How staged combustion of fuel in the boiler with a cooled combustion chamber and fire tubes
The invention relates to furnace technique and can be used in heating, telecommuniation and steam systems for highly efficient water heating and steam generation at low output in the atmosphere of nitrogen oxides. Improved method of stepped combustion in the boiler with a cooled combustion chamber and fire tubes by exothermic interaction with the oxygen of the primary portion of the air in the combustion chamber, additional oxidation of the formed products of incomplete combustion jets secondary portion of the air in the output window of the combustion chamber and the flue gas cooling system water-cooled smoke tubes. When implementing the method, the process exothermic reaction is carried out in a furnace flue and air stream with oxygen to flow secondary thermal reactions injected tangentially to a circle in the center of the input section of the system of the flue pipe. 5 Il. The invention relates to furnace technique and can be used in boilers with smoke tubes for high-efficiency water heating and steam generation at low output in the atmosphere of nitrogen oxides.A known method of burning fuel in the boiler chamber Shoe installation. So 2. - M.-L.: Gosenergoizdat, 1946, S. 9-19, Fig. 5, 9). The heat of the burning fuel is transferred to water in the smoke tubes for heating. The disadvantage of this method is a large degree of incomplete combustion, heat loss and a significant output of nitrogen oxides in the atmosphere.There is a method of staged combustion of fuel in the boiler with a cooled combustion chamber by an exothermic interaction with the oxygen of the primary portion of the air in the combustion chamber with a cooled wall screens and subsequent additional oxidation of the formed products of incomplete combustion streams of secondary air (the magazine "Electric power stations", 11, 1991, Osintsev centuries , Dzhundubaev A. K., Gigin C. Y., other Translations of boiler BKZ-220 technology staged combustion of fuel. S. 17-22). The method provides a higher degree of combustion of fuel and the reduction of heat loss and the concentration of nitrogen oxides in exhaust combustion products. However, it has no effect on boilers with fire tubes.There is a method of staged combustion of fuel in the boiler with a cooled combustion chamber by an exothermic interaction with the oxygen of the primary portion of the air in the combustion chamber and the subsequent additional oxidation of the resulting products of combustion secondary air entered the computers the first certificate of the USSR 1627781, IPC R 23 11/01; publ. IN BI 6, 1991). Air curtain when implementing the known method in the absence of the flue section increases the efficiency of the combustion process. The disadvantage of this method is the high irregularity of flow of the secondary exothermic reactions in the cross-section of the outlet window, leading to overheating and rupture of the smoke tubes, and high heat losses, incomplete combustion of the fuel and the release of nitric oxide occurs when the connection of the flue section to the opening window of the combustion chamber.In the present invention is the reduction of incomplete combustion, heat loss and output of nitrogen oxides into the atmosphere with the products of combustion leaving the boiler with the cooled combustion chamber and fire tubes.When staged combustion of fuel in the boiler with a cooled combustion chamber and fire tubes by exothermic interaction with the oxygen of the primary portion of the air in the combustion chamber, additional oxidation of the formed products of incomplete combustion jets secondary portion of the air in the output window of the combustion chamber and the flue gas cooling system water-cooled discharge of the flue pipe according to the invention the secondary exothermic reaction is carried out in discharge of the flue pipe, the output section of the system of the flue pipe.The tangential entry of the jets of secondary air ensures uniformity of field concentrations of the reacting system, the uniformity of the oxidation products of incomplete combustion and reduction underburning of fuel, and the secondary response directly in the cooled smoke tubes increases the efficiency of the water heating reduces heat loss and the concentration of nitrogen oxides in exhaust combustion products.In Fig.1-5 presents the install, implement a method of stepped combustion. In Fig.1 - scheme of the boiler with a side flue gases through the flue pipe; Fig.2 - section a-a in Fig.1; Fig.3 - scheme of the boiler with a vertical flue gases through the flue pipe; Fig.4 - section b-B in Fig.3; Fig.5 - section b In Fig.3.Installation of Fig.1, 2 implements the proposed method when using solid fuels: wood and coal, comprises a combustion chamber 1 with a water-cooled screens 2, the system of primary air nozzles 3, installed in the bottom part of the chamber 1, the input system fuel 4, the system of the tangential entry of secondary air nozzles 5, the water-cooled section 6 with smoke tubes 7. Conclusion chilled after section 6 of the gases in the atmosphere (or in the chimney) - crazy with the primary air nozzles 3 and feed under the same lattice 3 primary portion of the air which is enough only for partial oxidation with the formation of products of incomplete combustion. These products are the results of the exothermic heat of the reagents are heated and dedicate part of their heat by radiation screens 2, in which water is pumped. Heated in the combustion chamber of the water is diverted into the heating system, heating for other needs. Ash through the grate 3 hits in the ash and are periodically removed during operation of the boiler. Cooled in the chamber 1, the products of incomplete combustion are directed to the entrance of the smoke pipe 7 (to the output window 9 of the chamber 1, where the connected section 6), there enter the secondary portion of the air through the tangential nozzle 5. Air jet through the nozzle 5 is injected tangentially to the circumference 11 in the center of the input section 12 system 6 smoke tubes 7, coinciding with the exit window 9 of the chamber 1. In the smoke tubes 7 are ongoing processes of combustion and heat transfer from the gases to the water. Flue gases from pipe 7 fall into a collecting pipe 8, where in a chimney (not shown) either directly into the atmosphere through the system further purification (not shown). The heated section 6 water is directed to the production or heating needs. The tangential entry of the air jets through the CE and deep flow secondary exothermic reactions, and simultaneous cooling of reagents reduces heat loss from the exhaust products of combustion. Aliasing combustion and cooling of the products of combustion is achieved by low-temperature flow of the combustion and slow the process of oxidation of the nitrogen of the air and fuel with reduced output concentration of nitrogen oxides in the atmosphere.In Fig.3, 4, 5 is a diagram of an installation for implementing the method when burning natural gas and a vertical flue gases. Here we have introduced the same designations as in Fig. 1, 2. Gas through the fuel supply system 4 (collectors with perforation) is introduced into the chamber 1, and the primary air is supplied back through the supply system with nozzles 3. Section 6 pipe 7 is installed vertically, the input section 12 is combined with the output window of the camera 1.The implementation of how the installation according to Fig.3, 4, 5 - similar to the above description for the installation according to Fig.1, 2.The ratio of costs of primary and secondary air, the diameter of the circle 11, angles, sizes and installation in the window 9 of the nozzles 5 can be additionally optimized parameters of the processes and end results (heat loss, the concentration of nitrogen oxides, the degree of burnout tone is provided). As a fuel system 4 can be used nozzles for liquid sprayed fuel plates for droplet evaporation, and other devices.The method can be used in the boilers of the power companies, power systems metallurgy, sterapredbuy.
ClaimsHow staged combustion of fuel in the boiler with a cooled combustion chamber and fire tubes by exothermic interaction with the oxygen of the primary portion of the air in the combustion chamber, additional oxidation of the formed products of incomplete combustion jets secondary portion of the air in the output window of the combustion chamber and the flue gas cooling system air-cooled discharge of the flue pipe, characterized in that the process of secondary exothermic reaction is carried out in a furnace flue and air stream with oxygen for the occurrence of secondary reactions is injected tangentially to a circle in the center of the input section of the system of the flue pipe.
FIELD: methods for burning of solid fuel.
SUBSTANCE: the method for salvaging of trinitrotoluene, whose term of safe storage has expired consists in the fact that trinitrotoluene is fed to the combustion chamber in a melted state (at a temperature of 80 to 90 C) and burnt off in the atmosphere of gaseous fuel-methane not containing oxygen in its composition, as a result of burning due to own oxygen of trinitrotoluene, a great amount of own carbon (soot) is extracted, which then finds industrial application. For burning of trinitrotoluene use is made of an installation including a combustion chamber, pressure regulators for delivery of molten trinitrotoluene and gaseous fuel (methane), electric igniter and a filter for catching soot.
EFFECT: provided safe method for salvaging of trinitrotoluene in the combustion chamber in the atmosphere of gaseous fuel (methane).
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: combustion apparatus for fluent fuels.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises supplying gas to be burnt out from the head of the burner of the torch plant in the combustion zone. The composition of gases is variable. The gas flow rate varies from 1m/s to 3.5 of sound speed due to generating excess static pressure of gas from 0.00001 MPa/cm2 to 3.0 MPa/cm2 by the movable control device. The gas jet is turbulent with a cone angle from 2o to 155o.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
FIELD: combustion apparatus using fluent fuel.
SUBSTANCE: burner comprises casing made of a scroll, hollow shaft for fuel supply arranged inside the casing, sucking and exhausting branch pipes for air secured to the casing, nozzle mounted in the conical sleeve, diffuser, and drive. The shaft is mounted for rotation and provided with blades of the fan. The nozzle and conical sleeve are secured to the hollow shaft. The drive is secured to the casing inside the sucking branch pipe. The branch pipe is mounted with a space relation to the casing to provide a space for air flow. The shaft of the drive is hollow to provide fuel flow to the nozzle. The shaft of the drive and hollow shaft of the burner are axially aligned and interconnected. The drive shaft is provided with emulsifier for generating emulsion or suspension and supplying fuel and/or water emulsion and cock for fuel supply.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: methods of combustion of hydrocarbon fuels.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with the method of combustion of a hydrocarbon fuel in a burner. The method of combustion of hydrocarbon fuel in a burner provides, that along the burner external surface a non-corroding technical atmosphere is set in motion, chosen from a group including steam, CO 2 , nitrogen or their mixture. In the capacity of the non-corroding technical aerosphere they use steam. Combustion is carried out at the presence of steam. At least a part of the non-corroding aerosphere is added to the hydrocarbon fuel. The non-corroding aerosphere is used in an amount sufficient to dilute or replace a corroding technical aerosphere existing around the external surface of the burner. The invention allows to avoid a corrosive spraying of the metal and carbonization of the industrial burners exposed to action of the corroding technical aerosphere.
EFFECT: the invention allows to prevent a corrosive spraying of the metal and carbonization of the industrial burners.
5 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: methods of burning pulverized fuel.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes preparation of fuel for burning, delivery of fuel, transportation of high-pressure air, mixing air with pulverized fuel and delivery of high-concentrated aeromixture to boiler burners. Transporting air is ozonized before mixing it with pulverized fuel ; part of ozonized fuel is delivered to transport of pulverized fuel and remaining part is delivered autonomous passage of burner to flame root via pipe line.
EFFECT: steady ignition of pulverized fuel; enhanced efficiency of burning process.
FIELD: methods of burning hydrocarbon fuel.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method of combustion of hydrocarbon fuel includes separate delivery of fuel and air to burner; fuel is delivered mainly to central area of air flow and is burnt over periphery of flame at excess air mode and at excess of fuel in central area of flame; vapor is fed to central area of flame and field of acoustic oscillations is applied. Burner proposed for burning the gaseous hydrocarbon fuel includes air box, hollow gas manifold with outlet gas holes; it is coaxially arranged inside vapor swirler manifold made in form of hollow cylindrical body with profiled passages and mounted in cylindrical body at radial clearance; cylindrical body has nozzle hole; one end face of vapor swirler is blanked-off and opposite end face is smoothly engageable with nozzle hole in body. Burner for combustion of liquid hydrocarbon fuel includes air box and injector mounted on fuel swirler and vapor swirler which are mounted in cylindrical body at radial clearance; said cylindrical body is provided with nozzle unit made in form of hollow detachable cap with holes over spherical end face; mounted at spaced relation inside this cap is cap of smaller diameter and similar in shape; smaller cap has holes which are coaxial to outer cap; outer cap is provided with additional holes; inner cap is not provided with such holes.
EFFECT: reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions by power-generating boilers at enhanced combustion of fuel.
5 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: fuel burning devices.
SUBSTANCE: proposed ejection burner has body with branch pipes for delivery of combustion components, stabilizer, purging ports and injector additionally provided with mixing ejector consisting of body, contraction passage, fuel and oxidizer supply pipe unions; its construction makes it possible to regulate sectional areas of ejecting and ejected flows due to change of penetration of oxidized supply pipe union into contraction passage of ejector. Widening of flow of fuel-and-gas mixture in injector is made in two sections at different taper angles; diameter of spherical cover exceeds diameter of flow section of injector. Purging ports are made in form of three-stage system; first-stage purging ports are made in form of holes in burner body; second-stage purging ports are made in form of row of holes in combustion chamber; their flow sections change by means of regulating ring moved over surface of combustion chamber; third-stage purging port is made in form of coaxial circular passage copying the combustion chamber geometry. Stabilizer tube is twisted in form of cylindrical spiral. Proposed burner makes it possible to improve quality of mixing and evaporability of fuel in injector and to obtain complete combustion of fuel at extended range of stable operation by excess air coefficient.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency; enhanced stability of combustion.
FIELD: burning separated oil-containing wastes formed during operation of ships.
SUBSTANCE: proposed incinerator burner includes several injectors for delivery of oil and diesel fuel wastes sprayed by air. Air injector equipped with swirler is located in front of oil and diesel fuel waste injectors; oil waste injector is located closer and distance of both fuel injectors may be changed relative to air injector whose axis lies at right angle relative to axes of fuel injectors; mounted in front of fuel injectors are jets whose orifices have diameter lesser than that of injectors.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of burning fuel; reduction of toxic emissions from reactor.
FIELD: mode of incineration of hydrocarbon fuel and an arrangement for its realization refers to engines and power engineering with working processes including preliminary processing of fuel.
SUBSTANCE: the invention may be applied for incineration of fuel as in a periodic regime which is characteristic for reciprocating motors of internal combustion so as for fulfillment of streaming regimes of incineration of fuel, for example, in jet, turbojet, gas turbine engines and power installations. The mode realizes induced destruction of molecules of metastable intermediate products of incomplete oxidation of hydrocarbons, accumulated in gas volume of fuel-airy mixture, by way of power impact leading to explosive three-dimensional spontaneous combustion of gas mixture. Peculiarity of the mode consists in that fuel-airy mixture is enriched with free electrons and power impact on molecules of the mixture for excitation of oscillatory degrees of freedom of molecules is fulfilled by means of their inelastic concussion with free electrons, speeded up by electric field, which tension E is less than tension of switching to independent gas discharge. Enrichment of fuel-airy mixture with free electrons is fulfilled by way of its ionization or by way of injection of electrons. The installation for realization of this mode has a combustion chamber with a source of power impact. The source of power impact consists of a unit of enrichment of fuel-airy mixture with free electrons and a source of a speeded up electric power which includes a system of electrons with controlled multiplexer switch connected to the sources of high-voltage tension. The invention allows to realize in a necessary moment of time momentary development of three-dimensional radical explosion in fuel-airy mixture due to simultaneous destruction of the majority of accumulated metastable molecules of intermediate products. Destruction of molecules of intermediate products generates a great number of active radicals and particles dividing and creating new circuits of reaction of oxidation of hydrocarbon and leads to development of chain-radical explosion.
EFFECT: high effectiveness of incineration mode.
21 cl, 7 dwg