The method of fighting fires on peatlands
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to methods of preventing the spread of fires on peat fields lining the trench at the depth of the peat to fill her non-combustible material. The objective of the invention is a cheaper way of dealing with fires on peatlands. According to the method, the trench is filled with sphagnum moss with its subsequent hydration. Due to the high hydrophilicity sphagnum moss absorbs a lot of moisture, holding it for a long time. With the approach of the fire to the trench sphagnum moss is heated, resulting in intense evaporation. Pairs, displacing from the cavity of the trench atmospheric air, it creates an oxygen-free environment, while penetrating into the porous walls of the trench and hydrating it. Moist sphagnum moss, while in steam oxygen-free environment, not able to burn and effectively prevents the spread of fire beyond the area of localization. Significantly reduced water consumption, are excluded onward transportation of non-flammable materials, reduced labor costs. The invention relates to methods of preventing the spread of fires on peat fields lining the trench at the depth of the peat is s trenching at the depth of the peat to fill her non-combustible material, which use mineral soil .The disadvantage of this method is the high cost of development and transportation of mineral soil, because the extraction of soil requires the use of energy-intensive equipment, and delivery vehicles heavy vehicles, gain access to the fire scene to the same difficult due to the low bearing capacity of peat-boggy soils.The closest to the technical nature of the invention is a method of fighting fires on peatlands, including trenching at the depth of the peat to fill her non-combustible material, which is used as water .This method is also characterized by high costs due to the need to transport large amounts of water, because after filling of the trench it is quickly absorbed into the peat and want to maintain it level.The objective of the invention is a cheaper way of dealing with fires on peatlands.This technical result in the method of fighting fires on peatlands, including trenching at the depth of the peat to fill her non-combustible material, is achieved by Arami on peatlands is carried out using known hardware: the harvesting of sphagnum are a tool for removing moss cover (and.with. The USSR 1106026, class A 01 B 35/16), trenching and populate it with sphagnum moss is used in land reclamation device for drainage of soils with simultaneous filling of the cavity drains fibrous filter material.with. The USSR 1372021, CL E 02 F 5/10), hydration of sphagnum - manufactured backpack fire extinguisher-sprayer SART-MBefore working on the localization of peat fire in the hopper device for drainage of the soil are filled with sphagnum moss, and satchels fire extinguishers - water. During the movement of the device along the intended route of his working body lifts trench, in which the hopper is fed with simultaneous compaction of the peat moss. As the filling of the trench operator armed with a backpack fire extinguisher, wets laid in a trench the peat moss with water. Sphagnum moss has the ability to rapidly absorb moisture and hold it in their cells in an amount of 30-40 times its own weight. Due to the high hydrophilicity of the peat moss when wet becomes non-combustible material, the same property of sphagnum allows to reduce the consumption of water on the barrier and to minimize its losses in the form of leaks.With the approach of the peat fire to trench the temperature of its internal the ECJ intensive evaporation. Water vapor, displacing from the trench atmospheric air, creates in its cavity anoxic environment than increase the protective properties ontakedamage barrier. In addition, couples, penetrating into the porous walls of the trench and hydrating it begins to counteract the burning before it reaches the inner wall. The final stop of the fire is provided with moist sphagnum moss, which, due to the large amount of moisture absorbed and being in a steam environment, not able to burn.This method provides, therefore, a reliable localization of the peat fire at a relatively low cost for its implementation. Compared with the known methods is significantly reduced water consumption, are excluded long-distance transport of non-flammable materials do not require energy-intensive technical equipment for mining, loading and transportation to the place of manufacture of fire works. In the fight against peat fires sphagnum moss is not a scarce material, as found in peatlands.Sources of information
1. A. C. the USSR 869779, class. And 62 With 1/00, 1979.2. Kurbatskii N. P. Techniques and tactics for fighting wildfires. M: Goslesbumizdat, 1962, S. 135 (prototype).
FIELD: fire-fighting equipment, particularly for localizing fire appeared in process orifices, for instance during coloring large articles or on stage.
SUBSTANCE: method involves using elastic fire barrier formed as dropping curtain device for fire localization. Device for above method implementation performs curtain movement in several modes. Device structure is so that device protects maintenance staff or actors present in working area from injuries during heavy curtain motion. Screen has door located in lower part thereof to evacuate people from dangerous area by rescuers or for people self-evacuation.
EFFECT: possibility of injury prevention, prevention of hazardous products escape from fire site, provision of seal between screen and frame when process opening is fully closed.
FIELD: fire-fighting, particularly for extinguishing forest fires.
SUBSTANCE: method involves burning combustible materials in direction from control line to fire propagation line with the use of remote operated robotic system. Remote operated robotic system includes flame thrower and rotary screw drive, which provides system movement simultaneously with digging control line.
EFFECT: reduced time of fire service response, increased efficiency of fire localization and operational safety.
FIELD: forestry, particularly for fighting fires in high-capacity and medium-capacity peat beds.
SUBSTANCE: drainage system includes a number of water drainage channels with control-and-shutoff valves, manifold with drain lines connected thereto and intercepting channel located above drained peat bed and communicated with water inlet. Intercepting channel is provided with control-and-shutoff means to accumulate surface water flow and to create water reserve. Intercepting channel is connected with manifold head part by means of pipeline having valve gate. Manifold is provided with movable partition. Intercepting channel has antifiltering shield.
EFFECT: possibility of fire localization without operation stoppage and without underflooding surrounding territories and, as result, reduced economic losses.
FIELD: fire-fighting equipment, particularly for extinguishing/localizing large-scale and powerful fires, including forest and forest-steppe fires, difficult-to-access fires, namely steep mountains, impassable taiga, jungle or fires close to risk areas (explosive environment or high-temperature areas).
SUBSTANCE: method involves exerting influence of air-blast wave on fire site and applying high-speed jet of air-dispersed fire-extinguishing mixture formed during fire-suppression device explosion. Fire-suppression device comprises vessel with fire-extinguishing composition and dispersing charge. Vessel is provided with structural members providing device operation in service conditions. Structural members are separated from vessel until dispersing charge blasting.
EFFECT: extended range of technical means for fire-suppression device delivery to fire site, reduced time of their preparing to use, prevention of device fragments spreading after device blasting.
4 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: fire-fighting equipment, particularly for peat fire spread prevention.
SUBSTANCE: method involves forming intermittent strips; supplying water to intermittent strips and forming wetted area. Wetted area is formed by arranging mole drains along intermittent strip lengths and supplying water to them to moisture peat bed through the whole thickness thereof. To perform preventive water conservation intermittent strip surfaces located above mole drains are loosened for 0.15 - 0.2 m depth and 1.0 - 1.5 m width and intermittent strip surfaces above mole drains in fire vicinity are rolled up. Fire inhibitors are added to water before supplying thereof in mole drains.
EFFECT: increased fire-protective efficiency regardless of peat bed thickness.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: fire fighting equipment with the use of helicopters with rotary propellers, which create powerful descending air flow, particularly to extinguish forest fires.
SUBSTANCE: method involves suspending conical case with fire-extinguishing devices under helicopter and using powerful descending air flow produced by helicopter propellers. If necessary air flow may be mixed with mechanical particles (sand) or chemical additives for extinguishing fires. The case is produced of high-strength and light-weight material to provide case weight of not more than 2 tons.
EFFECT: possibility to use air flow going from helicopter propeller, reduced fuel consumption due to prevention of helicopter usage in shuttle mode, possibility of continuous fire extinguishing, increased helicopter park.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: fire-fighting means, particularly to extinguish ground and crown forest fires and to prevent spreading thereof.
SUBSTANCE: method involves supplying fire-extinguishing gas from turbojet plant compressor nozzle to fire site, wherein gas is directed to burned-out and unburned matter along with simultaneous blowing off thereof in burned-out areas. Gas is delivered through removable compressor nozzle head flattened from both sides thereof. Nozzle head may rotate through 90° to divide fire front into parts to be separately extinguished.
EFFECT: increased efficiency along with reduced danger when extinguishing fire.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: fire-fighting equipment, particularly to combat large-scale fires, including forest and steppe ones, fires in difficult-to-access areas (steep mountains, impassible taiga, jungle) and fire sites located near high-risk objects (highly explosive or high-temperature ones).
SUBSTANCE: device comprises stabilizer and vessel, both formed of thermoplastic material, as well as dispersing charge and fire-extinguishing substance located into vessel. The device also has explosive means and suspension system including cover plate with eyes and members enclosing vessel. Suspension system is connected with stabilizer bottom by means of flexible tie and is provided with releasing mechanism and with members providing forced detaching thereof from vessel.
EFFECT: prevention of scattering fragments of fire-extinguishing device after its operation, increased surface of fire-extinguishing substance contact with burning matter.
4 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: fire protection means, particularly to protect peat beds against fire or to prevent burning of compacted loose combustible materials, particularly pulp and paper industry waste materials.
SUBSTANCE: method involves forming channels in peat bed surface in fire-risk areas during winter period; filling the channels and depressions with water; freezing thereof in the channels and depressions to moisten peat bed during water ice thawing. To protect ice against the influence of direct sunlight ice is covered with heat-insulation material, particularly with ground or peat layer. Water is fed from underground horizons located under the peat beds.
EFFECT: increased efficiency.
FIELD: fire fighting, particularly movable fire-extinguishing devices.
SUBSTANCE: robotic apparatus comprises system to provide self-defense thereof against fire hazard and means to prevent twisting of fire-extinguishant delivery hose connecting fire-extinguisher with nozzle over the full circular operating range when nozzle is aimed at fire site.
EFFECT: possibility to operate in extreme conditions, increased reliability and simplified structure.
2 cl, 2 dwg