How staged combustion of fuel in the boiler with a cooled combustion chamber and fire tubes

 

The invention relates to furnace technique and can be used in heating, telecommuniation and steam systems for highly efficient water heating and steam generation at low output in the atmosphere of nitrogen oxides. Improved method of stepped combustion in the boiler with a cooled combustion chamber and fire tubes by exothermic interaction with the oxygen of the primary portion of the air in the combustion chamber, additional oxidation of the formed products of incomplete combustion jets secondary portion of the air in the output window of the combustion chamber and the flue gas cooling system water-cooled smoke tubes. When implementing the method, the process exothermic reaction is carried out in a furnace flue and air stream with oxygen to flow secondary thermal reactions injected tangentially to a circle in the center of the input section of the system of the flue pipe. 5 Il.

The invention relates to furnace technique and can be used in boilers with smoke tubes for high-efficiency water heating and steam generation at low output in the atmosphere of nitrogen oxides.

A known method of burning fuel in the boiler chamber Shoe installation. So 2. - M.-L.: Gosenergoizdat, 1946, S. 9-19, Fig. 5, 9). The heat of the burning fuel is transferred to water in the smoke tubes for heating. The disadvantage of this method is a large degree of incomplete combustion, heat loss and a significant output of nitrogen oxides in the atmosphere.

There is a method of staged combustion of fuel in the boiler with a cooled combustion chamber by an exothermic interaction with the oxygen of the primary portion of the air in the combustion chamber with a cooled wall screens and subsequent additional oxidation of the formed products of incomplete combustion streams of secondary air (the magazine "Electric power stations", 11, 1991, Osintsev centuries , Dzhundubaev A. K., Gigin C. Y., other Translations of boiler BKZ-220 technology staged combustion of fuel. S. 17-22). The method provides a higher degree of combustion of fuel and the reduction of heat loss and the concentration of nitrogen oxides in exhaust combustion products. However, it has no effect on boilers with fire tubes.

There is a method of staged combustion of fuel in the boiler with a cooled combustion chamber by an exothermic interaction with the oxygen of the primary portion of the air in the combustion chamber and the subsequent additional oxidation of the resulting products of combustion secondary air entered the computers the first certificate of the USSR 1627781, IPC R 23 11/01; publ. IN BI 6, 1991). Air curtain when implementing the known method in the absence of the flue section increases the efficiency of the combustion process. The disadvantage of this method is the high irregularity of flow of the secondary exothermic reactions in the cross-section of the outlet window, leading to overheating and rupture of the smoke tubes, and high heat losses, incomplete combustion of the fuel and the release of nitric oxide occurs when the connection of the flue section to the opening window of the combustion chamber.

In the present invention is the reduction of incomplete combustion, heat loss and output of nitrogen oxides into the atmosphere with the products of combustion leaving the boiler with the cooled combustion chamber and fire tubes.

When staged combustion of fuel in the boiler with a cooled combustion chamber and fire tubes by exothermic interaction with the oxygen of the primary portion of the air in the combustion chamber, additional oxidation of the formed products of incomplete combustion jets secondary portion of the air in the output window of the combustion chamber and the flue gas cooling system water-cooled discharge of the flue pipe according to the invention the secondary exothermic reaction is carried out in discharge of the flue pipe, the output section of the system of the flue pipe.

The tangential entry of the jets of secondary air ensures uniformity of field concentrations of the reacting system, the uniformity of the oxidation products of incomplete combustion and reduction underburning of fuel, and the secondary response directly in the cooled smoke tubes increases the efficiency of the water heating reduces heat loss and the concentration of nitrogen oxides in exhaust combustion products.

In Fig.1-5 presents the install, implement a method of stepped combustion. In Fig.1 - scheme of the boiler with a side flue gases through the flue pipe; Fig.2 - section a-a in Fig.1; Fig.3 - scheme of the boiler with a vertical flue gases through the flue pipe; Fig.4 - section b-B in Fig.3; Fig.5 - section b In Fig.3.

Installation of Fig.1, 2 implements the proposed method when using solid fuels: wood and coal, comprises a combustion chamber 1 with a water-cooled screens 2, the system of primary air nozzles 3, installed in the bottom part of the chamber 1, the input system fuel 4, the system of the tangential entry of secondary air nozzles 5, the water-cooled section 6 with smoke tubes 7. Conclusion chilled after section 6 of the gases in the atmosphere (or in the chimney) - crazy with the primary air nozzles 3 and feed under the same lattice 3 primary portion of the air which is enough only for partial oxidation with the formation of products of incomplete combustion. These products are the results of the exothermic heat of the reagents are heated and dedicate part of their heat by radiation screens 2, in which water is pumped. Heated in the combustion chamber of the water is diverted into the heating system, heating for other needs. Ash through the grate 3 hits in the ash and are periodically removed during operation of the boiler. Cooled in the chamber 1, the products of incomplete combustion are directed to the entrance of the smoke pipe 7 (to the output window 9 of the chamber 1, where the connected section 6), there enter the secondary portion of the air through the tangential nozzle 5. Air jet through the nozzle 5 is injected tangentially to the circumference 11 in the center of the input section 12 system 6 smoke tubes 7, coinciding with the exit window 9 of the chamber 1. In the smoke tubes 7 are ongoing processes of combustion and heat transfer from the gases to the water. Flue gases from pipe 7 fall into a collecting pipe 8, where in a chimney (not shown) either directly into the atmosphere through the system further purification (not shown). The heated section 6 water is directed to the production or heating needs. The tangential entry of the air jets through the CE and deep flow secondary exothermic reactions, and simultaneous cooling of reagents reduces heat loss from the exhaust products of combustion. Aliasing combustion and cooling of the products of combustion is achieved by low-temperature flow of the combustion and slow the process of oxidation of the nitrogen of the air and fuel with reduced output concentration of nitrogen oxides in the atmosphere.

In Fig.3, 4, 5 is a diagram of an installation for implementing the method when burning natural gas and a vertical flue gases. Here we have introduced the same designations as in Fig. 1, 2. Gas through the fuel supply system 4 (collectors with perforation) is introduced into the chamber 1, and the primary air is supplied back through the supply system with nozzles 3. Section 6 pipe 7 is installed vertically, the input section 12 is combined with the output window of the camera 1.

The implementation of how the installation according to Fig.3, 4, 5 - similar to the above description for the installation according to Fig.1, 2.

The ratio of costs of primary and secondary air, the diameter of the circle 11, angles, sizes and installation in the window 9 of the nozzles 5 can be additionally optimized parameters of the processes and end results (heat loss, the concentration of nitrogen oxides, the degree of burnout tone is provided). As a fuel system 4 can be used nozzles for liquid sprayed fuel plates for droplet evaporation, and other devices.

The method can be used in the boilers of the power companies, power systems metallurgy, sterapredbuy.

Claims

How staged combustion of fuel in the boiler with a cooled combustion chamber and fire tubes by exothermic interaction with the oxygen of the primary portion of the air in the combustion chamber, additional oxidation of the formed products of incomplete combustion jets secondary portion of the air in the output window of the combustion chamber and the flue gas cooling system air-cooled discharge of the flue pipe, characterized in that the process of secondary exothermic reaction is carried out in a furnace flue and air stream with oxygen for the occurrence of secondary reactions is injected tangentially to a circle in the center of the input section of the system of the flue pipe.

 

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