The method of absorption of hydrocarbons from gas mixtures

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the absorption of aliphatic, aromatic, unsaturated hydrocarbons and their derivatives from the gas phase. The method is carried out by passing a mixture of gases through a liquid layer of organic absorbent. As absorbent gases used used industrial oils (waste). The method allows to increase the absorption of aliphatic, aromatic, unsaturated hydrocarbons from gas streams.

The invention relates to the absorption of aliphatic, aromatic, unsaturated hydrocarbons and their halogen derivatives from the gas phase.

Sources of air pollution by hydrocarbons are all paint, gas and petrochemical, coal, many biochemical and chemical production, power plants and motor vehicles to operate on the basis of hydrocarbon energy.

Air purification from organic compounds depending on the source of pollution and logistical capacity to produce using different catalytic systems, adsorbents, absorbents, adsorption and absorption devices, membranes, bacteria, and those who ical discharge and accelerated electrons.

Catalytic methods for cleaning air from hydrocarbons, oxides of carbon and nitrogen are in contacting air flows with catalysts. As catalysts use platinum and rhodium (U.S. Pat. 5490977 USA, 01 J 23/63), metal shavings (U.S. Pat. 2048174 RF, 01 D 53/94), oxides of copper, manganese, chromium, or a mixture of oxides of these metals deposited on a metal substrate the substrate (U.S. Pat. 2114686 RF, 01 D 53/86), palladium in combination with the oxides of Nickel, aluminum, chromium and a mixture of oxides of palladium, Nickel, chromium and aluminum (U.S. Pat. 2054959 RF, 01 D 53/62). The contacting of air flows with a catalytic systems is carried out at 160-1100oC.

Adsorption methods for cleaning gas emissions from organic compounds based on conventional polymer resins, polymeric materials, activated carbons, carbon fibers (U.S. Pat. 4917711 USA, 01 D 53/04; application 4319895 Germany, 01 D 53/02; application 19520504 Germany, 01 D 46/08; application 95100354/04, RF, C 07 C).

Non-conventional adsorbent designed to absorb hydrocarbons from the vapor phase contains coordination polymers on the basis of tert-BUTYLCARBAMATE lithium [tert-C4H90V(OR SIG)3]Li: (R=C4H9-C11HoWith oxides of metals of IB, IIB, IV, V, VI, VIIB and VIII groups (application 19530896 Germany, 01 D 53/75). Polyurethane layers with open pores (perforations) of different sizes, processed automobile engines (U.S. Pat. 5573811 USA, 01 D 46/00).

The method of burning hydrocarbons in the compressed air stream at 650-980oWith is of little help in economic and environmental terms (U.S. Pat. 5527984 USA, 01 D 53/44).

On the contrary, the cryogenic method of air purification from organic substances in comparison with the method of burning is less safety, environmentally friendly, reusable solvents after thawing (Energ. Spektrum. - 1995. - 10. 11. - S. 38-40). The cryogenic method is especially suitable for processing small (<1000 m3) gas streams with a high concentration of organic substances (10-1000 g/m3).

Methods of air purification from organic compounds using microorganisms (patents 2048173 and 2082482 RF, 01 D 53/44) and membranes, molecular sieves (U.S. Pat. 4915838 USA, E 01 D 13/01) have a more private nature.

Order-oxidative and oxidative decomposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to carbon dioxide and water exhaust gases irradiated with high-voltage electrical discharge at temperatures from -20 to +80oWith (RF patents: 2118913, 03 3/00; 2042608, 08 At 13/11) and a stream of accelerated electrons in the presence of vapors of mineral acid, taken in the mass is f here are ways to evaluate (analyze) in terms of economic efficiency, eco-friendliness, adaptability and selectivity, the predominant importance of absorption and adsorption methods for all nominations is obvious.

For example, for the process conditions for the implementation of the adsorption method of absorbing hydrocarbons from the gas-air environment does not require the use of expensive precious metals in the catalytic method of elimination (decomposition) of hydrocarbons. The energy of the adsorption method in comparison with the technology of catalysis, combustion and cryogenian is the smallest part.

Technological equipment for implementing the method of adsorption and equipment to perform safety standards can be used in the simplest form. While processes for neutralization of gaseous hydrocarbons under conditions of high and low temperatures, high voltage electric discharge and accelerated electrons requires equipment that meets the highest technological requirements. Hydrocarbons by the method of adsorption does not decompose (not destroyed) to water and carbon dioxide, as in the technology of catalysis, combustion, and oxidation using electric discharge and the addressing sustainability and efficiency. And finally, in terms of potential opportunities for improving the selectivity of hydrocarbon absorption absorption method has no equal among the known methods. The selectivity of the method can be increased almost indefinitely by modification of the composition of the adsorbent.

The technical nature of the proposed method the absorption of hydrocarbons from gas mixtures is closest to the method of purification of gases from solvent fumes, odorous substances and other harmful gases (U.S. Pat. 4203385 A1 Germany, 01 D 53/14). In this patent gaseous substances, the gas mixture is passed through an absorbent contamination of the wash liquid. As the wash liquid used: olive, castor, almond oil, oil of olive seed oil kernel of the nut of the hazel, the kernel oil of groundnuts, rapeseed, durakovo, sesame, poppy seed oil, kernel oil beech nut, maize, sunflower, soybean, cottonseed oil, grain, hemp, wood oil, walnut oil, or mixtures of the aforementioned oils.

The disadvantages of the known method (U.S. Pat. 4203385 A1 Germany) is the use of expensive oils and their low absorption capacity. Low absorption capacity of vegetable oils p is o ethers, which reduce the affinity of the hydrocarbon to these oils. The high cost of the above vegetable oils makes this method available for practical purification of gas mixtures of hydrocarbons.

The objective of the invention to increase the absorption of aliphatic, aromatic and unsaturated hydrocarbons and their derivatives from gas streams.

The technical result is achieved by the fact that as the absorbent solution with used oil (waste) with a dynamic viscosity ranging from 0.5 to 1.6 Fold. Oil residues (waste) were taken after the use of industrial oils in ball-bearing production. The process of absorption of hydrocarbon gases is conducted by passing the gas mixture through a layer of oil in the absorber from the bottom up.

In the invention as absorbate used a very complex mixture of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons (SU), which is a waste product of catalyst for polymerization of propylene at Tomsk petrochemical plant. The composition of the mixture, determined using gas-liquid chromatography, the following, wt%:

n-butane - 0,03

Butene-1 - 0.02

Butene-2 - 0,01

The isopentane - 0.04

Penten-1 - 0,01

2-Methylbutan - 0, the ene-3 - 0,03

2-Methylhexan - 8,75

3-Methylhexan - 15,50

HEXEN-2 - 1,12

Cyclohexane - 39,51

n-Heptane - 8,31

2,3-Dimethylhexane - 1,11

Hepten - 19,89

Benzene - 0,50

n-Octane - 0,20

Toluene - 1.55V

o-Xylene was 2.76

Method implemented on the following technology.

Example 1. In the absorber of a certain mass load of 35.5 g of waste oil with a dynamic viscosity of 0.51 Pass. The absorber connect with bubbling vessel containing a mixture of hydrocarbons (SU). The bubbler is connected to the compressor, the compressor include in the grid. Thus formed Pirogovsky flow is directed to the bottom of the absorber, the weight of which is determined periodically. Uglerodistogo mixture is passed upward through a layer of absorbent material until equilibrium process or until constant weight of the absorber. Mass absorbed SU is 15,27 g, the absorption capacity of the oil waste (industrial waste oil in the ball bearing manufacturing) 0,43 g/,

Example 2. In the absorber of a certain mass download of 31.3 g of waste oil with a dynamic viscosity of 0.85 Pas. The absorber connect with bubbling vessel containing a mixture of hydrocarbons (SU). The bubbler is connected to the keys in the lower part of the absorber, a lot of which is determined periodically. Uglerodistogo mixture is passed upward through a layer of absorbent material until equilibrium process or until constant weight of the absorber. Mass absorbed SU is 15,65 g, the absorption capacity of the oil waste (industrial waste oil in the ball bearing production) is equal to 0.50 g/,

Example 3. In the absorber of a certain mass download and 47.5 g of waste oil with a dynamic viscosity of 1.6 Pass. The absorber connect with bubbling vessel containing cyclohexane. The bubbler is connected to the compressor, the compressor include in the grid. Thus formed cyclohexanesulfonyl flow is directed to the bottom of the absorber, the weight of which is determined periodically. Cyclohexanemethanol mixture is passed upward through a layer of absorbent material until equilibrium process or until constant weight of the absorber. The mass of absorbed cyclohexane is 33,73 g, the absorption capacity of the oil waste is equal to 0.71 g/,

An example of the prototype.

In the absorber of a certain mass load of 22.4 g of sunflower oil absorber connect with bubbling vessel containing SU. The bubbler is connected to kompressoroel part of the absorber, a lot of which is determined periodically. Uglerodistogo mixture is passed upward through a layer of absorbent material until equilibrium process or until constant weight of the absorber. The absorptive capacity of sunflower oil to 0.07 g/,

Thus, the proposed method is simple and feasible for the purification of gas mixtures and, in addition, it is more effective way to prototype in 5-10 times.

The economic benefit of the method is that waste (oil residues) are an effective adsorbent for hydrocarbons recovery from industrial gas emissions. The absorptive capacity of oil residues (0,42-0.51 g/g) hydrocarbon exceeds the capacity of a standard industrial oils.

Resinous substances in waste oil accumulated in the process of operation of standard oil, increase their absorptive capacity. Therefore, oil waste becomes raw material for obtaining absorbents for cleaning air from hydrocarbons from the air.

The method of absorption of hydrocarbons from gas mixtures by passing the gas mixture through the liquid organic layer of absorbent material, characterized in that the absorbent gases used is

 

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