The x-ray emitter
The invention relates to the field rechentechnik. The emitter contains the x-ray source with an electron gun and the anode-target and area of the output x-ray radiation, connected to a power source. The radiator is equipped with coaxial resonator in the cavity at the free end of the inner conductor of the resonator posted by an electron gun, in front of her coaxially to the lid of the resonator from the outside is connected through a hole in the resonator span pipe zone output x-ray radiation, at the end of this tube has an anode target. The resonator and pipe vacuumed, and as a power source connected to the cavity of the microwave generator through a hole in the lid of the resonator at the base of the inner conductor and through a dielectric window. Variants of the power supply is detachable, as it uses a magnetron, coaxial passage tube can be placed magnetic system, part of the span of the pipe, including its end face, made of the most x-ray transparent material. The technical result is to increase the resistance to electrical breakdown, reliability, durability and compactness. 4 C.p. f-crystals, 1 Il. For the prototype, you can take another type of x-ray emitter , which uses traditional x-ray tube. This emitter comprises a tank lined internally with lead mounted x-ray tube rotation mechanism of the anode has input high voltage chabalala, which before this vacuumized. To output x-ray tank has a glass window. X-ray tube has an electron gun anode target and window (glass bottle) for output x-ray radiation. The tank with its contents has considerable weight, its power sources bulky. When replacing the x-ray tube transformer oil must be drained, then pour, pre-vacuuming. The emitter resistance to electrical breakdown is limited and is achieved by applying a cumbersome means of external insulation. Reliability and durability of the radiator is also limited.The proposed x-ray emitter fundamentally new type does not require external insulation, which simplifies the problem of electric strength of both the emitter and the scheme of its power, which is becoming significantly less high and bulky. The emitter has a high resistance to electrical breakdown, increased reliability and durability, more compact.Proposed x-ray emitter, containing the x-ray source with an electron gun and the anode-target and area of the output x-ray radiation, connected to a power source, characterized in that the emitter of the picture posted by an electron gun, in front of her coaxially to the lid of the resonator from the outside is connected through a hole in the resonator span pipe zone output x-ray radiation, at the end of this tube has an anode target, and a resonator and pipe vacuumed, and as a power source connected to the cavity of the microwave generator through a hole in the lid of the resonator at the base of the inner conductor and through a dielectric window.In variants: - the power supply is made detachable from the resonator with adjustable connection therewith to change the level of input in resonator microwave power; as the power source used magnetron; - coaxial passage pipe is located a magnetic system; - the part of the span of the pipe, including its end face, made of the most x-ray transparent material.When used to accelerate electrons microwave-voltage electric strength of the gap increases as compared with the flow in this gap constant or pulsed voltage from the high voltage source. At low voltage the power of the microwave generator problems with the electrical strength of the power system also does not occur. No high isolation). Traditional x-ray emitters insulator traditional x-ray tube significantly reduces the dielectric strength of the tube (spray, leakage, breakage during breakdowns) and emitter in General.From the above it is clear that the expected durability and reliability of the proposed emitter will be significantly higher than traditional radiators.When removable from the cavity of the microwave source using a loop connection it is possible to regulate the level of insertion in the cavity of microwave power and thereby the level of the accelerating voltage in the gap of the resonator and the energy of x-ray radiation. In this mode, the microwave source can be kept almost unchanged. In the unlikely event of failure of the microwave source and its replacement is very simple (no problems with transformer oil or gas). The failure of the resonator elements (electron gun, the anode-target) is even less likely. But in this case there won: saves the microwave source.Use as the power supply of the magnetron in some cases it is preferable due to its high efficiency, durability, simple design and low cost.To obtain the weight fine-focus rentgenovskogo x-ray radiation from the target reflection or output of a directional orthogonal to the cavity axis x-ray part of the span of the pipe, adjacent to the anode target, made of the most x-ray transparent material (beryllium, aluminum).For "through" the target and the end of the passage tube is made from the same materials as the target (tungsten) napisana a thin layer on the inner side of the end face.The invention is illustrated in the drawing, which shows a structural diagram of the proposed x-ray emitter. In the design of the emitter includes the following elements: 1 - cavity 2 - outer conductor of the resonator, 3 - inner conductor of the resonator, 4 - cover cavity at the base of the flight of the pipe,
5 - cover the cavity at the base of the inner conductor,
6 is an electron gun,
7 - of-flight tube,
8 - anode target,
9 is a part of the span of the pipe adjacent to the anode target ("window" to launch the x-ray radiation),
10 is a microwave generator (microwave generator),
11 - the hole in the lid of the cavity at the base of the inner conductor (for input in resonator microwave power)
12 - device maintaining a high vacuum in the cavity,
13 - dielectric vacuum window for entering into the cavity of the microwave power,
14 - communication loop microwave oscillator, resonator,
15 - magnetic system.
the first inner conductor by means of a loop 14 and through a dielectric vacuum window 13 in the resonator 1, formed by the parts 2, 3, 4, 5, is supplied microwave power. On the gap of the resonator formed by the free face of the inner conductor 3 and the cover 4 of the resonator, when this occurs, the voltage of the microwave oscillations.When enabled, the electron gun 6 it comes electron flow, accelerating in the above-mentioned gap resonator and passing in the span of the pipe 7 to the anode target 8. At the bombardment of the target electron flow is used to convert the energy of this flow in the x-ray radiation energy. Depending on the destination emitter x-ray emission is displayed in the direction opposite to the direction of the electron flow at an angle to the axis of the resonator pan through the part 9 of the span of the pipe adjacent to the anode target (reflective target), or through the same part 9 of passage pipe is directed orthogonal to the axis of the resonator. In the case of "through" the target x-ray radiation is output from the end part 9 of the span of the pipe.Changing the size of the loops 14, her immersion in the resonator or turning loop, you can adjust the level fed to the resonator 1 of microwave power without changing the mode of the microwave generator 10. This adjustment allows you to change the level of RF voltage is Dimo in the transition from one to the other modes of operation of the emitter. The device 12 provides for the maintenance of the resonator 1 high vacuum. Magnetic system 15 provides reception weight fine-focus x-ray radiation. Due to the fact that the anode target is distant with passage of the tube 7 from the cover 4 of the resonator 1, an opportunity arose to place conveniently removable air or liquid cooling of the anode target (not shown).Market x-ray machines, x-ray emitters and sources of power which may be replaced in the proposal, are extensive.In Russia the screening systems in airports and in other cases) is not enough to no less than 500 units. And the same, roughly, is in operation and may require replacement.A growing number of purchases for offices entrepreneurs x-ray systems, which allow to opening mail packages to make their check for absence of explosives.The proposed x-ray emitter and a number based on it can shut down a significant part of the demand in the emitters, cheaper, reliable, durable with easily replaceable parts or easily repaired. This will significantly reduce the cost of their operation, will free up funds for expansion of new purchases.Sgesv x-ray machines, systems and applications.Creation and production of a number of x-ray emitters of the new type will significantly increase the proportion of civilian products among devices and devices for microwave applications.Sources of information
1. The company's catalog "Balteau" (Belgium), 19972. Rechentechnik (Handbook), book 1, M, engineering, 1992, S. 136, Fig. 36A.
1. The x-ray emitter, containing the x-ray source with an electron gun and the anode-target and area of the output x-ray radiation, connected to a power source, characterized in that the emitter is equipped with a coaxial resonator in the cavity at the free end of the inner conductor of the resonator along its axis placed an electron gun opposite its cathode coaxially to the lid of the resonator from the outside is connected through a hole in the resonator span pipe zone output x-ray radiation, at the end of this tube has an anode target, and a resonator and pipe vacuumed, and as the power source to the resonator connected to the microwave generator through a hole in the lid of the resonator at the base of the inner conductor and through a dielectric window.2. Roentgen is investing communications with him to change the level introduced into the cavity of the microwave power.3. The x-ray radiator according to any one of paragraphs.1 and 2, in which the power source used magnetron.4. The x-ray radiator according to any one of paragraphs.1-3, in which the coaxial passage pipe is located a magnetic system.5. The x-ray radiator according to any one of paragraphs.1-4, in which part of the passage of pipes, including her face, made of the most x-ray transparent material.
FIELD: flaw inspections, customs examination equipment, medicine, and roentgen diagnosing spectroscopic installations.
SUBSTANCE: proposed X-ray tube has vacuum envelope accommodating anode, X-ray output aperture, cathode assembly incorporating field-radiating cathode in the form of bundle of carbon fibers placed in conducting or semiconducting shell, contact assembly of field-radiating cathode, and cap that functions as control electrode. In order to prevent stray surface electric conductance caused by sputtering of field-radiating cathode material on structural components of X-ray tube, dielectric washer is inserted in this tube wherein during X-ray tube assembly annular cavity is formed between inner hole of washer, field-radiating cathode shell, and upper end of field-radiating cathode contact assembly. Cavity provided in dielectric washer and also its slots prevent formation of solid conducting and semiconducting films which enhances stability of electrical and radiating characteristics of tube. For raising electric strength of tube and excluding breakdown of its envelope cap is installed on dielectric washer that functions as control electrode. Cap is installed so that axis of carbon fiber bundle is aligned with that of optoelectronic system of X-ray tube and symmetry axis of cap.
EFFECT: enhanced operating stability, electric strength, reliability, and service life of X-ray tubes with field-radiating cathode.
1 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: roentgen engineering; producing roentgenograms, for instance in medicine.
SUBSTANCE: proposed X-ray source module has X-ray tube incorporating body, cathode and anode assemblies, as well as generator unit incorporating high-rating voltage divider whose high-voltage lead is connected to one of tube assemblies; X-ray tube body is made in the form of metal cylinder accommodating sectionalized cylindrical high-voltage insulator. One of its ends is connected through vacuum-tight joint to one of body ends and other end mounts cathode assembly. Anode assembly is disposed on other end of body and is made in the form of anode tube brought outside the body that carries target on its loose end. Generator unit is disposed inside cylindrical high-voltage insulator whose inner space is filled with oil. Side surface of insulator functions as high-rating voltage divider.
EFFECT: reduced mass and size of module.
1 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: roentgen engineering, in particular, engineering of x-ray emitters, possible use in high energy industrial x-ray devices, and also in customs browsing complexes.
SUBSTANCE: x-ray emitter contains, positioned coaxially, vacuumized semi-wave coaxial resonator, tetrode cannon with radial anode, connection element of generator with resonator in form of anchor ring shaped head and a target. First and second hollow internal semiconductors of resonator are positioned coaxially and separated from each other by high frequency gap. In first internal conductor on the side of its free end injector of electrons is positioned, cathode of which is directed towards the target. Base of second internal conductor is connected to first end wall of resonator. Tetrode cannon and radial anode are positioned between first internal conductor and second end wall of resonator. First internal conductor is connected to radial anode and rigidly connected to external conductor of resonator by means of supporting dielectric isolator positioned between them. The target is positioned in the hollow of second internal conductor or in vacuumized hollow of span tube, positioned outside the resonator coaxially to second internal conductor.
EFFECT: generation of high energy (over 400 keV) flow of electrons with efficiency not less than 30% at working frequency ≈ 300 MHz, increased electric durability, reliability and lifetime.
8 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: physics; X-ray inspection.
SUBSTANCE: X-ray generator includes high DC voltage generator, X-ray tube in the form of a metallic enclosure, anode assembly with a target anode and window for the X-ray radiation output, cathode assembly in the form of a cathode with a filament and a cathode insulator, cathode filament power supply unit; the high DC voltage generator and the cathode filament power supply unit are located in the internal cavity of the cathode insulator, filled with dielectric material.
EFFECT: decrease in dimensions and weight and increase in reliability of device as whole.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: sources of X-ray radiation.
SUBSTANCE: X-ray tube of permanent radiation, consists of cylindrical anode, annular cathode, which consists of several glow threads, focusing electrode, windows for withdrawal of X-ray radiation and leak-tight casing. Annular cathode, which consists of two and more glow threads, is isolated from tube casing and focusing electrode, which allows to change size of focal spot by means of control voltage supply on cathode in regard to casing and focusing electrode. Anode is made in the form of massive copper cylinder, to the end of which target is fixed by means of soldering or welding, made of material that is necessary for generation of corresponding X-ray radiation. Focusing electrode is installed so that products of cathode evaporation would not get to anode end surface. Internal part of tube casing is additional element of focusing, configuration of internal surface of tube casing that faces cathode and focusing electrode is designed to provide focusing of electrons on anode surface. Output collimator is added in tube design, and its dimensions are selected so that cathode evaporation products would not get on the surface of output window.
EFFECT: simplification of design, reduction of dimensions, increase of tube operation resource, possibility of focal spot regulation by means of cathode potential change in regard to focusing electrode.
SUBSTANCE: method of making a through-type target of pulse-type X-ray tube involves using metal foil made from a high-atomic number metal. Elements are made on the surface of the foil, which can be stretched or compressed due to flexural deformation of the foil. In the target of the X-ray tube made of high-atomic number metal foil on the area of the surface of the foil lying in the zone of the focal spot, there are drop-forged protrusions, the height and maximum dimension in the cross-section of which do not exceed 0.2S and 0.3d, respectively, where S is the size of the gap between the cathode and the target, d is the diameter of the focal spot of the tube, wherein the distance between protrusions does not exceed 0.3d or the foil is divided into corrugated strips mounted on a substrate made from low-atomic number material; strips in the plane of the substrate lie tightly against each other; the height and spacing of the corrugations do not exceed 0.2S and 0.2d, respectively, where S is the size of the gap between the cathode and the target, d is the diameter of the focal spot of the tube; the width of the strips does not exceed 2 mm.
EFFECT: reduced mechanical stress in the material of the target.
3 cl, 4 dwg, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: plasma generator of deceleration radiation has a microwave resonator placed in a magnetostatic field with a plug configuration with a small plug ratio and excited by a microwave generator. Pulse-forming magnetic coils are placed on the microwave resonator in the interpole space of an electromagnet; the resonator is connected to a pulse gas valve which enables to form a powerful gas jet directed into the region of generating a bunch of accelerated electrons. A solid-state target is placed in the resonator outside the heating zone.
EFFECT: high radiation intensity, clear radiation pattern, which widens the spectral range of radiation in the region of hard X-rays.