Structure having a balanced ph profile

 

Described absorbent structure comprising an acidic or basic swelling in water water-insoluble polymer, the second basic or acidic substance and, possibly, a buffer agent, and an absorbent structure exhibits the desired absorbent properties. Particularly, the present invention relates to an absorbent structure having the ability to absorb large quantities of liquid while maintaining essentially desirable and balanced pH profile at or on the surface of the absorbent structure. Absorbent structure for use in absorbent products disposable, such as those that are designed to absorb body fluids. 4 C. and 60 C.p. f-crystals, 3 ill., 7 table.

The present invention relates to an absorbent structure comprising an acidic or basic swelling in water water-insoluble polymer, the basic or acidic substance and, possibly, a buffer agent, and an absorbent structure exhibits the desired absorbent properties. Particularly, the present invention relates to an absorbent structure that can absorb large quantities of liquid while maintaining a desirable and balanced pH-p the corresponding products disposable such which is used to absorb body fluids.

The use of swelling in water, mostly water-insoluble absorbent substances, commonly known as superabsorbents (overabsorbed), in absorbent products disposable is known. Such absorbent substances are usually used in absorbent disposable products such as diapers, training pants, products for adults suffering from incontinence and feminine hygiene products, to increase the absorbent capacity of such products while reducing their total volume. Such absorbent substances are usually found in absorbent products disposable in a fibrous matrix, such as matrix wood cellulosome dust. The matrix of the wood cellulosome dust usually has an absorbent capacity equal to about 6 grams of fluid per gram of dust. Super-absorbent substances typically have an absorbent capacity equal to at least about 10-times, preferably about 20-fold, and often up to 100 times their weight in water. It is obvious that the introduction of such absorbent substances in absorbent products torsemidetorsemide substance, which are commonly used in absorbent products disposable, is a largely neutralized form cross-linked polymer, such as sodium salt of crosslinked polyacrylic acid. Cross-linked polymer in the form of a salt is usually used because the ability to absorb aqueous fluids have sewn, but mostly not neutralized polymer is usually very low compared with neutralized, i.e. salt, form cross-linked polymer. However, one of the potentially beneficial aspects of the use neitralizovannom form cross-linked polymer is that this substance is able to exchange some of the cations present in urine or other body fluids, which usually hurt absorbent products disposable. On the contrary, mostly neutralized form cross-linked polymer is usually not possible to place such ion exchange.

Therefore, the aim of the present invention is the use of mainly neitralizovannom form cross-linked polymer in the absorbent article for disposable use in combination with another substance is capable of neutralizing the crosslinked polymer in situ, in the case when the urine or other liquid is ate, neitralizovannom form cross-linked polymer will contribute to reducing the content of ions in body fluids due to ion exchange. The decrease in the concentration of ions in body fluid contact with the absorbent product is disposable, is generally useful as the absorbent capacity of the crosslinked polymer usually has an inverse dependence on the concentration of ions in the liquid to be absorbed. In addition, during the synthesis, mainly neitralizovannom form cross-linked polymer is produced better cross-linked polymer mesh than in the synthesis, mainly neutralized form cross-linked polymer, since the formation of defects in the polymer network are usually minimized, which contributes to increase the absorbent capacity of cross-linked polymer. Therefore, another potential benefit of using mainly neitralizovannom form cross-linked polymer, which is neutralized in situ, in an absorbent article for disposable use, an improved fluid absorption and distribution, occurring in the absorbent product is disposable, as this can be eliminated problems caused by rapid swelling, mainly n the cross-linked polymer with a neutralization of the crosslinked polymer in situ" is the need to maintain a balanced pH-profile on the surface of the absorbent products disposable. In the neutralization process crosslinked polymer "in situ" after contact with the fluid of the body may occur temporary imbalance in pH due to differences in the rate of dissolution or ionization of a substance used to neutralize the cross-linked polymer, and the rate of diffusion of ions to neitralizovannykh areas crosslinked polymer, leading to neutralization. This time the pH imbalance can lead to undesirable alkaline pH or acidic pH in the absorbent product is disposable on the border with the skin of the user, which may cause skin irritation. Therefore, it is necessary to control the pH in the part of the absorbent product is disposable, which is in contact or in any other way is near or on the border with the skin of the wearer of the person or user. Through better regulation of pH in the part of the absorbent product is disposable, which comes into contact with, or in any other way is near or on the border with the skin of the user, the likelihood of skin irritation can be reduced.

Therefore, the aim of the present invention to provide such an absorbent structure, which absorbs a large amount of the tank structure, contains commercially available super-absorbent substance, and an absorbent structure contains mainly desirable and balanced profile of pH at or along the upper surface of the absorbent structure.

The present invention is also getting an absorbent structure containing mainly neitralizovannom form cross-linked polymer in combination with inexpensive substance, neutralizing cross-linked polymer in situ, as they can lower the total cost of the absorbent structure.

The present invention is the creation of the absorbent structure which can be manufactured in a simple way and at low cost basic substances and additives to reduce the total cost of manufacturing an absorbent structure, as well as reducing the potential harmful effects of such additives on the total absorbent properties of the absorbent structure.

The present invention, moreover, is getting the absorbent structure, exhibiting unique properties for this absorbent structure could find a new use.

According to one aspect of the present invention relates to alternova and balanced pH profile along the upper surface of the absorbent structure.

One embodiment of the present invention relates to absorbent structures intended for use in contact with her skin carries her man, when the absorbent structure has an upper surface oriented toward the skin of the wearer of the person, and the bottom surface, oriented in the direction from the skin of the wearer and the absorbent structure further contains: a) swelling in water water-insoluble polymer containing an acid functional group, and swelling in water water-insoluble polymer contains at least about 50 molar percent of the acidic functional groups in the form of the free acid; and (b) a base material; an absorbent structure has a value of Capillary Absorbency (Capacity) (a Wicking Capacity) equal to at least about 5 grams per gram of absorbent structure, and pH on the upper surface, remaining in the range from about 3 to about 8.

According to another variant embodiment of the present invention relates to absorbent structures intended for use in contact with the skin of the wearer of man, when the absorbent structure has vervenne in the direction from the skin of the wearer of the person, moreover, the absorbent structure further contains: a) swelling in water, a water-insoluble polymer containing a basic functional group, and swelling in water water-insoluble polymer contains at least about 50 molar percent of the major functional groups in free base form; and b) an acidic substance; however, the absorbent structure has a value of Capillary Absorbency (a Wicking Capacity) equal to at least about 5 grams per gram of absorbent structure, and pH on the upper surface, remaining in the range from about 3 to about 8.

According to another aspect of the present invention relates to absorbent products disposable, comprising an absorbent structure according to the present invention, which shows the desired absorbent properties and the desired value of pH.

According to another variant embodiment of the present invention the absorbent product disposable includes permeable to liquid top layer attached to the top layer opposite (rear or back) layer and disposed between the permeable for liquid top layer and back layer of the absorbent structure, import, used to determine the indicators of Free Swelling and Absorbency under Load absorbent composition.

Fig. 2 illustrates the device used to determine the Capillary Absorbency (a Wicking Capacity) absorbent structure and pH on the upper surface of the absorbent structure.

Fig. 3 illustrates the device used to determine the Rate of ionization of the substance.

In this it was discovered that can be obtained absorbent structure exhibiting a relatively high ability to absorb fluid, and keep mostly desired and balanced pH profile or on the upper surface of the absorbent structure. According to the present invention absorbent structure includes an upper surface oriented toward the skin of the wearer of the person, and the bottom surface, oriented in the direction from the skin of the wearer person. Used the term "top surface" means a surface of the absorbent structure that is designed to be worn about the body of the wearer of the person or adhering to it, while the "lower surface" is, in General, on protivopravnoye from the body of the wearer of the person, but in the direction, for example, to underwear in case of wearing absorbent structure.

The absorbent structure of the present invention typically includes at least two different components. The first component is a swelling in water of water-insoluble polymer. When used in an absorbent structure according to the present invention swelling in water water-insoluble polymer is necessary in order to obtain an absorbent structure, characterized by its ability to absorb liquid. Therefore, swelling in water water-insoluble polymer should be effective for making an absorbent structure's ability to absorb fluid in the desired degree.

Used the terms "include", "includes", "including" or similar are synonymous with the terms "comprising", "having", "containing" or "similar" and are intended to include or to apply to others, and does not exclude additional, not named components, elements or stages of the method.

Used the term "swellable water-insoluble" means a substance which under the influence of excess water swells to its equilibrium volume, but does not dissolve in the solution. Therefore, in procenti or physical structure, but in a highly expanded state and, therefore, must have sufficient physical integrity to withstand the flow and merge with the neighboring particles.

The substance in this case is considered "water-soluble" if it substantially dissolves in excess water to form a solution, losing its original shape, usually in the form of particles, and acquiring essentially molecular dispersion in aqueous solution. As a rule, water-soluble substance is free from stitching to a significant extent, because the stitching tends to give substance to the insolubility in water.

One property of swelling in water of the water-insoluble polymer that is relevant to its effectiveness to give the absorbent structure, the ability to absorb water in the desired quantity, is its molecular weight. Usually swelling in water water-insoluble polymer with a higher molecular weight has a higher ability to absorb fluid, compared with swelling in water water-insoluble polymer with a lower molecular weight.

Swelling in water water-insoluble polymer used in the absorbent structure, usually can have a wide range in the mass is often advantageous for use in the present invention. However, for use in the present invention usually is suitable for a wide range of molecular weight. Advantageously, if the swelling in water of water-insoluble polymers suitable for use in the present invention have a mass-average molecular weight of more than about 100,000, more advantageously more than about 200,000, appropriate is the mass-average molecular weight above about 500,000 and more appropriate than about 1,000,000 and up to about 10000000. Methods for determining the molecular weight of the polymer known in the art.

Sometimes it is more convenient to Express the molecular weight of polymer by viscosity of a 1.0% aqueous solution of the polymer at 25oC. Suitable for use in the present invention, the polymers have a viscosity them a 1.0% aqueous solution of the polymer at 25oWith from about 100 centipoise (100 MPaC) to about 80,000 centipoise (80000 MPaC), more suitably from about 500 centipoise (500 MPaC) to about 80,000 centipoise (80000 MPaC) and most suitably from about 1000 centipoise (1000 MPaC) to about 80,000 centipoise (80000 MPaC).

Used in absorber the novena should be more than the minimum extent which is sufficient to give the polymer vodorastvorimostew, but less than the maximum degree of crosslinking, in which the polymer retains sufficient swelling ability in water for swelling in water water-insoluble polymer has absorbed the desired amount of liquid.

Cross-linking of polymer commonly can be achieved by any of the two different types of cross-linking agents. The first type of crosslinking agent is a crosslinking agent capable of polymerization. Suitable polymerizable cross-linking agents are typically crosslinking agents reactive with respect to the monomer or monomers used in the preparation of the polymer and, therefore, usually containing at least two functional groups capable of interaction with the monomers. Examples of suitable polymerizable cross-linking agents include Ethylenediamine monomers, such as N, N'-methylenebisacrylamide in the case of free radical polymerization and polyamine or polyols in the case of the condensation polymerization.

The second type of cross-linking agent is a latent crosslinking agent. Latent crosslinking agents commonly can be either polymerizable or depolymerizes. Will depolymerize which are reactive with respect to the polymer later at that time, when the conditions necessary for the process of cross-linking. Polymerizable cross-linking agents, on the contrary, participate in the overall polymerization process, but usually do not cause intramolecular crosslinking. Intramolecular cross-linking usually occurs only later, when the creation of the conditions required for cross-linking. Suitable for subsequent processing conditions include heat treatment, such as at temperatures above about 60oWith the irradiation of ultraviolet rays, microwave radiation, and steaming or in high humidity conditions, processing at high pressure or with an organic solvent.

Suitable for use in the present invention latent depolymerizes crosslinking agents are typically water-soluble. Suitable latent depolymerizes cross-linking agent is an organic compound containing at least two functional groups or functionalities capable of interaction with carboxy, carboxyl, amino or hydroxyl groups of the polymer. Examples of suitable latent depolymerizes cross-linking agents include, but are not limited to, diamines, polyamine, diols, polyols,with metal ions with more than two positive charges, such as trivalent cations of aluminum, iron, and cerium (Al3+, Fe3+CE3+and tetravalent cerium, titanium and zirconium (Ce4+, Ti4+, Zr4+) and trivalent chromium (CR3+).

In the case where the polymer is a cationic polymer, a suitable latent depolymerizes cross-linking agent is a polyanionic substance, such as sodium polyacrylate, carboxymethylcellulose or polyphosphates.

Suitable for use in the present invention latent polymerizable cross-linking agents are typically water-soluble and reactive with respect to the monomer or monomers used to obtain the swelling in water of the water-insoluble polymer. Latent polymerizable crosslinking agents typically contain at least one functional group or functionality capable of interacting with the monomer or monomers, and at least one functional group or functionality capable of interacting with any carboxy, carboxyl, amino or hydroxyl groups of the polymer. Examples of suitable latent polymerizable cross-linking agents include, but are not limited vinyl ether of ethylene glycol, VI is the ACLs to one of the variants of the embodiment of the present invention used in the absorbent structure of swelling in water of water-insoluble polymer is inherently acidic. Used the term "sour" substance refers to a substance acting as the electron acceptor and showing in aqueous solution pH in the range from about 0 to 7. Accordingly, the pH is measured at a temperature of approximately 25oC. Methods of measuring the pH of aqueous solution is well known in the art.

Commonly used in absorbent structure sour swelling in water of water-insoluble polymers can be inherently either strongly acidic or weakly acidic. Strongly acidic swelling in water water-insoluble polymer usually shows a pKa less than about 2. Slightly swellable in water water-insoluble polymer usually shows a pKa of more than about 2. Therefore, used in the absorbent structure sour swelling in water of water-insoluble polymers can show a wide range of pKa values, but is beneficial if they have a pKa in the range from about 2 to about 12, more advantageously in the range from about 2 to about 10, and suitably in the range from about 3 to about 7. The person skilled in the art it is clear that mononova acid usually has a single value of pKa, while polybasic acids typically have multiple values of RCA. Unless otherwise indicated, the indication of smarati RCA monomer or monomers, used to obtain the polymer. Although the pKa value of the monomer or monomers and polymers derived from these monomers may be non-identical, but these pKa value should be essentially similar. Therefore, used in the absorbent structure sour swelling in water of water-insoluble polymers can be derived from a single monomer or mixture of monomers, having a wide range of pKa values, however, advantageous if such monomers have a pKa value in the range from about 0 to about 12, more advantageously in the range from about 2 to about 10, and suitably in the range from about 2 to about 7.

Index pKa of the acid characterizes the degree of dissociation or, in other words, a strong acid and should be measured in terms such as a certain temperature at which swelling in water water-insoluble polymer used. Accordingly, the RCA is measured at a temperature of 25oC. Usually, the weaker the acid, the higher the value of the RCA. Values of the index of RCA for many acids at different temperatures is well known and can be found in any of the many available sources such as the CRC Handbook of Chemistry & Physics 75thEdition, edited by David R. Lide, CRC Press (1994).

Suitable as acid. Such functional groups include, but are not limited to, carboxyl group, sulfopropyl, sulfate groups, sulfite groups, and phosphate groups. Suitable functional groups are carboxyl groups. Typically, the functional group associated with crosslinked core polymer. Suitable basic polymers include polyacrylamides, polyvinyl alcohols, ethylene copolymer with maleic anhydride, polyvinyl ethers, polyaryletheretherketone, polyacrylic acid, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyvinylchoride and copolymers of the foregoing polymers. Can also be used natural polymers based on polysaccharides, including carboxymethylcellulose, carboximetilkrahmala, hydroxypropylcellulose, algina, alginates, carragenan, grafted acrylic copolymers of starch grafted acrylic copolymers of cellulose and copolymers of the foregoing polymers. Can also be used synthetic polypeptides, such as poliasparaginovaya acid and polyglutamine acid.

It is usually necessary to acidic swelling in water water-insoluble polymer was in the form of the free acid. Is usually desirable and wygodnie acid functional groups in the form of the free acid, more advantageously at least about 70 molar percent is appropriate, at least about 80 molar percent, more appropriate, at least about 90 molar percent, and most appropriate, essentially, about 100 molar percent. Then, in the alternative, the acid swelling in water water-insoluble polymer should not be substantially neutralized when used in an absorbent structure according to the invention. In General, it is desirable and advantageous to acidic swelling in water water-insoluble polymer had a degree of neutralization of the acid functional groups of less than about 50 molar percent, more beneficially less than about 30 molar percent, suitable is less than about 20 molar percent, more suitable is less than about 10 molar percent, and most appropriate, essentially, about 0 molar percent.

Commercially available superabsorbents are usually, basically neutralized or salt form. This is because, typically, to achieve a relatively high ability to absorb fluid swelling in water water-insoluble polymer must be an electrolyte. However, as already mentioned, used, p is the free acid. Therefore, such acidic swelling in water of water-insoluble polymers in the form of the free acid, in the main, do not in themselves have a relatively high ability to absorb liquid.

However, according to the present invention it was found that in the case when such acidic swelling in water water-insoluble polymer, which is essentially in the form of the free acid, are combined or mixed with the second core, the substance, the resulting combination or mixture detects a relatively high ability to absorb fluid. It is assumed that this is because when you place the mixture in an aqueous solution of acid swelling in water water-insoluble polymer, which is essentially in the form of the free acid, interacts with the second core, substance, and chemical equilibrium of this reaction is shifted in the direction of turning sour swelling in water water-insoluble polymer from the form of the free acid to the corresponding salt form. Therefore, this mixture comprising essentially neutralized swelling in water water-insoluble polymer is in this case to detect a relatively high ability to absorb fluid. The l is adequate salt form in solution, containing electrolyte such as an aqueous solution of sodium chloride or urea, can have a significant demineralizing effect on the solution containing the electrolyte, improving, thanks to the characteristics of the absorbing liquid mixture comprising swelling in water water-insoluble polymer, due to the mitigation of any harmful salt exposure.

According to other variant embodiments of the invention used in the absorbent structure of swelling in water of water-insoluble polymer is inherently main. Used the term "basic" substance refers to a substance that can function as an electron donor and shows in aqueous solution pH in the range from 7 to about 14. Accordingly, the value of pH is determined at a temperature of 25oC. Methods for measuring pH are known in the art.

In General, used in the absorbent structure major swelling in water of water-insoluble polymers can be inherently either strong or weakly basic. Usually the main swelling in water water-insoluble polymer, which is strong, shows a pKa above about 12. Major swelling in water vodone ispolzuemye in the absorbent structure major swelling in water of water-insoluble polymers can show a wide range of pKa values, however it is advantageous if they have a pKa value in the range from about 2 to about 14, more advantageously in the range from about 4 to about 12 and is appropriate pKa value in the range from about 7 to about 11. To a person skilled in the art will understand that oneonone base usually has a single value of pKa, while polybasic grounds have many values of RCA. Unless otherwise indicated, the indication of the indicator RCA polybasic base refers to the indicator pKa1polybasic Foundation.

In some cases it is more convenient to measure the pKa of the monomer or monomers used for obtaining the polymer. Despite the fact that the pKa value of the monomer or monomers and derived from such monomers of the polymer may be non-identical, however, such pKa value should be essentially similar. Thus, used in the absorbent structure major swelling in water of water-insoluble polymers can be derived from a single monomer or mixture of monomers, having a wide range of pKa values, but it is profitable, if such monomers have a pKa value in the range from about 2 to about 14, more advantageously in the range from about 4 to about 12 and was the tion or in other words, force base and should be measured in terms such as a certain temperature at which swelling in water water-insoluble polymer used. Accordingly, the RCA is measured at a temperature of approximately 25oC. Usually, the weaker the base, the lower the pKa value. The pKa values for many reasons at different temperatures are well known and can be found in any of the many available sources such as the CRC Handbook of Chemistry & Physics 75thEdition, edited by David R. Lide, CRC Press (1994).

Suitable basic swelling in water of water-insoluble polymers contain functional groups that can act as bases. Such functional groups include, but are not limited to, primary, secondary, tertiary amino groups, aminogroup, imagegroup, aminogroup and Quaternary ammonium groups. Suitable functional groups are primary amino groups and Quaternary ammonium groups. Typically, the functional group associated with crosslinked core polymer. Suitable basic polymers include polyamine, polyethyleneimine, polyacrylamides, hydroxide of polydiallyldimethyl and Quaternary ammonium prisoedinenia, and their copolymers. Can also be used PR is a mini polypeptides, such as polyanaline, polyglutamine, polylysine and polyalanine.

Typically requires that the main swelling in water water-insoluble polymer was in the form of a free base. In the General case, it is desirable and beneficial that the primary swelling in water water-insoluble polymer contains at least about 50 molar percent of the major functional groups in free base form, more advantageously at least about 70 molar percent is appropriate, at least about 80 molar percent, more suitable at least about 90 molar percent, and most suitable about 100 molar percent. Then, in the alternative, the primary swelling in water water-insoluble polymer should not be substantially neutralized when used in an absorbent structure according to the present invention. In General, it is desirable and beneficial that the primary swelling in water water-insoluble polymer had a degree of neutralization of the basic functional group of less than about 50 molar percent, more beneficially less than about 30 molar percent, is suitable degree of neutralization of less than about 20 molar percent, more than the clients.

Commercially available superabsorbents are usually, basically neutralized or salt form. This is because, in General, to achieve a relatively high ability to absorb fluid swelling in water water-insoluble polymer should be a polyelectrolyte. However, as already noted, used according to the present invention the main swelling in water of water-insoluble polymers are essentially in free base form. Therefore, these major swelling in water of water-insoluble polymers in the free base form does not have a relatively high ability to absorb liquid.

However, according to the present invention it was found that the combination or mixture of such principal of swelling in water of the water-insoluble polymer with a second acidic substance, the resulting combination or mixture exhibits a relatively high ability to absorb fluid. It is assumed that this is because when you place this mixture in aqueous solution are essentially in free base form of the main swelling in water water-insoluble polymer that interacts with the second acid is abucheusage in water water-insoluble polymer from the form of the free base to the corresponding salt form. Therefore, this mixture comprising essentially neutralized swelling in water water-insoluble polymer is in this case to detect a relatively high ability to absorb fluid. Additionally, the transformation of swelling in water of the water-insoluble polymer from its form of the free base to the corresponding salt form in solution containing an electrolyte such as an aqueous solution of sodium chloride or urea, can have a significant demineralizing effect on the solution containing the electrolyte, improving thanks to this characteristics is able to absorb liquid mixture comprising swelling in water water-insoluble polymer, due to the mitigation of any harmful salt exposure.

In contrast to the above, it was found that one single substance or a polymer containing both acidic and basic functional groups in their molecular structure, do not detect the above-described desired absorbent properties. It is assumed that this is due to the fact that such acidic and basic functional groups within a single molecular structure usually interact with each other and can lead to excessively crosslinked (parassiti) is the invention by obtaining the copolymer of the acidic and basic monomers or by preparation of dispersion at the molecular level, such as in an aqueous solution of water-soluble acidic and basic substances, because in the process of such copolymerization or dispersion at the molecular level of acidic and basic substances usually interact with each other and are stitched together.

Acidic or basic swelling in water water-insoluble polymer can be generally used in the absorbent structure in various forms. Examples of such forms of acidic or basic swelling in water water-insoluble polymer may be particles, flakes, fibers, films and nonwoven materials. When using an absorbent structure in absorbent products disposable is usually desirable that the acidic or basic swelling in water water-insoluble polymer was in the form of discrete particles, fibers or flakes, dispersed in a fibrous matrix. In the case when the polymer is in the form of particles, is usually desirable and advantageous that the particle had a maximum transverse dimension in the range from about 50 microns to about 2000 microns, is suitable size in the range from about 100 microns to about 1000 microns and more appropriate size in the range from about 300 microns to about 600 microns.

In the case where the first component is swelling in water water-insoluble polymer, the second component, intended for use in the absorbent structure of the present invention, is the main substance. Used the term "basic" substance refers to a substance that can act as an electron donor and is in aqueous solution pH in the range from 7 to about 14. Accordingly, the pH is measured at a temperature of approximately 25oC. Examples of suitable second basic substances include, but are not limited to, polymeric base materials, such as polyamine, polyimide, polyamides, Quaternary ammonium prisoedinenia, chitina, chitosans, polyasparaginic, polyglutamine, polylysine and polyalanine; organic basic substances, such as organic salts, such as sodium citrate, and aliphatic and aromatic amines, imine and amides; and inorganic bases such as metal oxides, for example, calcium oxide and aluminum oxide; hydroxides such as barium hydroxide; salts such as sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate and calcium carbonate, and mixtures thereof. Usually the second base material may be either a strong base or weak base. However, found that the strength of basicity of the second major substances potentially affect the speed of abso relatively strong basicity, shows a relatively high rate of absorption compared to an absorbent structure comprising a second base material with a relatively weaker basicity.

Usually used in the absorbent structure, the second basic substances in nature can be either strong or weakly basic. Usually the second base material, which is strong, shows the value of pKa of more than about 12. The second base material, which is a weak base, generally shows the value of pKa of less than 12. Thus, used in the absorbent structure, the second basic substance can have a wide range of pKa values, but is best when they have a pKa value in the range from about 4 to about 14, more profitable in the range from about 5 to about 14, and is appropriate when they have a pKa value in the range from about 8 to about 14.

According to one advantageous embodiment variants of the present invention, the second base material may also be a swelling in water of water-insoluble polymer. In this case, as the acid swelling in water water-insoluble polymer and the second main swelling in water of water-insoluble polymeric substance both can icpna achievement due to this higher total absorbent capacity of the structure to absorb the liquid as compared with the second base substance, non-swelling in water water-insoluble polymer.

Sometimes it is more convenient to measure the pKa of the monomer or monomers used for obtaining the polymer. Despite the fact that the pKa value of the monomer or monomers and polymers derived from these monomers are not identical, however, such pKa value should essentially be similar. Thus, used in the absorbent structure major swelling in water of water-insoluble polymers can be derived from a single monomer or combination of monomers, showing a wide range of pKa values, but it is profitable, so they have a pKa value in the range from about 4 to about 14, more profitable - in the range of from about 5 to about 14, and is suitable if they have a pKa value in the range from about 8 to about 14.

Figure RCA grounds characterizes the degree of dissociation or, in other words, the power of reason and should be measured in the same conditions, such as a certain temperature at which use of the base. Accordingly, the RCA is measured at a temperature of approximately 25oC. Usually, the weaker the base, the lower the pKa value. The pKa value for many reasons at different temperatures ited by David R. Lide, CRC Press (1994).

Suitable base materials contain functional groups that can act as bases. Such functional groups include, but are not limited to, primary, secondary or tertiary amino group, aminogroup, aminogroup and aminogroup. Suitable functional groups are amino groups. In the case where the second main ingredient is swelling in water water-insoluble polymer, the functional groups are typically associated with the main cross-linked polymer. Suitable basic polymers include polyamine, polyimide, polyamides, Quaternary ammonium prisoedinenia and their copolymers. Can also be used natural polymers based on polysaccharides, such as chitin and chitosan. Additionally, there may be used synthetic polypeptides, such as polyasparaginic, polyglutamine, polylysine and polyalanine.

It is usually necessary to swelling in water water-insoluble polymer was in the form of a free base. In the General case, it is desirable and beneficial that the primary swelling in water water-insoluble polymer contains at least about 50 molar percent of the major functional groups in the form of free what it contains, at least about 80 molar percent of the major functional groups in free base form, more appropriate, at least about 90 molar percent, and most appropriate to about 100 molar percent. Further, alternatively, the primary swelling in water water-insoluble polymer should be essentially neutralized when used in an absorbent structure according to the present invention. Basically, is desirable and advantageous that the primary swelling in water water-insoluble polymer had a degree of neutralization of the basic functional group of less than about 50 molar percent, more profitable or less to about 30 molar percent, is appropriate degree of neutralization of less than about 20 molar percent, more suitable is less than about 10 molar percent, and most suitable about 0 molar percent.

In the case where the first component, intended for use in an absorbent structure according to the present invention, is a major swelling in water water-insoluble polymer, a second component, intended for use in an absorbent structure according to the present invention, should be acidic in the of aptara electrons and shows in aqueous solution the pH value in the range from about 0 to 7. Accordingly, the pH is measured at 25oC.

Examples of suitable second acidic substances include, but are not limited to) the polymer of acidic substances, such as polyacrylic acid, primulina acid, carboxymethylcellulose, alginic acid, poliasparaginovaya acid and polyglutamine acid; organic acidic substances, such as aliphatic and aromatic acids, such as citric acid, glutamic acid and aspartic acid; inorganic acids, such as metal oxides, such as alumina; salts such as ferric chloride, calcium chloride and zinc chloride, and mixtures thereof. The second acidic substance can usually be either a strong acid or a weak acid. However, we discovered that the pH of the second acidic substances potentially affect the speed of absorption of the liquid absorbent structure. Typically, the absorbent structure comprising relatively more strongly acidic second acidic substance, manifests a relatively high speed fluid absorption compared to an absorbent structure comprising a relatively weak acid, the second acid substance.

Usually used in the absorbent structure of the second kolsto, which is a strong acid has a pKa value less than about 2. The second acidic substance, which is slightly acidic, typically has a pKa value of more than about 2. Thus, the second acidic substance used in the absorbent structure may have a wide range of pKa values, however it is advantageous if they have a pKa value in the range from about 0 to about 12, more advantageously in the range from about 0 to about 10 and is suitable pKa value in the range from about 3 to about 7.

According to one of embodiments of the present invention is advantageous when the second acidic substance may also be a swelling in water of water-insoluble polymer. In this case, as the primary swelling in water water-insoluble polymer and a second acidic swelling in water of water-insoluble polymeric substance both can be used to increase the overall ability of the absorbent structure to absorb fluid, potentially achieving a higher total absorbent capacity of the structure to absorb the liquid as compared with the second acidic substances, non-swelling in water water-insoluble polymer.

In some cases it is more convenient to measure the RCA m the monomer and polymer, derived from such monomers may be non-identical, however, such pKa value should essentially be similar. Thus, acid swelling in water of water-insoluble polymers used in the absorbent structure according to the invention can be derived from a single monomer or combination of monomers, having a wide range of pKa values, however it is advantageous if they have a pKa value in the range from about 0 to about 12, more advantageously in the range from about 2 to about 10 and suitable is the value of pKa in the range from about 3 to about 7.

Index pKa of the acid characterizes the degree of dissociation or, in other words, a strong acid and should be measured in such conditions (for example, at a certain temperature) at which this acid is used. Accordingly, the RCA is measured at a temperature of approximately 25oC. Generally, the weaker the acid, the higher the value of the RCA. The pKa value for many acids at different temperatures are well known and can be found in any of the many available sources such as the CRC Handbook of Chemistry & Physics 75thEdition, edited by David R. Lide, CRC Press (1994).

Suitable second acidic substances include functional groups capable of acting as kislay, sulfate groups, sulfite groups, and phosphate groups. Suitable functional groups are carboxyl groups. In the case when the second acidic substance is a swelling in water of water-insoluble polymer, a functional group typically associated with stitched main polymer. Suitable basic polymers include polyacrylamides, polyvinyl alcohols, ethylene copolymer with maleic anhydride, polyvinyl ethers, polyaryletheretherketone, polyacrylic acid, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyvinylchoride and copolymers of the foregoing polymers. Can also be used natural polymers based on polysaccharides, including carboxymethylcellulose, carboximetilkrahmala, hydroxypropylcellulose, algina, alginates, carrageenate, grafted acrylic copolymers of starch grafted acrylic copolymers of cellulose and copolymers of the foregoing polymers. Can also be used synthetic polypeptides, such as poliasparaginovaya acid and polyglutamine acid.

Acidic swelling in water of water-insoluble polymers should generally be in the form of the free acid. Usually it is desirable and beneficial to the entire functional groups in the form of the free acid, more profitable, at least about 70 molar percent, a suitable content is at least 80 molar percent, and more appropriate, at least about 90 molar percent, and most appropriate to about 100 molar percent. In addition, in the alternative, when used in an absorbent structure according to the invention the acid swelling in water water-insoluble polymer should be essentially neutralized. Basically, is desirable and advantageous to acidic swelling in water water-insoluble polymer had a degree of neutralization of the acid functional groups of less than about 50 molar percent, more profitable or less to about 30 molar percent, is suitable degree of neutralization of less than about 20 molar percent, more suitable is less than about 10 molar percent, and most appropriate, essentially, about 0 molar percent.

Second, basic or acidic substance can be generally used in the absorbent structure in various forms. Examples of forms that can take the second basic or acidic substance include solid particles, flakes, fibers, films and nonwoven structures. When using absorbent structure in absorbers who was in the form of discrete particles, fibers or flakes in a fibrous matrix. When it is in the form of particles, it is usually desirable and advantageous, so that the particles have a maximum cross-sectional dimension in the range from about 50 microns to about 2000 microns, is appropriate in size from about 100 microns to about 1000 microns, and most appropriate, from about 300 microns to about 600 microns. The combination of acidic swelling in water water-insoluble polymer and the second basic substance or major swelling in water water-insoluble polymer and a second acidic substances may also be in the form of a bicomponent fiber in which one component is acidic or basic swelling in water water-insoluble polymer and the other component is the second basic or acidic substance. Such bicomponent fibers may be bicomponent fiber type "side by side" or type "core - shell". Such bicomponent fibers can be obtained by known methods, such as co-extrusion.

Usually acidic swelling in water water-insoluble polymer, essentially in the form of the free acid is mixed with the second main substance in the absorbent structure in such a molar ratio, respectively, acidic and basic f is regular and pH values. It is advantageous, when the molar ratio of acid swelling in water water-insoluble polymer to the second base material is from about 10:1 to about 1: 10, is appropriate ratio from about 4:1 to about 1:4, more suitable from about 2:1 to about 1:2 and most suitable from about 1:1.

Usually the main swelling in water water-insoluble polymer, essentially in the form of a free base is mixed with a second acidic substance in the absorbent structure in such a molar ratio, respectively, basic and acidic functionalities, which is sufficient to obtain an absorbent structure with the desired absorbent properties and pH values. It is advantageous, when the molar ratio of the primary swelling in water water-insoluble polymer to the second acidic substance is from about 10:1 to about 1: 10, is appropriate ratio from about 4:1 to about 1:4, more suitable from about 2:1 to about 1:2 and most suitable from about 1:1.

According to one variant embodiment of the present invention the acidic or basic swelling in water water-insoluble polymer and the second basic or acidic substance are mixed together to obtain an absorbent composition. the second basic or acidic substance, has the ability to absorb fluid, called here the Free Swelling (SN). Method for determination of Free Swell below together with examples. Given the parameters of Free Swelling, defined as described below, expressing the amount of aqueous solution in grams, containing 0.9 wt.% sodium chloride, which can absorb one gram of a substance within about 10 hours, under a minor load of about 0.01 pounds per square inch (lb/in2). Generally, it is desirable that the absorbent composition has a value of Free Swelling under a load of about 0.01 lb/in2at least about 15, the best value is at least about 20, a suitable value is at least about 25 and up to about 200 g per one gram.

Is useful when the absorbent composition comprising an acidic or basic swelling in water water-insoluble polymer and the second basic or acidic substance, also has the ability to absorb a liquid under conditions when it is under the action of external pressure or load, referred to here as the Absorbency under Load (VSN). How to barbituate fluid under pressure, when introducing them in absorbent products reduce the likelihood of gel-blocking. The method of determining the Absorbency under Load below together with examples. Given the parameters of the Absorption Capacity under Load, defined as described below, expressing the amount in grams of an aqueous solution containing 0.9 wt.% sodium chloride, which can absorb one gram of the substance for about 10 hours under a load of about 0.3 pound per square inch (lb/in2). Generally, it is desirable that the absorbent composition possessed a measure of the Absorption Capacity under Load at a load of about 0.3 pound/inch2at least about 15, more advantageous is the value of this indicator, at least about 20, suited is the value of this indicator, at least about 25 and up to about 100 grams per gram.

According to one variant embodiment of the present invention is advantageous when the absorbent composition comprising an acidic or basic swelling in water water-insoluble polymer and the second basic or acidic a substance that has the ability to relatively slow to absorb the liquid. Found that used pKa less than about 2, or use the main swelling in water of water-insoluble polymers, which is strong and has index pKa of more than about 12, usually results in absorbent compositions, which typically do not show desired fluid absorption rate is low. Found that the use of acidic swelling in water of water-insoluble polymers, which is too acid and having an indicator pKa of more than about 12 or major swelling in water of water-insoluble polymers, which are weakly basic and possessing an indicator of pKa less than about 2, usually results in absorbent compositions, which, as a rule, do not possess the desired ability to absorb fluid. Obtain an absorbent composition comprising according to one variant embodiment of the present invention sour swelling in water water-insoluble polymer and the second base material or according to other variant embodiments of the present invention the primary swelling in water water-insoluble polymer and a second acidic substance and preferably with the ability to relatively slow to absorb fluid, described in the simultaneously filed application on the u characteristic velocity, with which the absorbent composition absorbs the liquid, is called here the Time to Reach 60 percent of the value of the Capacity (Ability) of Free Swelling. The method of determining the Time to Reach 60 percent of the value of the Capacity (Ability) of Free Swelling below together with examples. See figure a Time to Reach 60 percent of the value of the Capacity (Ability) of Free Swelling, defined as described below, expresses the time in minutes required for absorption of about 60 percent of the liquid from the value of total absorption capacity (ability) absorbent composition represented by the average Free Swelling absorbent composition. According to one embodiments of the invention, it is desirable that the absorbent composition according to the present invention had the measure of the Time to Reach 60 percent of the value of the Capacity (Ability) of Free Swelling of at least about 5 minutes, is the best value of this index in the range from about 5 minutes to about 300 minutes, more profitable - in the range of from about 10 minutes to about 200 minutes, appropriate is the indicator value in the range from about 20 minutes to about 100 minutes or more p is placed absorbent composition of the present invention also has the ability relatively slowly to absorb the liquid under the influence of external pressure or load. Quantitative characteristic of the speed with which the absorbent composition absorbs the liquid under the influence of external pressure or load, is called here the Time to Reach 60 percent of the value of Absorptive Capacity (Ability) under Load. The method of determining the rate for the Time to Reach 60 percent of the value of Absorptive Capacity (Ability) under Load is described below in conjunction with examples. See figure a Time to Reach 60 percent of the value of Absorptive Capacity (Ability) under Load, which is determined as described below, expresses the time in minutes required for the absorption of the absorbent composition liquid in an amount of about 60 percent of the total absorption capacity of the absorbent composition under the influence of external pressure or load, represented by the indicator absorbent composition (Ability) under Load. In that embodiment of the invention, it is desirable that the absorbent composition had the measure of the Time to Reach 60 percent of the value of Absorptive Capacity (Ability) under Load of at least about 5 minutes, is the best index in the range from about 5 minutes to about 300 minutes, more profitable Colo 100 minutes and more appropriate - in the range from about 30 minutes to about 60 minutes.

In this study it was found that despite the fact that the absorbent structure, comprising according to one embodiments of the invention the acidic swelling in water water-insoluble polymer and the second base material or including according to another variant embodiment of the invention the primary swelling in water water-insoluble polymer and a second acidic substance may be desired ability to absorb fluid, however, in case of too big differences in the dissociation constants of acidic or basic swelling in water water-insoluble polymer and the second basic or acidic substances or too large differences in solubility and dispersive ability of the pigment in the aqueous solution acidic or basic swelling in water water-insoluble polymer and the second of the basic or acidic substance is set sufficiently large temporary imbalance in the number of dissociated ions of acidic or basic swelling in water water-insoluble polymer and the second of the basic or acidic substance that causes temporary pH imbalance, leading, in turn, to the fact that the absorbent structure exhibits were absorbent structure, especially in its upper surface or the upper surface oriented toward the skin of the wearer of the person or user reaches a too high or a low value, such absorbent structure can lead to skin irritation from wearing her person or user or to increase the likelihood of this. Therefore, it is desirable that the upper surface of the absorbent structure, oriented toward the skin of the wearer man, remained essentially desirable and balanced pH profile during her socks or use.

Usually is desirable and advantageous that the upper surface of the absorbent structure, oriented toward the skin of the wearer of a person, typically along the entire length and width of the upper surface of the absorbent structure, showed a pH value that ranges from about 3 to about 8, more profitable is the pH value, remaining in the range from about 4 to about 7, and is suitable pH value, remaining in the range from about 5 to about 6.

As mentioned above, it was found that the imbalance in the number of dissociated ions of acidic or basic swelling in water vodorastvorimoe what teristically relevant substances. First, too much difference in the dissociation constants of acidic or basic swelling in water water-insoluble polymer and the second basic or acidic substances can lead to undesirable values of pH of the absorbent structure. This situation may arise, for example, when using a strong acid or strong base of swelling in water of the water-insoluble polymer or, alternatively, when using a weakly acidic or weakly basic swelling in water water-insoluble polymer and a second strong base or strong acid substance. Usually strong acid or strong base substance is able to achieve a more complete ionization in aqueous solution, while weakly acidic or weakly basic substance can typically achieve only partial ionization in aqueous solution.

Secondly, too much of a difference in solubility or dispersive ability of the pigment in the aqueous solution acidic or basic swelling in water water-insoluble polymer and the second basic or acidic substances can also lead to undesirable values of pH of the absorbent structure. In this case, more soluble or better dispersible substance can more quickly on trebuetsya more time to achieve equilibrium in the ionization process.

Therefore, differences in the dissociation constants and solubility or dispersive ability of the pigment acidic or basic component can lead to an imbalance of the pH. To measure the quantitative estimation of the magnitude of this imbalance has been developed a method of measuring the velocity of ionization of acidic and basic components. The ionization rate of the component, as described here, due to a combination of several factors, such as the dissociation constant and the rate of solubility or dispersive ability of the pigment component, the content of ions in the liquid, in which the component, and other conditions of use. By measuring ionization velocity component, it has become possible to develop ways to minimize the imbalance in the pH of the absorbent structure and to lead them to usually acceptable for healthy skin limits. To achieve a balanced pH on the surface of the absorbent structure can be used in different physical approaches that do not require additional chemicals, such as buffer agents. Below are examples of some physical approaches that can be used to solve the maintenance of the pH at the surface of the pH is balancing speed of ionization of acidic and basic components through the use of acidic and basic components with appropriate limits of particle sizes. The particle size of the component is usually in inverse proportion to the magnitude of the surface area of the component. Therefore, the use of particles smaller component with a relatively lower ionization rate usually leads to the availability of liquid greater surface area of this component. Because dissolution and ionization of the component occurs only in conditions of contact of the component with the liquid, providing greater surface area for contact of the component with a liquid usually provides a higher ionization rate component. This approach to the problem component with a relatively higher ionization rate will have particles of relatively large size compared with the size of the particles of the component with a relatively lower ionization rate. This approach allows through careful selection of the particle size of the acidic and basic components intended for use in an absorbent structure, to effectively match the speed of ionization of acidic and basic components, whereby usually achieved balanced pH profile, especially on the upper surface of the absorbent with the other approaches, for example through the use of components having a different shape or morphology.

It was found that another approach to effectively balance the ionization rate of the various components, is applied on the surface of acidic and/or basic components of the coating of another material or encapsulating other substance on the surface of acidic and/or basic components. Due to the generated due to covering or encapsulating substances diffusion barrier by coating from a component or encapsulating component ionization rate of this component can usually be reduced. For example, this approach can be used for coating of the component or encapsulating component having a relatively high ionization rate, for giving such a component compatibility with the component that has a relatively lower ionization rate.

Another approach is found physical separation of acidic and basic components to ensure the maintenance of the pH on the surface of the absorbent structure in the desired range. Examples of this approach may include (but are not limited to the structure. Usually this approach ensures that the strategic placement of components, in which ions of a component with a relatively higher ionization rate would require a longer time to reach the upper surface of the absorbent structure, and component ions with relatively low ionization rate would require a shorter time. It maintains the pH at the upper surface of the absorbent structure in the desired range.

Another approach is found using the acid component consisting of a mixture of acidic substances different speeds ionization. For example, there may be used such a mixture of particles of polyacrylic acid with different degrees of neutralization, in which the resultant ionization rate of the mixture effectively corresponds to the rate of ionization used the second main component. This approach can also be implemented with the use of substances with a structure of "core - shell", in which the substance of the core and shell have different degrees of neutralization. A similar approach can be applied to the basic component.

According to one of embodiments of the present invention in absorbed used herein, the term "buffering agent" means a chemical or substance or the appropriate acid or base such substance or substances possessing a pKa value in the range from about 2 to about 10. The presence of a buffering agent in an aqueous solution usually leads to the fact that this solution detects only minor changes in the magnitude of the pH when added to the solution of acid or base. Therefore, such a buffer agent minimizes changes in the concentration of hydrogen ions in aqueous solution, which otherwise would tend to occur due to imbalance in the ionization of any acid or base present in the aqueous solution.

The choice of effective buffer agent in the present invention generally depends on the strength and solubility of each of the acidic or basic swelling in water water-insoluble polymer or the second basic or acidic substance used in the absorbent structure. For example, in the case where acidic swelling in water water-insoluble polymer is a weak acid, and the second base material is strong, but either soluble or insoluble, it is usually necessary to buffer agent would be acidic buffering agent. In the same case, when the acid swelling in water water-insoluble polymer is a weak acid, and the second base material - slugga same acidic swelling in water water-insoluble polymer is strongly acidic, and the second base material is weakly basic and insoluble, in this case, a buffer agent should usually be the main buffer agent. When the primary swelling in water water-insoluble polymer is weakly basic, and the second acidic substance is a strong acid, but either soluble or insoluble, in this case usually requires a buffer agent was the main buffer agent. If the primary swelling in water water-insoluble polymer is weakly basic, and the second acidic substance is a weak acid and a soluble, it is usually necessary to buffer agent would be the main buffer agent. In the same case, when the main swelling in water water-insoluble polymer is strong, and the second acidic substance is a weak acid and insoluble, it is usually required that the buffer agent represented an acidic buffering agent.

When used as a buffering agent, a single acid or a single base region of the buffer action of such a buffer agent is usually in the area of approximately one unit of pH on either side of the pKa value of this buffer agent. For example, citric acid has a pKa valueAmmonia has a pKa value of about 9.2 and usually results in a buffer solution with a pH in the range from about 8.2 to about 10,2. When the content in the molecule two or more acidic or basic groups or by using a mixture of more buffer agents area pH buffer solution usually increases. For example, a mixture of citric acid and dibasic phosphate forms a buffer solution with pH value in the range from about 2.2 to about 8.0 in. As another example, a mixture of nonoonono potassium phosphate and dibasic phosphate forms a buffer solution with a pH in the range from about 6.1 to about 7.5. According to the following example a mixture of sodium hydroxide and dibasic phosphate forms a buffer solution with a pH in the range from about 11.0 to about 12.0.

In the case where the present invention it is desirable to use acid buffer agent, a suitable buffer agents are usually acids or salts of such acids having a pKa in the range from about 2 to about 7. Such acids include (but are not limited to aspartic acid (pKai about 3.86), ascorbic acid (pKa1about 4,10), Chloroacetic acid (pKa around 2.85),-Harmelen acid has a pKa of about 4,05), CIS-cinnamic acid has a pKa of about 3,89), citric acid (pKa1about 3,14), OTU (has RCA1about or 4.31), taconova acid (pKa1about 3,85), lactic acid (pKa about is 3.08), malic acid (pKa1about 3,40), malonic acid (pKa1about 2,83), o-phthalic acid (pKa1about 2,89), succinic acid (pKa1about 4,16),-tartaric acid (pKa1about 2,89) and phosphoric acid (pKa1about 2,12).

In the case where the present invention it is desirable to use a basic buffering agent, suitable buffering agents are generally a base or salts of such bases having a pKa in the range from about 5 to about 10. Such grounds include, but are not limited to)-alanine (has a pKa of about 9,87), allantoin (has RCA1about 8,96), cysteine (pKa 7,85), cystine (has RCA 7,85), dimethylglycine (has a pKa of about 9,89), histidine (pKa about 9,17), glycine (pKa about 9,78), chitosan (pKa of about 7), N-(2-acetamido)-2-aminobutanol acid has a pKa of about 6.8), Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethan (has a pKa of about 8,1), theobromine (has a pKa of about 7,89) and tyrosine (has a pKa of about 8,40).

Usually the buffer agent may be used in the absorbent structure in various forms. PR is ctory. When using an absorbent structure in absorbent products disposable, it is often desirable to buffer the agent was in the form of discrete particles, fibers or flakes in a fibrous matrix. If a buffering agent is in the form of particles, it is usually desirable and advantageous to these particles had a maximum transverse dimension in the range from about 50 microns to about 2000 microns, is suitable particle size in the range from about 100 microns to about 1000 microns, more desirable is the particle size in the range from about 300 microns to about 600 microns.

The amount of the buffer agent used in the absorbent structure of the present invention, generally depends on many different factors, including the strength of the acidity or basicity of an acid or basic swelling in water water-insoluble polymer, due to the basicity or acidity of the second basic or acidic substances, the relative solubility of each acidic or basic swelling in water water-insoluble polymer and the second basic or acidic substances, RCA used a buffering agent and pH within which it is desirable to maintain the absorbent structure. Usually is beneficial to the group of acidic or basic swelling in water water-insoluble polymer and a buffer agent is from about 50: 1 to about 2:1, more advantageous is the molar ratio from about 40:1 to about 4:1, is suitable molar ratio from about 30:1 to about 6:1 and more suitable from about 20:1 to about 10: 1. Usually it is advantageous that the number used in the absorbent structure of the buffer agent was the way in which the molar ratio of the second major or the acidic substance and the buffer agent is from about 50:1 to about 2:1, more profitable is the molar ratio from about 40: 1 to about 4:1, is suitable molar ratio from about 30:1 to about 6:1 and most suitable from about 20:1 to about 10:1.

According to one of embodiments of the present invention is used as a buffer agent may be the same substance as acidic swelling in water water-insoluble polymer or the second base material in the case where acidic swelling in water water-insoluble polymer has a pKa in the range from about 2 to about 7, and requires an acidic buffering agent, or three times when the base material has a pKa in the range from about 5 to about 10, and the required primary buffer agent, used as a buffer agent may be the same substance, as acidic swelling in water Wagoner in water water-insoluble polymer is polyacrylic acid, and as the second of the basic substance is sodium bicarbonate, typically requires an acidic buffering agent, such as citric acid, to maintain the pH profile in the desired range, because sodium bicarbonate is more soluble than polyacrylic acid. However, because the polyacrylic acid has a pKa of about 4.25 in, it can also be used as the acidic buffering agent. In another example, as the acid swelling in water water-insoluble polymer used polyacryloyldimethyl, as well as a second basic substance - chitosan. In this example, to maintain the pH profile in the desired limits normally required primary buffer agent such as sodium bicarbonate, as polyacryloyldimethyl is strongly acidic polymer and chitosan - weakly basic polymer. However, because chitosan has a pKa of about 7, it can also be used as the primary buffer agent.

According to another variant implementation of the present invention, the buffer agent may be the same substance that is used as the primary swelling in water water-insoluble polymer or as the second Kislov is 12 and the required primary buffer agent, or if the second acidic substance has a pKa in the range from about 4 to about 9 and requires an acidic buffering agent. For example, if the primary swelling in water of the water-insoluble polymer used chitosan, as well as a second acidic substance use citric acid to maintain the pH profile in the desired limits normally required primary buffer agent such as sodium bicarbonate, because citric acid is more soluble than chitosan. However, because chitosan has a pKa of about 7, it can also be used as the primary buffer agent. In another example, as the primary swelling in water water-insoluble cross-linked polymer used polidiallildimetilammoniya, as well as a second acidic substance use crosslinked polyacrylic acid. In this example, to maintain the pH profile in the desired limits usually requires an acidic buffering agent, such as citric acid, as polidiallildimetilammoniya is strongly dissociated polymer and polyacrylic acid is a weak acid polymer. However, because the polyacrylic acid has a pKa of about 4.25 in, it can also be used as the acidic buffering agent.

According to one embodiments of the invention it is desirable to obtain absorbent xlogo substances and perhaps, a buffer agent, which can be introduced into the absorbent structure. Such absorbent composition can be obtained in a simple way. Usually the method of obtaining such absorbent composition includes a step of mixing with each other acidic or basic swelling in water water-insoluble polymer, the second basic or acidic substances and, possibly, a buffer agent.

If the second base material is water-insoluble, such as cross-linked polidiallildimetilammoniya, to facilitate uniform ion exchange and achieve the desired pH profile usually requires a homogeneous mixture of acid swelling in water water-insoluble polymer with the second main substance. However, if the second base material is a water-soluble, such as sodium bicarbonate, homogeneous mixing of acid swelling in water water-insoluble polymer with the second main ingredient is usually not required due to the mobility of the second basic substance, when the absorbent structure contains contaminating the fluid. The second base material can be dissolved in the liquid and proceed with it to achieve sour swelling in water water-insoluble polymer clay is La facilitate uniform ion exchange and achieve the desired pH profile usually requires a homogeneous mixture of primary swelling in water water-insoluble polymer with a second acidic substance. However, if the second acidic substance is water-soluble, such as citric acid, in this case usually do not require homogeneous mixing of the primary swelling in water water-insoluble polymer with a second acidic substance due to the mobility of the second acidic substances during the filling of the absorbent structure polluting liquid. The second acidic substance can be dissolved in the liquid and proceed with it to the main swelling in water of the water-insoluble polymer.

Usually you need to obtain a mixture of the components under conditions sufficient for effective mixing with each other acidic or basic swelling in water water-insoluble polymer, the second basic or acidic substances and, possibly, a buffer agent. It is useful to have such a mixture was subjected to stirring, agitation or other mixing for such efficient mixing of acidic or basic swelling in water water-insoluble polymer, the second basic or acidic substances and, possibly, a buffer agent, which is formed essentially of a uniform mixture. Equipment to achieve the mixing, stirring or mixing is well known in the art and includes plotline of the present invention, the buffer agent may be used, or may contain, essentially, in a separate layer or component of the absorbent structure, such as, for example, corrugated layer or a layer of thin tissue (tissue sheet), located near the upper surface of the absorbent structure. Such a variant embodiment of the invention can be effective to reduce the amount of the buffer agent required in the absorbent structure, in order to achieve the desired properties maintain, essentially, of a desirable and balanced pH-profile or on the upper surface of the absorbent structure. Additionally, in essence, the separation of acidic or basic swelling in water water-insoluble polymer and a buffer agent can increase the overall capacity of the absorbent structure to absorb the liquid, due to the possibility of maintaining an acidic or basic swelling in water of the water-insoluble polymer at a relatively high pH, which may increase the ability of acidic or basic swelling in water water-insoluble polymer to absorb the liquid.

Although the main components of the absorbent structures described above, such an absorbent structure is not limited and may include other components not able to provide eUSA desired absorbent properties and properties of pH. Examples of substances that can be used as additional components include (but are not limited to, pigments, antioxidants, stabilizers, surfactants, waxes, fluidity promoters, solvents, particles and substances that improve manufacturability absorbent structure.

The absorbent structure of the present invention suitable for use in absorbent products disposable, such as hygiene products, diapers, training pants, napkins for babies, feminine hygiene products, products for adults suffering from incontinence; medical products such as bandages on wounds or surgical capes or wipes; and tissue products (tissue products). According to one of embodiments of the present invention receive an absorbent article for disposable use, including permeable to fluid top (front) layer attached to the top layer back (back, back or bottom) and located between the upper (front) and reverse (back, back or bottom) layers of the absorbent structure comprising an acidic swelling in water water-insoluble polymer, the second main ve the pH.

In the use according to all the aspects of the present invention absorbent products disposable usually subjected to repeated contamination of the fluid body. Accordingly, it is desirable that the absorbent product disposable possessed the ability to absorb repeated contamination of the liquid body in quantities that affect the absorbent product and the absorbent structure in use.

Specialist in the art known materials suitable for use as the upper (front) and reverse (back, back or bottom) layer. Examples of materials suitable for use as the top layer are permeable to liquid materials, such as non-woven propylene or polyethylene with a source density (basis weight) from about 15 to about 25 grams per square meter. Examples for use as reverse, reverse or bottom) layer is impermeable to liquid materials, such as polyolefin film, and permeable materials, such as microporous polyolefin film.

Acidic or basic swelling in water wagenerstr the setup portion of the structure in combination with a fibrous matrix. The fibrous matrix may take the form of, for example, Batta from ground wood-cellulosome dust, layers of thin tissue layer getoperationname cellulosome fibrous pulp layer or cellulosome fibrous pulp layer or cellulosome fibrous pulp subjected to mechanical magkasama impact. Useful if the fibrous matrix is formed in such a way as to hold or enclose in or on the structure of acidic or basic swelling in water water-insoluble polymer, the second basic or acidic substance and, possibly, a buffer agent. Acidic or basic swelling in water water-insoluble polymer, the second basic or acidic substance and possibly the buffer agent can be introduced into or onto the fibrous matrix or in the process of formation or after formation of the basic form of a fibrous matrix. Used in the present invention, the fibrous matrix may be formed by the aerodynamic method (air-laying process), or hydrodynamic means (by a wet-laid process), or essentially any other method known to the expert in the field of fibrous matrix. The fibrous matrix may be formed from either natural in the main swelling in water water-insoluble polymer, second, basic or acidic substance and, possibly, a buffer agent is typically present in an absorbent structure or in an absorbent product is disposable in a quantity effective to obtain the absorbent structure or absorbent products disposable, able to absorb the desired amount of liquid and show the desirable properties of the pH. Useful if acidic or basic swelling in water water-insoluble polymer, the second basic or acidic substance and possibly buffering agent present in an absorbent structure in an amount of from about 1 to about 100 wt.%, more useful - in the amount from about 5 to about 95 wt.%, appropriate is a number from about 10 to about 90 wt.% and more appropriate - in the amount from about 30 to about 70 wt.% calculated on the total weight of the absorbent structure.

Usually it is desirable that the absorbent structure of the present invention have the ability to absorb the desired amount of liquid, such as urine, blood, menstrual blood, synthetic urine, or an aqueous solution, containing 0.9 wt.% sodium chloride. According to one of embodiments of the present invention, it is desirable that the absorbent p is Petawawa Capacity (Ability). Used here, the rate of Capillary Absorption Capacity (Ability) of dimension in grams per gram expresses the amount of liquid in the aqueous solution, containing 0.9 wt.% sodium chloride, which can absorb one gram of absorbent structure within 6 hours, as measured by the method described in "test Methods".

Usually it is desirable and useful to the absorbent structure possessed an indicator of Capillary Absorption Capacity (Ability) of at least about 5 grams per gram, more useful, at least about 10 g per gram, an appropriate index is at least about 15 grams per gram, more appropriate, at least about 20 g per gram and up to about 40 grams per gram.

Testing methods.

Capacity at the Free Swelling and the Time to Reach 60 percent of the Value of the Capacity at the Free Swelling.

Determining the Capacitance at the Free Swelling (EU) is a test which measures the amount in grams of an aqueous solution containing 0.9 wt.% sodium chloride, which can absorb one gram of material (substance) under the influence of a slight load or compression forces, such as 0.01 FASTI at the Free Swelling and water Absorption under Load. In Fig.1 shows a perspective view of the device in position during the test. The device comprises a lifting laboratory table 1 with an adjusting cylinder pin 2 for raising and lowering the platform 3. Laboratory tripod supports 4 spring 5 connected with modified contact pin for measurement of thickness 6, which passes through the casing 7 meter rigidly supported laboratory tripod. Plastic Cup 8 for the sample containing the test sample of the superabsorbent substance (material), is permeable to liquid the bottom and placed in a Petri dish containing saline solution that is designed to absorb. To determine only the moisture Absorption under Load load 10 rests on the upper surface of the separation (intermediate) disk (Fig.1 not shown) lying on the upper surface of the sample of the superabsorbent substance (material) (Fig.1 is not shown).

Cup for sample consists of a plastic cylinder with an inner diameter of 1 inch and an outer diameter of 1.25 inches. The bottom of the Cup for a sample made of wire mesh 100 mesh with holes the size of 150 microns, which is bonded to the edge of the cylinder by heating grid above the melting point is Indra.

Modified thickness gauge designed to measure the expansion of the sample in the absorption process of the salt solution, represents a Mitutoyo Digimatic Indicator IDC Series 543, Model 543-180 with measuring range 0-0,5 inches and a measurement accuracy 0,00005 inch (Mitutoyo Corporation, 31-19, Shiba 5-chome, Minatoku, Tokyo 108, Japan). Measuring the thickness supplied by Mitutoyo Corporation, contains a spring attached to the pin inside the gauge. This spring is removed to provide the free fall of the contact pin with the downward force of about 27, Additionally remove the cap over the tip of the pin, located on top of the casing of the meter, for fastening the contact pin with dangling spring 5 (comes McMaster-Carr Supply Co., Chicago, Illinois, Item 9640K41), which is used to counteract or reduce the force directed downwards contact pin to about 1 gof 0.5, For attachment to a suspended spring to the tip of the contact pin can be glued to a wire hook. To ensure penetration to the inside of the cups to sample the lower end of the contact pin is also equipped with a long needle (Mitutoyo Corporation, Part 131279).

For testing 0,160 g of the sample absorbing the set of technical documents cover the plastic separator (intermediate) drive weight 4.4 grams and a diameter of about 0,995 inch, which serves to protect the sample from damage during the test and for uniform load distribution across the sample. After that, weigh the Cup for a sample together with the sample and dividing by the drive to determine its dry weight. Cup for sample placed in a Petri dish on the platform, and laboratory tripod raise up until the upper surface of the plastic separating disc will not come into contact with the end of the contact pin. The meter is set to zero the reading. To start the test in a Petri dish add enough salt solution (50-100 ml). As the test sample absorbs the saline solution, the contact pin measure the distance that increasing the volume of the sample raises the plastic spacer disk. This distance is multiplied by the cross-sectional area inside the Cup for sample, determines the amount of expansion of the sample due to absorption. Considering the density of the salt solution and the weight of the sample is easy to calculate the amount of absorbed saline solution. The weight of saline solution absorbed within about 10 hours, is an indicator of Free Swelling, expressed in grams is maricela thickness can continuously be entered into the computer (Mitutoyo Digimatic Miniprocessor DP-2DX) for purposes of payment and obtain the values of the Free Swelling. For the control rechecking the Free Swelling can also be determined by the difference of the weights of the cups for the sample before the test and after the test, equal to the amount absorbed by the sample salt solution.

For continuous computer monitoring values of the Free Swelling is easily determined by the Time to Reach 60 percent of the value of Absorptive Capacity (Ability) at the Free Swelling.

Absorbent Capacity (Ability) under Load and the Time to Reach 60 percent of the value of Absorptive Capacity (Ability) under Load.

Indicator definition Absorptive Capacity (Ability) under Load (VEINS or VSN) is a test which measures the amount in grams of an aqueous solution containing 0.9 wt.% sodium chloride, which can absorb one gram of a substance (material) under the applied load or the compressive force of about 0.3 pound/inch2within 10 hours. Measurement procedure measure Absorptive Capacity (Ability) under Load absorbent composition essentially identical to the procedure for the measurement of Free Swell, except that on the upper surface of the plastic p is the absorption of salt solution applied load of about 0.3 pound/inch2. Through continuous computer monitoring indicators of Absorptive Capacity (Ability) under Load easily determine the measure of the Time to Reach 60 percent of the value of the index Absorptive Capacity (Ability) under Load.

Measurement of Capillary Absorbency and maximum pH values.

Next with reference to Fig.2 describes a device and method for determining the rate of Capillary Absorption Capacity and pH profiles.

Fig. 2 is a perspective view of the device for measuring capillary absorbency and pH profile. In Fig.2 depicts the test container 60 includes a holding chamber 61, the test chamber 62 and a cover 63. The test cell 62 is a rectangular chamber with a width of 5.08 cm (2 inches), length 35.56 cm (14 inches) and a depth of 4.45 cm (1.75 inches) (internal dimensions). The test cell 62 is made of a transparent material such as acrylic resin, supplied commercially under the trademark LUCJTETM(thickness 0,635 cm (0.25 inch). The top of the test chamber 62 is open. The bottom 65 of the test chamber 62 is formed by mesh 100 mesh stainless steel. Metal mesh glued to the material, the way the ska acrylic resin such dimensions, that the trial chamber 62 has a deep hole 67 a width of 5.08 cm (2 inches) on 0,9525 cm (0.375 inches), covered by mesh 100 mesh stainless steel. Wire mesh 68 is bonded to acrylic resin, which is formed by the test cell 62, the periphery of the hole 67. The bottom 65 and the ends of the grid 68 is glued at the joints or molded as one single piece.

Holding the camera 61 includes a longitudinal end wall 70, 71, parallel side walls 72, 73 and a bottom 74. Holding the camera 61 is made of transparent resin such as acrylic resin (thickness 0,635 cm [0.25 in]). The longitudinal end walls 70, 71, parallel side walls 72, 73 and the bottom 74 of the holding chamber 61 define the boundaries of the upper hole 75. If the test cell 62 is made of acrylic resin with a thickness 0,635 cm (0.25 inch), the outlines of the holding chamber 61 form a chamber width of 6.35 cm (2.5 inches), length 36,83 cm (14.5 in) and a depth of 5.08 cm (2 inches) (internal dimensions). In any case, holding the camera 61 is of such internal dimensions to the test chamber 62 could enter and fit snugly against the inner walls of the holding chamber 61.

Similarly, the cover 63 is made of transparent acrylic resin and has such raskraska 63 defines an internal chamber dimensions: width 6.35 cm (2.5 inches) length 36,83 cm (14.5 in.) and depth 1,4288 (0,5625 inches). On the upper surface of the cover 63 has six holes 69 for holding the pH electrodes. The inner diameter of the hole 69 is about 1,20 cm (0,472 inches) that allows you to pass through them to the electrodes and tightly secured in the hole 69 of the cover 63. Holes 69 are located longitudinally at a distance of 0.6, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 cm from the longitudinal end of the side 92 of the cover 63.

Absorbent structure with initial surface density of about 500 grams per square inch and a bulk density of about 0.2 g/cm3cut into test specimens of rectangular shape with a width to 4.92 cm (1.94 inches) and a length of 34,93 cm (of 13.75 inches) tool for cutting textiles, supplied by Eastman Machine Company in Buffalo, New York under the name Chickadee II Rotary Shear, Type D-2, 110 volt textile saw. Tool for cutting textiles the textile saw) forms a smooth edge without changing the marginal density of the sample of the absorbent structure. Sliced piece sample absorbent structure is then placed on the wire mesh forming the bottom 65 of the test cell 62.

For this test use gel-filled electrodes ORION Gel-Filled Combination Electrodes model 91-35 supplied by ORION Research Inc. The end of the pH electrode 90 is closed by a cap that protects the electrode 90 and prepara cap is removed and stored. The end of the electrode 90 is located on the surface of the sample absorbent structure so that the electrodes are perpendicular to the surface of the absorbent structure. To ensure good contact and no damage to the surface does not require any additional pressure, in addition to the weight of the electrode 90. Each of the electrodes 90 is connected separately to the appropriate pH meter (pH meter) 91 (ORION Benchtop pH/ISE Meter, model 710A, also supply ORION Research Inc.). Before the test meter/electrode system is calibrated using three buffers (pH= to 4.01, 7.00, and 10.00, supplied by VWR Scientific Co. with the number 34170-127, 34170-130 and 34170-133 respectively).

Then the test container 60 is placed on an inclined base 80 having such a configuration that the bottom 74 of the holding chamber 61 forms an inclined angle of 30 degrees with the horizontal plane, allowing the horizontal edge 70 is located above the horizontal edge 71. In turn, the inclined base 80 is located at the laboratory of the lifting table 93. The device is provided with a reservoir for the liquid, containing aspirator bottle 82 with a rubber stopper 83 and aspirating tube 84. To prevent air leaks rubber posredstwom feed tube 76. Feeding tube 76 is supported by a clamp 85, mounted on a laboratory tripod 86, with the aim of minimizing the impact of moving the feed tube 76 on electronic scales (scale) 81 during the test. Aspiratory bottle is located on electronic scales 81. In turn, electronic scales 81 are located at the laboratory of the lifting table 87. Aspiratory bottle filled with an aqueous solution containing 0.9 wt.% sodium chloride. Saline in aspirating bottles 82 colored with FD& C blue dyes 1 to facilitate/improve accuracy when reading the measurement results.

At the beginning of the test procedure from the holding chamber 61, which remains in place on the inclined base 80, remove the test chamber 62 and a cover 63. Aspirator bottle raised on laboratory lifting table 87 at an arbitrary height. Inclined base 80 is raised on laboratory lifting table 93 up until contained in aspirating bottles 82 saline fill in the bottom end to a depth of about of 0.64 cm (about 0.25 inch) or holding chamber 61 to a depth of 0,635 cm (0.25 inch) at its deepest point. At this point the test chamber 62 is placed in a holding Cam is and 78. Essentially, the screw 78 passes through a hole with threads 77 until then, until he comes into contact with the side of the test chamber 62. The force generated by the screw 78, presses the test chamber 62 to the holding chamber 61 and prevents the full entry test chamber 62 in a holding chamber 61. Then holding the camera 61 is placed the cover 63. Six of the pH electrode 90 is inserted through the holes 69 in the cover 63 in contact with the surface of the composite. The pH meter (pH meter) 91 is introduced into the measurement mode. Libra 81 set at zero reading and the lower end of the grid 68 is dipped in a salt solution through a weakening of the power of influence generated by the screw 78. The junction of the grid 68 and the bottom 65 and is usually located at this junction of the sample absorbent structure come into contact with the salt solution. Saline solution is supplied from aspirating bottles 82 to the lower end of the holding chamber 61 under constant hydrostatic pressure. The increase in the salt solution in centimeters, weight gain (registered by the scale 81) and the readings of the pH meter (pH meter) 91 (pH show only those electrodes which are in contact with the sample absorbent structure, a saturated solution, otherwise do not have the methodological dimension, for example, at intervals of two minutes to remove the first five dimensions, and then at intervals of ten minutes to remove the remaining measurements. The rate of Capillary Absorption Capacity (Capacity) define and normalize the amount of increase in the weight of the fluid, registered weights 81 at the end of the test, divided by the dry weight of the sample of the absorbent structure. Limit (boundary) pH (field pH) represent the minimum and maximum values of pH obtained during tests on the testimony of any pH meter 91.

The Ionization Rate.

According to the method of determining the measure of the Ionization Rate measured initial Ionization Rate capable of ionization of the substance in 0.9 wt.% aqueous solution of sodium chloride.

The source of 0.9 wt. % aqueous solution of sodium chloride is prepared by dissolving of 67.5 g of sodium chloride, supplied by Aldrich Chemical Company in Milwaukee, Wisconsin under catalogue number 22351-4 under the Chemical Abstracts Service Registry number [7647-14-5] with the degree of chemical purity of more than 99%, 7.5 l of ultrapure water contained in the utilitarian plastic (recyclable) vessel with a capacity of 18.7 liters of Ultrapure water obtained by filtering distilled water through the filter system and the dissolution of sodium chloride in ultrapure water using a plate for mixing a Nuova II stir plate, supplied Thermolyne Corporation of Dubuque, Iowa, and magnetic stirring rod length 7 cm 7.5 liters source of 0.9 wt.% an aqueous solution of sodium chloride is stirred for about 72 hours. On top of the plastic utilitarian vessel with a capacity of 18.7 liters before stirring for 72 hours, put the lid on to reduce contamination of the solution by dust or other particles, leaving only a small hole for ventilation. This allows you to set the balance between the original salt solution and contained in the air of carbon dioxide, stabilizing, thus, the pH level in the original salt solution.

In this test, using a glass pH electrode ORION Ross Glass Combination pH electrode model 8202BN supplied by ORION Research Inc. in Boston, Massachusetts. In Fig.3 shows the pH-electrode 20, the end of which is closed by a cap that protects the electrode 20 and prevent its drying. The cap is part of the electrode, supplied by the manufacturer. The electrode 20 is connected to the pH meter 23 (ORIONB Benchtop pH/ISE Meter, model 710A, also supplied by ORION Research Inc.). pH meter 23 is connected to the computer 25 (such as the Compaq Portable 386, provider of Compaq Computer) for institution data about the measurement of pH with time. Before testing the system meter/electrode is 34170-133 respectively). PH electrode 20 is vertically held in solution, the pH of which is measured by the electrode, through the tripod 24. As a free junction pH electrode 21 and the pH-measuring ball 22 must be completely immersed in the solution being measured pH, for reliable operation.

The computer 25, and starts the software for data collection. Into the program enter a description of the sample and configure it for data logging every 5 seconds during the relevant time period.

To start the test procedure 200 g source of 0.9 wt.% an aqueous solution of sodium chloride measure 250 ml glass chemical glass 28 using electronic scales (scale) supplied by Sartorius Corporation in Bohemia, New York. Using the same electronic scales, weigh the test substance with a mass of about 2 g Glass chemical glass 28 containing 200 g of the original salt solution, placed on a plate for mixing Nuova II stir plate 26, and in chemical beaker was placed a magnetic stirring rod 27, with a length of about 3,18 cm (1.25 inches). Include a plate for mixing Nuova II stir plate 26 and set to position 8 of the stirring speed, pH electrode 20 is dipped in the solution and hung it in the center of chemical glass. The end esmeraude the pH value of the original salt solution is not changed within 5 minutes, you can begin to measure the velocity of ionization.

The measurement of the rate of ionization begins at the moment when the software is collecting data ready for input, and the original salt solution is continuously stirred with the stirring speed, the corresponding position 8. Then two grams of the test substance is poured into the chemical Cup 28 with a source of saline solution. Software data collection registers the pH of the solution every 5 seconds. The test is carried out for at least 10 minutes. Substances with weaker ionic strength and/or lower solubility in saline solution require a longer testing time. The test can be terminated when the final value of pH is stabilized for at least 2 minutes. pH electrode 20 is carefully removed from the solution and washed thoroughly with distilled water. Chemical glass 28 is washed with distilled water and dried to purity. The test procedure is repeated at least three times for each test substance. The Ionization rate for each test substance is defined as the average of at least three repetitions.

The Ionization rate of a substance by opredelnnoy ionization as a function of time.

The Ionization rate calculated by the following equation:where pH0= the pH value of the original salt solution before adding the test substance (0 sec);
pH5= the pH value after 5 seconds;
pHm= for acidic substances pHmmean minimum pH value, registered in the measurement process. For basic substances pHmmeans the maximum value of rn, registered in the measurement process.

Examples.

For use in the following examples were obtained or prepared the following substances-components.

a) Commercial polyacrylate Superabsorbent (Component 1).

As the control substance was obtained commercial superabsorbent of polyacrylate sodium under the name of FAVOR880 from Stockhausen, Inc. of Greensboro, North Carolina. This superabsorbent has a degree of neutralization of 70 mol.%. Superabsorbent was sifted, and further testing was used fraction of particles with sizes ranging from 300 to 600 micrometers. FAVOR880 superabsorbent polymer had an average Free Swelling about 40 g/g and the index Itytieehagu with a shirt with a capacity of 10 gallons, equipped with a stirrer and containing 24 kg of distilled water was added to 6 kg of acrylic acid, 10 g of potassium persulfate (K2S2O8) and 24 g of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide, received from Aldrich Chemical Company, and was stirred at room temperature for complete dissolution in the solution. Then the reactor was heated to 60oC for at least four hours with continuous stirring of the solution. The obtained gel polyacrylic acid cut into cubes of size less than 1 inch and dried in a ventilated oven at 60oC for at least two days. Fully dried polymer polyacrylic acid were crushed to particles in a commercial grinder (grinder) (Model: C. W. Brabender Granu-Ggrinder) and was screened on the Sweco separator Separator (Model 24 inches). For further trials used four fractions of particles with different sizes (from 150 to 300 micrometers, from 300 to 600 micrometers, from 600 to 850 micrometers, and from 850 to 1190 microns), designated as Components 2A, 2b, 2C and 2d, respectively. Polyacrylic acid (polymer) had the Free Swelling of about 9 g/g and the measure of Absorptive Capacity (Ability) under Load of about 6 g/,

C) a Second base material or a Buffer Agent (the Comp is Ali. For further trials used a particle size of from 300 to 600 micrometers.

g) a Second base material (Component 4).

Received granular sodium carbonate (Na2The HCO3), supplied by Aldrich Chemical Company, and sieved. For further trials used a particle size of from 300 to 600 micrometers.

d) a Second base material (Component 5).

Received granular anhydrous citric acid (NOESN2C(OH)(COOH)CH2COOH), supplied by Archer Daniels Midland Company, and sieved. For further trials used the fraction of particles with sizes ranging from 300 to 600 micrometers, from 600 to 850 micrometers, and from 850 to 1190 microns, designated as Components 5A, 2b, and 2C, respectively.

e) Wood-cellulophaga Dust (Component 6).

Commercial Kraft wood-cellulosome dust, consisting of about 16 wt. % southern hardwood and about 84 wt.% southern soft wood, received from Alliance Paper Company, Coosa Pines, Alabama, under the designation CR 1654 wood pulp fluff; and used as a fibrous matrix to obtain the absorbent structure and further testing. Wood-cellulophaga dust had the Free Swelling of about 6 g/g and the measure of Absorptive Capacity (Spoleczno-cellulosome dust, consisting of about 10 wt. % solid wood and about 90 wt.% southern soft wood, obtained from Weyerhaeuser Company, Mississippi under the name of NB 416 wood pulp fluff; and used as a fibrous matrix to obtain the absorbent structure and further testing. Wood-cellulophaga dust had the Free Swelling of about 6 g/g and the measure of Absorptive Capacity (Ability) under Load of about 4 g/,

C) Polidiallildimetilammoniya (Component 8).

In the conical flask 1000 ml, containing 370 ml of 60 wt.% an aqueous solution of diallyldimethylammoniumchloride as a monomer was dissolved 2.1 g of methylenebisacrylamide as a cross-linking agent. The solution was purged with nitrogen for 15 minutes, the conical flask was closed with a stopper and placed in a water bath at a temperature of 60oC. the Polymerization was initiated by adding to the reaction mixture of 0.4 g of potassium persulfate and 1.5 g of sodium bisulfite. The polymerization was continued at 60oWith in 12 hours with subsequent cutting of the formed gel into small pieces (cubes of about 1 inch). The gel pieces were washed 2 wt.% solution of sodium hydroxide until then, until all chlorine ions in the polymer have not been replaced by hydroxyl ions. The completeness of the transfer of the chlorine. The absence of chloride ions indicated the completion of the process of transformation of the polymer into the desired hydroxyl form. The gel was thoroughly washed with distilled water until such time as distilled water after washing did not have the same pH as the water used for washing. The gel was dried at 50oWith during the night and were crushed in a mixer from Warring (Model 34BL97). Powdered polymer was sieved, and for further testing used three fractions of particles of different sizes (from 300 to 600 micrometers, from 600 to 850 micrometers, and from 850 to 1190 microns), designated as Components 8a, 8b and 8C, respectively. Polymer polidiallildimetilammoniya had the Free Swelling of about 26 g/g and the measure of Absorptive Capacity (Ability) under Load of about 18 g/,

and) Chitosan (Component 9).

40 grams of chitosan flakes supplied Vanson Company under the name VSN-608 chitosan was mixed with 2000 g of 1 wt.% solution of acetic acid in the mixer manufactured by KitchenAid (Model K45SS). In the acetate solution of chitosan as a cross-linking agent added is about 0.3 g diglycidylether ether of polyethylene glycol with a molecular weight of about 400. Then the solution was dried at 60oC for at least 30 hours, I 300 to 600 micrometers. Particles of chitosan acetate suspended in 1 wt.% solution of sodium hydroxide in the ratio of one gram of chitosan acetate per 100 g of the solution of sodium hydroxide. Under continuous stirring with a magnetic stirrer for at least 5 hours chitosan acetate was converted into chitosan. Then the treated chitosan particles were washed four times with distilled water at the ratio of chitosan to water of 1:1000 for complete removal of residual sodium acetate and sodium hydroxide. Washed chitosan was dried at 80oC. Chitosan polymer had the Free Swelling about 3 g/g and the measure of Absorptive Capacity (Ability) under Load of about 2 g/,

Example 1.

Absorbent structure received by the aerodynamic method. Absorbent structure had an initial surface density of about 500 g/m2, bulk density of about 0.20.01 g/m3and usually contained about 37 wt.% particles (Components 1-5, 8-9) and about 63 wt.% wood-cellulosome dust (Components 6, 7).

The compositions of each of the samples of the absorbent structure are shown in Table 1 and Table 2.

Absorbent structures were condensed on laboratory press, supplied by Fred S. Carver, Inc. in Wabas2within about 10 seconds. Absorbent structure cut by the cutting tool textiles, supplied by Eastman Machine Company in Buffalo, New York, under the name Chickadee II Rotary Shear, Type D-2 110 volt textile saw, for samples of size 2 inches of 13.75 inches.

We measured the density of each sample of the absorbent structure in its thickness before the evaluation absorbency and pH. If the density of the sample was too low, then the sample absorbent structure has been re-seal to acceptable levels. Then a sample of the absorbent structure placed in the device for testing to measure the pH profile and performance Capillary Absorption Capacity (Capacity). In this example, the pH profile and performance Capillary Absorption Capacity (Capacity) was measured for 2.5 hours instead of 6 hours, as described in the section Test Methods. The test results shown in Table 3. Several samples of the absorbent structure was also tested against the absorbency and properties pH within about 24 hours. Those samples absorbent structure, which did not contain a buffer agent or did not contain an effective amount of a buffering agent, usually observed over znachitelnoe structure of the present invention, which did not contain an effective amount of a buffering agent, there were no significant differences in the indicators absorbency and pH for the two different periods of time.

Example 2.

Absorbent structure received by the aerodynamic method. Absorbent structure had an initial surface density of about 500 g/m2, bulk density of about 0.20.01 g/m3and usually contained about 37 wt.% particles (Components 2, 3, 5 and 8) and about 63 wt.% wood-cellulosome dust (Component 6).

The compositions of each of the samples of the absorbent structure are given in Table 4.

Absorbent structures were condensed on laboratory press, supplied by Fred S. Carver, Inc. in Wabash, Indiana, under the name of Model 2333 laboratory press, at room temperature under a pressure of from about 10,000 to 15,000 lb/in2within about 10 seconds. Absorbent structure cut by the cutting tool textiles, supplied by Eastman Machine Company in Buffalo, New York, under the name Chickadee II Rotary Shear, Type D-2 110 volt textile saw, for samples of size 2 inches of 13.75 inches.

We measured the density of each sample of the absorbent structure in its thickness before the evaluation absorbency and pokazatel the seal to acceptable levels. Then a sample of the absorbent structure placed in the device for testing to measure the pH profile and performance Capillary Absorption Capacity (Capacity). The results are given in Table 5. In Table 5 ITomeans a measure of the Ionization Rate for the acidic polymer or the second acidic substance used in the sample absorbent structure, IOmeans a measure of the Ionization Rate for the base polymer or the second of the basic substance used in the sample absorbent structure.

Example 3.

Absorbent structure received by the aerodynamic method. Absorbent structure had an initial surface density of about 500 g/m2, bulk density of about 0.20.01 g/m3and usually contained about 37 wt.% particles (Components 2, 3, 5 and 8) and about 63 wt.% wood-cellulosome dust (Component 6). Received a two-layer absorbent structure forming first lower layer of particles and wood-cellulosome dust, followed by forming on the surface of the lower layer of the upper layer of the particles and wood-cellulosome dust.

The compositions of each of the samples structure absorbion Fred S. Carver, Inc. in Wabash, Indiana, under the name of Model 2333 laboratory press, at room temperature under a pressure of from about 10,000 to 15,000 lb/in2within about 10 seconds. Absorbent structure cut by the cutting tool textiles, supplied by Eastman Machine Company in Buffalo, New York, under the name Chickadee II Rotary Shear, Type D-2, 110 volt textile saw, for samples of size 2 inches of 13.75 inches.

We measured the density of each sample of the absorbent structure in its thickness before the evaluation absorbency and pH. If the density of the sample was too low, then the sample absorbent structure has been re-seal to acceptable levels. Then a sample of the absorbent structure placed in the device for testing to measure the pH profile and performance Capillary Absorption Capacity (Capacity). The surface of the upper layer is in contact with the pH electrode. The test results shown in Table 7.

Although the present invention described in the above specific embodiments of the invention, however, the specialist in the art will understand there are multiple equivalent changes and modifications. Therefore, the above specific examples in no way PR is gaining.


Claims

1. Absorbent structure having a top surface, and an absorbent structure includes (a) swelling in water water-insoluble polymer containing acidic functional groups, and swelling in water water-insoluble polymer contains at least about 50 mol.% acidic functional groups in the form of free acid, and (b) the base material, with the absorbent structure has a Capillary Absorption Capacity (Ability) of at least about 5 g per 1 g of the absorbent structure, and shows on its upper surface pH that ranges from about 3 to about 8.

2. Absorbent structure under item 1, in which the acid swelling in water water-insoluble polymer has a pKa between about 0 and about 12.

3. Absorbent structure under item 1, in which the acid swelling in water water-insoluble polymer contains at least about 70 mol.% acidic functional groups in the form of the free acid.

4. Absorbent structure under item 1, comprising additionally a buffering agent having a pKa between about 2 and about 10.

5. Absorbent structure under item 1, in which the acid swelling in water water-insoluble polymer has sednaoui in water water-insoluble polymer obtained from the core polymer, selected from the group consisting of polyacrylamides, polyvinyl alcohols, copolymers of ethylene with maleic anhydride, polyvinyl ethers, polyacrylic acids, polyvinylpyrrolidones, polivinilpirrolidon, carboxymetilcellulose, carboximetilkrahmala, hydroxypropylcellulose, algino, alginates, carragenan, grafted acrylic copolymers of starch grafted acrylic copolymers, cellulose, polyanaline acid, polyglutamic acids and their copolymers.

7. Absorbent structure on p. 6, in which the acid swelling in water water-insoluble polymer derived from polyacrylic acid.

8. Absorbent structure under item 1, in which the base material is selected from the group consisting of polyamines, polyimines, polyamides, Quaternary ammonium prisoedinenii, chetinov, chitosans, Polisario, polyglutamines, polylysines, polyalanine, aliphatic amines, aromatic amines, Iminov, amides, metal oxides, hydroxides, salts and mixtures thereof.

9. Absorbent structure under item 8, in which the base material is selected from the group consisting of sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate.

10. Absorbent structure on p. 9 containing acidic swelling in water Voda structure p. 1, with the rate of Capillary Absorption Capacity (Capacity) of at least about 10 g per 1 g of the absorbent structure.

12. Absorbent structure under item 1, showing on its upper surface pH that ranges from about 4 to about 7.

13. Absorbent structure under item 1, in which the acid swelling in water water-insoluble polymer contains at least about 70 mol.% acidic functional groups in the form of free acids and has a mass-average molecular weight of more than about 100,000, and the molar ratio of acidic swelling in water, water-insoluble polymer and the basic substance is between about 10:1 and about 1:10.

14. Absorbent structure under item 4, in which the buffer agent selected from the group consisting of aspartic acid, ascorbic acid, Chloroacetic acid,-harpalani acid, CIS-cinnamic acid, citric acid, fumaric acid, polyamide glutaric acid, glutaric acid, basis of itaconic acid, lactic acid, malic acid, malonic acid, o-phthalic acid, succinic acid,-tartaric acid and phosphoric acid,-alanine, allantoin, cysteine, t is Teal)aminomethane, theobromine and tyrosine.

15. Absorbent structure under item 4, in which the buffering agent is citric acid.

16. Absorbent structure under item 4, in which the acid swelling in water water-insoluble polymer derived from polyacrylic acid, base material selected from the group consisting of sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate, and the buffering agent is citric acid.

17. The absorbent product is disposable, including permeable to liquid top layer attached to the top layer back layer and located between the top layer and back layer absorbent structure and an absorbent structure further includes (a) top surface, (b) swelling in water water-insoluble polymer containing acidic functional groups, and swelling in water water-insoluble polymer contains at least about 50 mol.% acidic functional groups in the form of free acid, and C) the base material; an absorbent structure has a Capillary Absorption Capacity (Ability) of at least about 5 g per 1 g of the absorbent structure, and shows on its upper surface pH, which remains constant within ocode, water-insoluble polymer has a pKa between about 0 and about 12.

19. The absorbent product is disposable under item 17, in which the acid swelling in water water-insoluble polymer contains at least about 70 mol.% acidic functional groups in the form of the free acid.

20. The absorbent product is disposable under item 17, in which the absorbent structure further comprises a buffering agent having a pKa between about 2 and about 10.

21. The absorbent product is disposable under item 17, in which the acid swelling in water water-insoluble polymer has a mass-average molecular weight of more than about 100,000.

22. The absorbent product is disposable under item 17, in which the acid swelling in water, water-insoluble polymer obtained from the core polymer selected from the group consisting of polyacrylamides, polyvinyl alcohols, copolymers of ethylene with maleic anhydride, polyvinyl ethers, polyacrylic acids, polyvinylpyrrolidones, polivinilpirrolidon, carboxymetilcellulose, carboximetilkrahmala, hydroxypropylcellulose, algino, alginates, carragenan, grafted acrylic copolymers of starch grafted acrylic copolymer is disposable on p. 17, in which the acid swelling in water water-insoluble polymer derived from polyacrylic acid.

24. The absorbent product is disposable under item 17 in which the base material is selected from the group consisting of polyamines, polyimines, polyamides, Quaternary ammonium prisoedinenii, chetinov, chitosans, Polisario, polyglutamines, polylysines, polyalanine, aliphatic amines, aromatic amines, Iminov, amides, metal oxides, hydroxides, salts and mixtures thereof.

25. The absorbent product is disposable under item 24, in which the base material is selected from the group consisting of sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate.

26. The absorbent product is disposable on p. 17 containing acidic swelling in water water-insoluble polymer and the base material in a molar ratio from about 10:1 to about 1:10.

27. The absorbent product is disposable under item 17, in which the absorbent structure has a Capillary Absorption Capacity (Capacity) of at least about 10 g per 1 g of the absorbent structure.

28. The absorbent product is disposable under item 17, in which the absorbent structure shows on its upper surface pH is .17, in which the acid swelling in water water-insoluble polymer contains at least about 70 mol.% acidic functional groups in the form of free acids and has a mass-average molecular weight of more than about 100,000, and the molar ratio of acidic swelling in water water-insoluble polymer and the basic substance is between about 10:1 and about 1:10.

30. The absorbent product is disposable under item 20, in which the buffer agent selected from the group consisting of aspartic acid, ascorbic acid, Chloroacetic acid,-harpalani acid, CIS-cinnamic acid, citric acid, fumaric acid, polyamide glutaric acid, glutaric acid, basis of itaconic acid, lactic acid, malic acid, malonic acid, o-phthalic acid, succinic acid,-tartaric acid and phosphoric acid,-alanine, allantoin, cysteine, cystine, dimethylglycine, histidine, glycine, chitosan, N-(2-acetamido)-2-iminodiacetic acid, Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane, theobromine and tyrosine.

31. The absorbent product is disposable on p. 30, in which the buffering agent is citric acid.

33. Absorbent structure having a top surface, and an absorbent structure includes (a) swelling in water water-insoluble polymer containing a basic functional group, and swelling in water water-insoluble polymer contains at least about 50 mol.% the main functional groups in free base form, and b) an acidic substance, with the absorbent structure has a Capillary Absorption Capacity (Ability) of at least about 5 g per 1 g of the absorbent structure, and shows on its upper surface pH that ranges from about 3 to about 8.

34. Absorbent structure on p. 33, in which the majority of swelling in water of water-insoluble polymer has a pKa between about 2 and about 14.

35. Absorbent structure on p. 33, in which the majority of swelling in water of water-insoluble polymer contains at least about 70 mol.% the main functional groups in free base form.

36. Absorbent structure on p. 33, including optionally a buffering agent having a pKa between about 2 and Oconee mass-average molecular weight of more than about 100,000.

38. Absorbent structure on p. 33, in which the majority of swelling in water of water-insoluble polymer obtained from the core polymer selected from the group consisting of polyamines, polyethyleneimine, polyacrylamide, polidiallildimetilammoniya, Quaternary ammonium prisoedinenii, chitin, chitosan, Polisario, polyglutamines, polylysines, polyalanine and their copolymers.

39. Absorbent structure on p. 38, in which the main swelling in water water-insoluble polymer is polidiallildimetilammoniya.

40. Absorbent structure on p. 33, in which the acidic substance is selected from the group consisting of polyacrylic acid, polimolekuly acid, carboxymethyl cellulose, alginic acid, polyanaline acid, polyglutamic acid, citric acid, glutamic acid, asparginase acids, inorganic acids, salts and mixtures thereof.

41. The absorbent structure according to p. 40, in which the acidic substance is polyacrylic acid.

42. Absorbent structure on p. 33 containing the primary swelling in water water-insoluble polymer and an acidic substance in a molar ratio from about 10:1 to about 1:10.

43. The absorbent structure according to p. Wei patterns.

44. Absorbent structure on p. 33, showing on its upper surface pH that ranges from about 4 to about 7.

45. Absorbent structure on p. 33, in which the majority of swelling in water of water-insoluble polymer contains at least about 70 mol.% the main functional groups in free base form and has a mass-average molecular weight of more than about 100,000, and the molar ratio of the primary swelling in water, water-insoluble polymer and the acidic substance is between about 10:1 and about 1:10.

46. The absorbent structure according to p. 36, in which the buffer agent selected from the group consisting of aspartic acid, ascorbic acid, Chloroacetic acid,-harpalani acid, CIS-cinnamic acid, citric acid, fumaric acid, polyamide glutaric acid, glutaric acid, basis of itaconic acid, lactic acid, malic acid, malonic acid, o-phthalic acid, succinic acid,-tartaric acid, phosphoric acid,-alanine, allantoin, cysteine, cystine, dimethylglycine, histidine, glycine, chitosan, N-(2-acetamido)-2-iminodiacetic acid, Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminona acid.

48. The absorbent structure according to p. 36, in which the main swelling in water water-insoluble polymer is polidiallildimetilammoniya, the acidic substance is polyacrylic acid and the buffering agent is citric acid.

49. The absorbent product is disposable, including permeable to liquid top layer attached to the top layer back layer and located between the top layer and back layer absorbent structure and an absorbent structure further includes (a) top surface, (b) swelling in water water-insoluble polymer containing a basic functional group, and swelling in water water-insoluble polymer contains at least about 50 mol.% the main functional groups in free base form, in) base material, with the absorbent structure has a Capillary Absorption Capacity (Ability) of at least about 5 g per 1 g of the absorbent structure, and shows on its upper surface pH, which remains constant in the range from about 3 to about 8.

50. The absorbent product is disposable on p. 49, in which the primary swelling in water vodorastvorimym major swelling in water water-insoluble polymer contains, at least about 70 mol.% the main functional groups in free base form.

52. The absorbent product is disposable on p. 49, in which the absorbent structure further comprises a buffering agent having a pKa between about 2 and about 10.

53. The absorbent product is disposable on p. 49, in which the primary swelling in water water-insoluble polymer has a mass-average molecular weight of more than about 100,000.

54. The absorbent product is disposable on p. 49, in which the primary swelling in water water-insoluble polymer obtained from the core polymer selected from the group consisting of polyamines, polyethyleneimine, polyacrylamide, polidiallildimetilammoniya, Quaternary ammonium prisoedinenii, chitin, chitosan, Polisario, polyglutamines, polylysines, polyalanine and their copolymers.

55. The absorbent product is disposable on p. 49, in which the main swelling in water water-insoluble polymer is polidiallildimetilammoniya.

56. The absorbent product is disposable on p. 49, in which the acidic substance is selected from the group consisting of polyacrylic acid, polyalloy, citric acid, glutamic acid, asparginase acids, inorganic acids, salts and mixtures thereof.

57. The absorbent product is disposable on p. 56, in which the acidic substance is polyacrylic acid.

58. The absorbent product is disposable on p. 49, in which the absorbent structure contains major swelling in water water-insoluble polymer and an acidic substance in a molar ratio from about 10:1 to about 1:10.

59. The absorbent product is disposable on p. 49, in which the absorbent structure has a Capillary Absorption Capacity (Capacity) of at least about 10 g per 1 g of the absorbent structure.

60. The absorbent product is disposable on p. 49, in which the absorbent structure shows on its upper surface pH that ranges from about 4 to about 7.

61. The absorbent product is disposable on p. 49, in which the primary swelling in water water-insoluble polymer contains at least about 70 mol.% the main functional groups in free base form and has a mass-average molecular weight of more than about 100,000, and the molar ratio of the primary swelling in water is the Delia disposable on p. 52, in which the buffer agent selected from the group consisting of aspartic acid, ascorbic acid, Chloroacetic acid,-harpalani acid, CIS-cinnamic acid, citric acid, fumaric acid, polyamide glutaric acid, glutaric acid, basis of itaconic acid, lactic acid, malic acid, malonic acid, o-phthalic acid, succinic acid,-tartaric acid and phosphoric acid,-alanine, allantoin, cysteine, cystine, dimethylglycine, histidine, glycine, chitosan, N-(2-acetamido)-2-iminodiacetic acid, Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane, theobromine and tyrosine.

63. The absorbent product is disposable on p. 62, in which the buffering agent is citric acid.

64. The absorbent product is disposable on p. 52, in which the main swelling in water water-insoluble polymer is polidiallildimetilammoniya, the acidic substance is polyacrylic acid and the buffering agent is citric acid.

Priority items:
10.11.1998 on PP.1-3, 5-13, 17-19, 21-29, 33-35, 37-45, 49-51, 53-61;
12.12.1997 on PP.4, 14-16, 20, 30-32, 36, 46-48, 52, 62-64.

 

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