The method of manufacture of concrete and concrete products and installation for its implementation
The invention relates to techniques for manufacturing products based on cement with the use of heat treatment at atmospheric pressure. The technical result - the reduction of operating costs. Concrete and concrete products are manufactured at the facility, including batchers, concrete mixer, molding site, the camera steaming. The installation also includes a generator flue gas saturated with water vapor, coupled with camera steaming. The generator is designed in the form of a layer of a heat exchanger filled with ballast, and equipped with a furnace and a water supply from above. 2 S. and 1 C.p. f-crystals, 1 Il. The invention relates to techniques for manufacturing products based on cement, lime or lime-silica binder with application of heat treatment at atmospheric pressure.The present invention can be used in the manufacture of various structural components for industrial and civil construction.There is a method of manufacture of concrete and concrete products, including metering and mixing of the components of the filler and binder with water, molding, vibration, followed by thermal treatment of products in the environment Nacho method includes dispensers coarse and fine aggregates, binder and water, concrete mixer, molding the node chamber for steaming periodic or continuous operation, is connected by a pipeline with the generator of the heat carrier (steam boiler). Average steam consumption for thermal processing of products is 250-450 kg/m3concrete products (O. A., Gershberg. The technology of concrete and concrete products. The publishing house construction. M. , 1971, S. 140-147, 197-202, 305-313).The disadvantage of this method and installation for the manufacture of concrete and concrete products is the use of the heat treatment expensive steam generated in a cumbersome boiler units, and its loss during transportation to the cameras steaming. This increases capital and operating costs.The closest in technical essence and the achieved result is a method of manufacture of concrete and concrete products, including concrete mix appropriate material composition, molding and heat treatment products at atmospheric pressure the heat carrier in the form of flue gases.Installation for implementing this method includes dispensers, betonosmesitel, forming the node chamber for steaming, connect the camera, connected by ducts with the forced-draft fan, induced draft fan, the flow of the surrounding cold air, furnace and chamber for steaming (in. A. Peregudov, M. I. Horn. Thermal processes and installation technology, building products and parts. M.: stroiizdat, 1983, S. 142-144).The disadvantage of this method and installation for the manufacture of concrete and concrete products is the saturation water vapor coolant through dehydration product in the steam chamber, which reduces the strength of the products.Due to these shortcomings inherent in these methods, the further intensification of the process of heat treatment of products and reduce capital and operating costs become difficult.The objective of the invention is to reduce operating costs without sacrificing quality products through the use of cheap coolant.Another object of the invention is to reduce material consumption and improve the compactness of the installation.The basis of the invention is the improvement of the heat treatment in the method of manufacture of concrete and concrete products using steam without its supply from a boiler plant.This problem is solved posredstvennoj composition, forming and thermal processing of products at atmospheric pressure the heat carrier in the form of flue gases according to the invention, the flue gases before thermal processing of products is saturated with water vapor.Possible that the saturation water vapor in the flue gases produced by filtering the streams of water flowing down into the layers of granular material.Rationally in the way of thermal processing products lead when the coolant temperature is equal to 60-190oC.The problem can be solved by setting, including batchers, concrete mixer, molding the node chamber for steaming, is connected by a pipeline with the generator carrier, equipped with a furnace according to the invention the generator carrier is made in the form of a layer of a heat exchanger filled Balasta and air from above the water.Its possible that as ballast used balls or cylpebs faction 5-30 mm in This embodiment of the method allows to produce intense high-quality thermal treatment of products in a wide temperature range when using cheap water saturated brine.Structural features of the invention allow to obtain a moisture-filled heat to adjust the temperature of the coolant.The invention consists in that the gaseous fluid is saturated with moisture when water evaporates from the surface of the weight in contact with flue gases, and not through the wall of screens from the family of pipes, as in boiler plants. Thanks to this generator coolant becomes compact and can be installed in the production line of concrete and concrete products directly to consumers gas mixture (camera for steaming). In addition, layer the steam generator produces the coolant is significantly harder and cheaper than boiler units.Wide possibilities of varying the temperature of the coolant within 60-190oAllows to apply the method for the production of concrete and concrete products on the basis of different types of binder (lime, cement, lime, silica and mixtures thereof). Increasing the temperature above 190oWith irrational, as it leads to lower strength products, and lowering the temperature of the coolant below the 60oWith irrational because of the increased cycle hardening products.The application layer of the heat exchanger filled Balasta and equipped with top odoptacii (60-190oC), then the pipeline is collected and used as directed in the chamber for steaming products.Use as ballast loaded in the heat exchanger, balls or cylpebs faction 5-30 mm provides high surface evaporation films of water flowing into the heat exchanger from the top. Reducing the size of the ballast below 5 mm significantly increases the hydraulic resistance of the heat exchanger and the energy from the blast, and the increase in the size fraction weight above 30 mm significantly reduces the specific surface weight and performance of the heat exchanger, which is irrational.The invention is further explained specific variants of its implementation with reference to the accompanying drawing, which shows the flow diagram and installation for the manufacture of concrete and concrete products.Installation for the manufacture of concrete and concrete products contains bins 1 for the components of the concrete mixture and binder, dispensers 2, mixer 3, the molding unit 4, a chamber for steaming 5, is connected by a pipe 6 with the generator carrier 7, is made in the form of a layer of a heat exchanger connected to the duct 8 with the furnace 9. The layered heat exchanger loaded balastik, for example, the horizontal filtering of gases through the layer of ballast, made in the form of a slit mine, filled Balasta 10, equipped with a grate bars 12, introduction 13 and outlet 14 cavities, which are respectively connected by a duct 8 to the combustion chamber 9 and the pipe 6 with the camera 5 for steaming products. The furnace 9 is equipped with burners 15 and a fan 16.The method is carried out and the system works as follows. Fine and coarse aggregate from the bins 1 through 2 dispensers on the arrows 17 and 18 are received in the mixer 3, where the arrow 19 from the hopper 1 through the spout 2 is also astringent and the arrow 20 enters the water. In forming the node 4 by the arrow 21 serves the valve and in the direction of arrow 22 of the concrete mixture from the mixer 3. Molded product after vibration in direction of the arrow 23 is fed to the chamber for steaming 5, where the pipeline 6 and the arrow 24 serves coolant. Exhaust fluid from the chamber for steaming 5 is removed to the atmosphere by the arrow 25, and the product after completion of the curing cycle the arrow 26 sent for dismantling. Perhaps part of the exhaust fluid to return for recycling. To get coolant in the form of saturated steam flue gases to the required temperature the s flue gas fan 16 serves the surrounding air with a large excess, which regulate the temperature of the flue gases. The last arrow 27 through the duct 8 are received at the input cavity layer 13 of the heat exchanger, and then through the gaps in the grate 12 flue gases pass into the ballast layer and filtered by the arrows 28 in the horizontal direction. In the ballast layer 10 is continuously serves water from the pipe 11, and draining down the water on the surface of the ballast forms a film that is washed by the hot flue gases are cooled to a predetermined temperature and saturated with water vapor. Then the gas-vapor mixture through the gaps in the grate 12 flows out into the outlet cavity 14 and the arrow 24 is routed to a destination in the chamber for steaming 5. The temperature of the coolant regulate the amount of burned fuel, excess air and the intensity of the water layer in the heat exchanger.The advantages of the method of manufacture of concrete and concrete products is a compact, wide range of regulatory intensity processing, negligible heat loss and lower costs for thermal processing of products.For a better understanding of the invention will present concrete examples of the implementation of the method.Prepare the concrete mix ill is giving two hours serves on thermal processing chamber steaming periodic actions as shown in Fig. From the generator coolant serves the flue gases saturated with water vapor at a temperature of 80oWith, and thermal processing of products produced for three hours, then raise the temperature to 120oWith and produce a heat treatment at this temperature for two hours. The product after Stripping corresponds to the standard quality.Prepare the concrete mixture of plastic consistency and molded it the ribbed slab, which after immersion for two hours serves on thermal processing chamber steaming periodic action. From the generator coolant serves the flue gases saturated with water vapor at a temperature of 60oWith, and thermal processing of products produced for four hours, then raise the temperature to 105oWith and produce a heat treatment at this temperature for three hours.It goes without saying that the present invention is not limited to the examples described here it is running and that there are various modifikacia and other embodiments of heat treatment of products without deviating from the scope and merits of the present invention.
AI plants of various capacities for heat treatment of concrete and concrete products flue gases, saturated water vapor. Such installations are used for reconstruction of existing and construction of new plants for the production of concrete and concrete products.This design is characterized by high performance, low consumption of metal and refractory, compactness, simplicity, performance, low fuel consumption and electricity and increased safety.
Claims1. The method of manufacture of concrete and concrete products, including concrete mix appropriate material composition, molding and heat treatment products at atmospheric pressure coolant in the form of flue gas, characterized in that the flue gases before thermal processing of products is saturated with water vapor when filtering the streams of water flowing in the layer of granular material.2. Installation for the manufacture of concrete and concrete products, including batchers, concrete mixer, molding site, the camera steaming, characterized in that the generator includes gas, saturated with water vapor, coupled with camera steaming, and the generator is made in the form of a layer of a heat exchanger filled with a ballast is designed balls or cylpebs faction 5-30 mm.
FIELD: building industry branches, namely apparatuses for heat treatment of constructions of reinforced concrete erected in building site with use of automatic control of heat treatment processes.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus includes concrete form having electric heating units mounted in its boards for convection-irradiation heating of concrete mixture and heating members mounted in bottom of concrete form for convection-irradiation heating; temperature pickups having individual control circuits and connected to inlets of heat regulators. Outlets of heat regulators are connected through switching units having magnetic starters with respective electric heating units. Each control circuit includes at least six temperature pickups placed in monolithic construction and pickup for measuring temperature of environmental air. Said pickups are connected with inlets of respective programmed heat regulator for supplying control signals.
EFFECT: enhanced quality of constructions.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: apparatus or processes for treating or working, namely curing, setting or hardening, the shaped articles.
SUBSTANCE: method for gypsum panel forming involves shaping the panel, hardening and hydrating thereof and drying the panel during panel rotation. Device to realize above method is also disclosed.
EFFECT: increased panel quality, decreased production and maintenance costs and improved operating conditions.
20 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly for concreting cast-in-place and precast reinforced concrete structures along with concrete curing temperature regulation.
SUBSTANCE: method involves laying and compacting concrete mix under continuous concrete mix curing temperature control; heating central concrete layers with heating reinforcement when outer concrete layers are in elasto-plastic state. Heating reinforcement is spaced a distance "a" from surface. The heating is carried out simultaneously with surface heat-shielding. Distance "a" is determined as a=δeq(tav-ts)/(ts-ta), m, where δeq - thickness of conditional equivalent concrete layer corresponding to surface thermal resistance, Rs, m; tav - time-average concrete temperature calculated by estimated time of heating directly in heating area, deg; ts - time-average temperature at concrete surface calculated by estimated heating time, deg; δeq is determined as δeq=Rs·λ·F, m, where Rs is heat resistance of rigging with form Rr including thermal resistance Ra of heat transfer from rigging to ambient air, h·deg/kcal; Rs=Rr+Ra=(δr/( λr·F))+(1/(α·F)), h·deg/kcal, where δr is thickness of rigging, m; λr is rigging heat conductivity factor kcal/(m·h·deg), α is rigging surface heat-transfer coefficient kcal/(m2·h·deg), λ is concrete(reinforced concrete) heat conductivity kcal/(m·h·deg); F=1m2 - rigging surface area for thermal resistance calculation, m2. Amount of heat Q used to heat part of member to be heated having length (height) of 1.0 m and cross-sectional width of 1.0 m is determined from Q=(tav-ts)(m+(τ·λ·F/a), where m is constant equal to 60-180 kcal/deg and τ is calculated heating time, hours. The heating reinforcement is heating wires or pipes adapted for hot water circulation.
EFFECT: reduced temperature stresses and prevention of crack formation during structure concreting, as well as possibility to regulate curing temperature.
4 cl, 1 ex, 4 dwg
FIELD: method and equipment for manufacturing gypsum plates.
SUBSTANCE: method involves the following steps: first step includes molding plate; second step includes hardening by hydration process until hydrated article is produced with hydration extent within the range from 33% to 80%; third step includes continuing hydration process in at least one rotating drum by rotating plate around central axis; fourth step includes drying process. Intermediate cutting process may be provided between second and third steps, said cutting process may be effectuated in accordance with wire principle. Apparatus has linear zone for partial hardening and hydration, and at least one hydration drum comprising central axis around which multiplicity of branches are arranged. Each branch in drum may be divided into multiplicity of levers, with surface of said levers making from about 50% to about 99% the surface of respective branch. Drum may have from 10 to 150 branches, preferably from 40 to 120 branches. Hardening and hydration zone and drum may be arranged in two axes extending in parallel with one another.
EFFECT: improved quality of articles, improved maintenance and operating conditions.
12 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: building industry; methods of production of the construction products at the building industry works.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of building industry, in particular, to the method of production of the construction products at the building industry works and may be used for manufacture of the reinforced concrete, including the spatial structures with the heat-insulating layer. The technical result of the invention is reduction of the power input, improvement of the quality and expansion of list of products. The method of manufacture of double-layer reinforced concrete products includes the consecutive formation of the constructive and the heat-insulating layers of the reinforced concrete and its thermal treatment. The heat-insulating layer with the average density of 450-500 kg/m3 made out of the vermiculite-concrete mixture with flowability of 3-5 cm is molded by the vibrobeam with the simultaneous its reinforcement by the woven net in top level. After the structure achieves the plastic strength of 0.015-0.025 MPa, then begin the molding the constructive layer and conduct the thermal treatment by the method of the contact heating from the side of the heat-insulating layer.
EFFECT: the invention ensures reduction of the power input, improvement of the quality and expansion of list of products.
FIELD: construction, particularly devices for thermal treatment of reinforced structures during in-situ structure erection with the use of automatic temperature condition control means.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises form, heat-sensing means, heaters and computer. Heat-sensing means are placed in form. Heaters are laid on reinforcing cage of monolithic reinforced concrete structure and fixed thereto. Heat-sensing means are linked to automatic digital power regulator including indication and control unit and digital control unit connected with control computer by means of signal converter. To provide visual control automatic power regulator is provided with concrete temperature display panel, which indicates concrete temperature in each measurement point and volumetrically weighed average concrete temperature.
EFFECT: decreased power inputs and possibility to control thermal field transformation after heater switching-on or switching-off in correspondence with thermal limiters of valid regulation documents.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method for strengthening treatment of concrete products includes exposure of alternating rotary magnetic field with specified value of its intensity and frequency at components used in composition of initial concrete mix, when exposure of alternating rotary magnetic field is provided for all components making concrete without exception after their combination into integral volume directly in the product item itself after realisation of initial mixture components curing operation. This exposure is realised in moulded product without its extraction from used curb. The item itself performs function of closing connecting link in magnetic circuit used for generation of field. Treatment is carried out at intensity of alternating magnetic field 1×104-3×106 a/m; range of its frequencies 20-70 Hz for 1.5-4.5 hours. Cycles of treatment are repeated twice: in 160-180 hours with a delay of 0.3-0.7 hr and in 480-500 hours with a delay of 0.1-0.2 hour. Device used to realise the method comprises circuit developing alternating magnetic field and electric windings-coils mounted on it and connected to external source of AC current supply. One of plates making magnetic conducting circuit has through slot, dimensions of which make it possible to install the concrete product itself in it together with curb used for its moulding, and its body when installed in circuit serves as closing connecting link that closes magnetic flow generated in it.
EFFECT: improved strength characteristics used to erect objects of concrete building structures.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 3 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction and may be used for curing concrete articles. Proposed curing room comprises walls with inner flange, hydraulic gate frame mounted on wall edges, shield with inner surface provided with steam-and-water insulation coating and heat insulation, steam duct, and condensate drain chute. Hydraulic gate frame is made up of horizontal channels arranged horizontally along room walls to house elastic porous material for room sealing by absorbing condensed steam. Aforesaid shield is made up of carcass consisting of weight-reduced channels coated by heat-insulation material with inner cavities. Said shield serves to press elastic porous material against all edges of channel cavity.
EFFECT: high-reliability sealing.
2 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction, namely, to method of controlling concrete thermal treatment. Proposed device comprises heater to heat laid concrete mix by heating wire or electrodes, measure mix temperature by temperature pickups, and system for automatic control over concrete article heating. Said system is composed of nondestructive control electronic transducers and instruments, i.e. USB-1, Pulsar-2 to take readings directly from early concrete, heating transformer KTP, double-ended lamps, multichannel temperature, heating and data reading interval meter, bus line, feed and heating devices, registrator and computer.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of control, stabilised temperature difference and concrete article and ambient medium.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction, namely, to concrete and reinforced concrete article drying chambers. Proposed chamber comprises walls, detachable translucent cover and heat power feed system. Chamber guard structure and said detachable cover are made of combined material including metal, asbestos sheet, foil with heat insulation provided with air layer confined by two layers of foil. Layer of asbestos at chamber inner walls is covered by foil. IR radiators, portable heat sensor are arranged at chamber bottom while water like with sprinklers is laid around the periphery. Electrical protection contact device is arranged ay chamber r top part.
EFFECT: decreased heat losses.