turn crank lever by means of a synchronizing ring, located around the outer casing. Traktovaya the screen surface and the surface of the cavity inside the burner is made in the form of a body of revolution around the axis of the Central body. 5 C.p. f-crystals, 5 Il.

The invention relates to the field of gas turbine engines, primarily to the combustion chambers of ground turbomachines, running on gas fuel with low emissions.

Known gas turbine engine with a turbine, in which the combustion chamber is divided into before and systememergency stage, and hot gases affect the high-pressure turbine, then the exhaust gases from the turbine are subjected to repeated training consistently included in the combustion chamber on the low pressure side and served in a low-pressure turbine [1].

A disadvantage of the known design of the gas turbine is the possibility of formation in the flame tube of the combustion chamber of local zones of depleted and close to the stoichiometric composition of the hydrocarbon fuel-air mixtures, mainly when working on compressed natural gas. This is because the mixing of the air-fuel mixture and combustion is carried out directly in the primary (reactionary - instantaneous thermochemical reaction, the speed of these processes may not be of the same order. In combustion chambers, in which the mixing and combustion occurs in the same volume, the combustion reaction occurs in local areas, "convenient" for stoichiometric combustion of the mixture with a local maximum temperatures. It is known that the NOx level is not determined by the average temperature in the combustion zone and the maximum. Thus the rate of formation of NOx depends exponentially on the local temperature in the combustion zone. In the known combustion chamber mix small amounts of fuel with a large amount of air, and the process of mixing is delayed. The slower is the process of converting fuel chemically active reagent, the more and longer "transitions" temperatures, and therefore, are not excluded NOx emissions, which increases the toxicity of combustion products.

Known gas turbine engine system carbosilane and combustion, which contains the combustion chamber, the mixing chamber, the first and second rows of nozzles, the ignition device and the plate element for separating the mixing chamber from the combustion chamber. In the mixing chamber hosted the first row of nozzles, guides Topley is the first number of nozzles, but for the first row of nozzles in the direction of flow, surrounds the combustion chamber. Through the second row of nozzles is used to supply compressed air into the combustion chamber in the form of a spiral vortex surrounding the fuel-air mixture. This vortical flow of air separates the gases of combustion products from the inner wall of the combustion chamber, forming an insulating layer, which prevents the supply of heat from the gases to the wall of the combustion chamber [2].

A disadvantage of the known designs of gas turbine engine is the possibility of formation in combustion liners of local zones of poor and near-stoichiometric composition of hydrocarbon mixtures, mainly when working on compressed natural gas. This is due to the location of the mixing chamber inside the combustion chamber, separated from the latter by the vortex air flow, and hence the time delay mixing processes. Therefore, the implementation and completion of the blending process takes place directly in the primary zone of the flame tubes. When this local area poor and close to the stoichiometric composition of the mixture in the flame tube of the combustion chamber is inevitably formed during combustion pereobogaschennaya mixtures also due to the delay of process of mixing uglev the mixtures have a high local temperature in the combustion zone, it entails the inevitability of the formation of nitrogen oxides NOx and increased toxicity of combustion products.

Closest to the claimed is a gas turbine engine system carbosilane and combustion chamber containing a combustion chamber made of at least one flame tube, a mixing chamber, nozzles fuel and ignition device. The mixing chamber and the fuel nozzles are located on the outer side of the outer casing of the combustion chamber additionally contains a flow regulator air directed into the reaction zone of the flame tube, the inlet of the regulator is in communication with the cavity of the combustion chamber through openings in the wall of its outer casing, the outputs of the regulator and the fuel nozzles are connected to the input of the mixing chamber, and the entrance of the flame tube is isolated from the air flow in the cavity of the combustion chamber and through the wall of its outer casing is in communication with the outlet of the mixing chamber [3].

A disadvantage of the known combustion chamber is the inability to control the flow of gas fuel and air-fuel mixture with a specified rate of excess oxidantrat the entrance to the heating pipe, whererthe A. Also a disadvantage of the known combustion chamber is the lack of a common (sync) drive each of the flow regulators air-fuel mixture to each of the flow regulators directed into the combustion zone of the flame tube. It is not possible to completely eliminate the possibility of formation in the combustion zone of local zones of poor and near-stoichiometric composition of fuel-air mixtures, mainly in non-stationary modes, does not exclude the emissions of toxic products of combustion and does not fully utilize the possibilities of increasing the fuel efficiency of the combustion chamber. In addition, do not exclude the possibility of leakage of flame and ignition of the mixture in the mixing chamber.

The technical problem on which the invention is directed, is to reduce the toxicity of products of combustion and increase the fuel efficiency of the combustion chamber due to the possibility of regulating the flow of gas fuel and the fuel / air mixture at the entrance to the flue pipe with a specified rate of excess oxidant by setting the drive mechanism of each of the flow regulators fuel gas and each of the flow controls the air-fuel socio fuel and close to the stoichiometric composition of the air-fuel mixtures and conditions for the formation of nitrogen oxides in the reaction zone of the flame tubes in the combustion process, and also exclude leakage of flame and ignition of the mixture in the mixing chamber.

The essence of the technical solutions is that in the combustion chamber of the turbomachine containing ring, or a number of flame tubes, mixing chamber, the spray of fuel gas, the flow regulators directed into the combustion zone of the flame tubes, the input of each of which communicates with the cavity of the combustion chamber through openings in the wall of its outer casing, and the outputs of the flow regulators and fuel nozzles are connected to the input of the mixing chamber, and the entrance of each of the heating pipe is isolated from the air flow in the cavity of the combustion chamber and through the wall of its outer casing is in communication with the outlet of the mixing chamber, according to the invention in the combustion chamber contains a number of controls flow of fuel gas and flow controls an air-fuel mixture, as well as the drive mechanism of each of the flow regulators for gas fuel and each of the flow regulators air-fuel mixture to each of the flow regulators. Each of the flow regulators air-fuel mixture is made in the form of a burner with a tangential swirler and the Central body can be moved along its OS is executed in the form of a rotatable roller, equipped with an eccentric Cam Central body, the throttle of the gas and air valves, the crank lever and device rotation. The Central body is provided with a perforated screen, forming Traktovaya surface inside the nozzle, and a Central hole, telling the cavity of the combustion chamber with the cavity inside the burner. Levers rotatable rollers connected to the device rotation of the crank arm by means of a synchronizing ring located around the outer casing. Traktovaya the screen surface and the surface of the cavity inside the burner is made in the form of a body of revolution around the axis of the Central body.

Performing in the combustion chamber of a number of controls flow of fuel gas and flow controls an air-fuel mixture, as well as the drive mechanism of each of the flow regulators for gas fuel and each of the flow regulators air-fuel mixture to each of the flow regulators allows you to organize external mixture formation of fuel gas before feeding it to the combustion zone, as well as to organize and finalize the process of mixing is not in the scope of the flame tube, and in a separate mixing chamber with the specifiedrKGO content of NOx emissions. This eliminates the possibility of formation in the flame tube of the combustion chamber of local zones of poor and near-stoichiometric composition of the air-fuel mixtures having the maximum local temperature from the time at which exponentially depends on the rate of formation of nitrogen oxides NOx. In addition, it allows to provide favourable conditions of the combustion process as the options for starting and idling and main modes of operation.

Performing in each of the flow regulators combustion burner with tangential swirler located inside of the burner Central body can move it along the axis of the burner allows you to adjust the flow rate of the gas mixture while maintaining the mixture, i.e., coefficientrexcess oxidant in all modes of operation of the turbomachine, which eliminates the possibility of formation in the flame tube of local zones of poor and near-stoichiometric composition of fuel-air mixtures, reduces the toxicity of the exhaust gases are measured, eliminates the possibility of "leakage" of the flame on the modes of small gas reduces the pressure loss and allows you to manage the flow velocity profile and the flow structure.

Performing in the Central body of the perforated screen, forming Traktovaya surface and the cavity inside the nozzle, and a Central hole, telling the cavity of the combustion chamber with the cavity inside the burner, improves the cooling of the Central body of the burner, reduces pressure loss, allows you to manage the flow velocity profile and the flow structure and also reduces the formation of the burner by reducing the temperature of the screen and the walls of the burner. In addition, it reduces the possibility of leakage of flame and ignition in the mixing chamber.

The connection of the levers swivel rollers with device rotation means located around the outer casing of charisma drive rotary vane compressor of the turbomachine, which increases the reliability of the combustion chamber.

Execution Traktovaya the screen surface and its surface in the cavity inside the burner in the form of a body of revolution around the axis of the Central body reduces pressure losses in Traktovaya and cooling (internal) cavities of the burner, and also provides uniform cooling of the walls of the burner and screen.

In Fig. 1 shows the upper part of the longitudinal section of the combustion chamber along the longitudinal axis of one of the heating pipe.

In Fig.2 - element I in Fig.1, the burner with a maximum pass-section tangential swirl.

In Fig. 3 - section a-a in Fig.2, the axial displacement of the Central body of the burner.

In Fig.4 - section b-B in Fig.1 across the gas valve.

In Fig.5 - section b-b of Fig.1 across the damper.

The combustion chamber of the turbomachine includes a ring or a series of flame tubes 1, the mixing chamber 2, the nozzles 3 of the gas fuel with 4 controllers 5 flow 6 directed into the combustion zone 7 of the heating pipe 1. Input 8 of each of the controllers 5 flow 6 communicated with the cavity 9 of the combustion chamber through the openings 10 in the wall 11 of its outer casing 12, the output 13 of each of the controllers 5 flow 6 and sprayers 3 fuel 4 is connected to the input 14 of the mixture through the wall 11 of its outer housing 12 communicates with the outlet 16 of the mixing chamber 2 (see Fig.1). The combustion chamber contains a number of controls 17 the consumption of fuel gas 4 and regulators 18 flow of fuel-air mixture 19, and the drive mechanism 20 of each of the controllers 17 the consumption of fuel gas 4 and each of the controllers 18 flow of fuel-air mixture 19 with each of the controllers 5 flow 6 (see Fig. 1). Each of the controllers 18 flow of fuel-air mixture 19 is made in the form of the burner 20 with tangential swirler 21 and placed inside the nozzle 20 of the Central body 22 can move along its axis 23 of the burner 20 and the surface D (see Fig.1, 2, 3). The drive mechanism of each of the controllers 17 the consumption of fuel gas 4 and regulators 18 flow of fuel-air mixture 19 with each of the controllers 5 flow 6 is made in the form of a rotatable roller 24, provided with an eccentric Cam 25 of the Central body, throttle gas 26 and 27 air valves, the crank lever 28 and the device 29 to rotate (see Fig.1, 2, 3). The Central body 22 is equipped with a perforated screen 30, forming Traktovaya surface 31 and the cavity 32 within the burner, and a Central hole 33, tells the cavity 9 of the combustion chamber with the cavity 32 within the burner (see Fig.2). The levers 28 are rotatable rollers 24 of this ring 34 (see Fig.1). Traktovaya surface 31 of the screen 30 and the surface 35 of the cavity 32 within the burner 20 is made in the shape of the body around the axis of rotation 23 of the Central body 22 (see Fig.2). In addition, in Fig. 1 depicts: 36 - the axis of the turbomachine and the combustion chamber, a 37 - the flame in the cavity 38 of the flame tube 1 and the holes 39 of the flame tube 1, the annular gadobenic 40 and the inner case 41 of the combustion chamber, the diffuser 42 with a sudden expansion, as well as to allow the apparatus 43 of the turbomachine.

The combustion chamber of the turbomachine operates as follows. When starting the turbomachine gas 4 is supplied via a regulator 17 and the nozzles 3 to the input 14 of the mixing chamber 2, and 6 air compressed in the compressor of the turbomachine, is fed simultaneously through the controller 5 to the input 14 of the mixing chamber 2, where is the mixing pereobogaschennaya of the combustible mixture during start-UPS and lack of oxygen,r= 0,5...0,7. At the output 16 of the mixing chamber 2 of the fuel-air mixture with a specified rate of excess oxidantr= 0,5...0,7 served in the tangential swirl 21 of the burner 18, which is a regulator of the flow of air-fuel mixture. When ignited, the combustible mixture in the combustion zone 7 flame is Lamani low (T750 K) and, therefore, a low rate of formation of oxides of nitrogen in the first stage of combustion. Due to external mixture formation with the specifiedr- ratio of excess oxidant precluded the formation in the combustion zone 7 and the cavity 38 of the flame tube 1 local zones of poor and near-stoichiometric composition of hydrocarbon mixtures, and reduces the formation of nitrogen oxides in the combustion process. A large part of the compressed air compressor 6 is fed through the holes 39 in the expanding part (below the neck) of the flame tube 1 and driven circulation in the flame 37 combustion products pereobogaschennaya mixture. In the flame 37 initiated by the local zone of chain reactions of unburned active reagent gas fuel, the mixture of combustion products dramatically depleted (r= 1,8 2,2...) and aerodynamically is retarded due to the sudden expansion between fire tubes 1 and ring gotobaby.com 40, increasing the completeness of combustion of the mixture. The burning rate is multiplied by the avalanche activation of combustion, and the combustion temperature of the flame front increases until 1990 K. However, the residence time of the products of the mountain is burning is also reduced. At the start modes of small gas and basic operating modes of the device turning 29 rotates the synchronizing ring 34 and the levers 28 are rotatable rollers 24, thus turning the throttle 26 (gas) and 27 (air), changing the flow area of tangential swirl 21 with the specifiedr- ratio of excess oxidant.

Using the proposed design of the combustion chamber of the turbomachine reduces the toxicity of products of combustion, improves fuel efficiency measured due to the possibility of regulating the flow of gas fuel and the fuel / air mixture before feeding it into the flame tubes.

Sources of information 1. DE 4236071 A1, 28.04.94,

2. US 5140820 And 25.08.92,

3. EN 2138659, F 02 C 3/14, 10.06.97, prototype.

Claims

1. The combustion chamber of the turbomachine containing ring, or a number of flame tubes, mixing chamber, the spray of fuel gas, the flow regulators directed into the combustion zone of the flame tubes, the input of each of which communicates with the cavity of the combustion chamber through openings in the wall of its outer casing, and the outputs of the flow regulators and fuel nozzles are connected to the input of the MCA and through the wall of its outer casing is in communication with the outlet of the mixing chamber, characterized in that the combustion chamber contains a number of controls flow of fuel gas and flow controls an air-fuel mixture, as well as the drive mechanism of each of the flow regulators for gas fuel and each of the flow regulators air-fuel mixture to each of the flow regulators.

2. The combustion chamber of the turbomachine under item 1, characterized in that each of the flow regulators air-fuel mixture is made in the form of a burner with a tangential swirler and the Central body can move it along the axis of the burner.

3. The combustion chamber of the turbomachine under item 1 or 2, characterized in that the drive mechanism of each of the flow regulators of the gas fuel and air regulators are made in the form of a rotatable roller, provided with eccentric Cam Central body, the throttle of the gas and air valves, the crank lever and device rotation.

4. The combustion chamber of the turbomachine on the PP. 1 to 3, characterized in that the Central body is provided with a perforated screen, forming Traktovaya surface inside the nozzle, and a Central hole, telling the cavity of the combustion chamber with the cavity inside the burner.

5. The combustion turbomag VoipNow lever by means of a synchronizing ring, located around the outer casing.

6. The combustion chamber of a turbomachine according to any one of paragraphs.1 and 4, characterized in that Traktovaya the screen surface and the surface of the cavity inside the burner is made in the form of a body of revolution around the axis of the Central body.

 

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