Comb the mixture of double optical fibers

 

Double fiberglass can be processed in knitted fabrics and felts through the initial mixing double glass with equal to or more straight grain. Can be added other twisted fiber without significant impact on manufacturability. Way felt formation includes the formation of a homogeneous mixture containing a double fiberglass and direct fiber, the processing of the fibers on the carding machine for the formation of a knitted fabric, cross the overlap knitted fabric for the formation of cross-blocked felted fabric fibers and sewing stamping (flashing) mentioned cross-covered textile fabrics for the manufacture of felt. Filter felt contains layered felted fabric fibers and canvas. Layered felted fabric includes a homogeneous mixture of from about 1-30 weight. % dual-fiber, from about 1-60 wt.% direct fiber and from about 10-98 weight. % twisted fiber, with direct fiber used in a quantity equal to or greater than twice the fiber. The technical result is to obtain homogeneous, capable of searching the at commercially acceptable speeds mixture of fibers to form a homogeneous ys;">

The invention relates to a homogeneous mixture of fibers, in which one fiber is a double fiberglass and the other is a direct fiber. This combination of two types of fibers provides the possibility of practical textile processing dual fiberglass.

Background of the invention Synthetic fiber felts are used as filters and are known in the art. In U.S. patent 4361619 Forsten et al, describes a filter made of PTFE fiber and fiberglass, made by mixing 1-35 weight percent glass fiber and 65-99 weight percent PTFE fibers for making sweeping fabric, made by the cross-overlap for the formation of a felted fabric, which is then stitched to form felt. This crossed felted fabric may also be sewn to the supporting canvas woven polytetrafluoroethylene to form a felt or felt canvas.

In U.S. patent 4361619 the following example shows two comb mixtures containing direct fiberglass and oped PTFE fiber. In this patent it is mentioned that even adding mixtures of twisted valacyclov in the art showed the term "extremely difficult" in this context means that the mixture may be processed through the screening that the quality combed fabric does not provide the manufacturer of the used product, or that the speed of the combing should be reduced considerably, to ensure any arrangement of the fibers, similar to the fabric. The maximum speed of the comb, which can be achieved when the concentration of the glass fiber is more than 50 wt.% the mixture is in the range of 1 m/min Overall result showed that the combing mixtures that contain more than 50 wt.% fiberglass, could not be realized.

The difficulty in creating felts containing more than 50 wt.% fiberglass, refers to the lack of crimp in the fiber. Accordingly, the specialists in this field of technology associated with the manufacture of fiberglass, it was assumed that twisted fiberglass should be more adaptable to the formation of felts than straight fibers. However, it has been proven that it takes place.

Twisted or irregular fibers were produced during the rotation of the combination of two optical fibers into one. U.S. patent 2998620 Stalego describes twisted fiberglass double Steklyannyy different coefficients of thermal expansion, through the holes of the spinning mechanism. Fiber is extruded in a consistent total respect so that these fibers curl naturally after cooling.

U.S. patent 3073005 Tiede describes an improved, more rapid method for the manufacture of bicomponent (double) compositions twisted fiberglass Stalego.

And Stalego, and Tiede describe the improvement in combing these bicomponent fibers, when twisted soluble fibers are mixed with the fibers.

Additional work performed by others, and the most recently published International patent applications W095/12554, which describes glass compositions, using dual optical fiber, and W095/29880, which describes the double glass with special properties formation of chemical bonds.

The primary manufacturer of twisted fibers, Owenings-Corning Fiberglas Corporation of Toledo, Ohio, described in the published articles (such as Mechanical Engineering, volume 117, number 2, page 38, February 1995) that their dual fiber sold under the trademark MIRAFLEX, has high elasticity and is recommended for use in isolation. In addition, it was found that this dual fiber can processivity and bound in the traditional textile processes MIRAFLEX, when commercially adopted speeds combing still unsuccessful. High elasticity twisted glass fiber does not contribute to the normal search. The technique applied to the low modulus fibers, such as described in British patent 1030570, which describes improved the screening process for nylon, cannot be applied to brittle very high fiber module.

Summary of invention the Present invention provides a uniform and capable of combing a mixture of fibers, including dual fiber and direct the fiber, in which a direct fiber is present in a quantity equal to or greater than the number of double fiberglass. The mixture may optionally include a third fiber which is twisted fiber.

The mixture of fibers according to the present invention, easily are being searched at commercially acceptable speeds comb to smooth knitted fabrics, of which may be formed of felted fabrics and felts.

The preferred fiber mixture according to the present invention, includes a homogeneous mixture of from about 1-30 wt.% dual fiber, from about 1-60 wt.% direct fiber and from about 10-98 WEINIG optical fibers.

Preferably a direct fiber is a fiber glass type "DE", and preferably oped fiber is a fluoropolymer fiber. The private value of a twisted fiber is PTFE fiber. Most preferred are mixtures containing about 20 wt.% dual fiber, 30 to 50 wt.% direct fiberglass type "DE" and from 50 to 30 wt.% twisted fluoropolymer fibers.

The present invention also provides a filter felts, including layered felted fabric, formed from these fiber blends and canvas, in which layered felted fabric fibers includes a homogeneous mixture of from about 1-30 wt.% dual fiber, from about 1-60 wt.% direct fiber and from about 10-98 wt.% twisted fiber, in which a direct fiber is present in a quantity equal to or greater than double fiberglass. Filter felts (felts or felt canvases), according to the present invention, can delaminate on membranes or other suitable substrates.

The present invention also provides a method by which textile fabrics and felts can be made.

A detailed description of the invention This invention relates to homogeneous procaryote fiber. This combination of two types of fibers makes possible practical textile processing dual fiberglass.

The term dual fiber, as used here, means the glass made of two or more glass compositions with different coefficients of expansion. Double fiberglass may also be known as the optical fibers of irregular shape or mistelbach. These fiberglass are not straight and twisted after rotation carried out by the natural random twisting. In the ideal case view in section of the fiber must show one half of the fiber, which is formed from a first glass composition, and the other half of the fiber, which is formed of a second glass composition.

The preferred form of double fiberglass sold Owens-Corning Fiberglas, Inc. under the trademark MIRAFLEX. It is known that MIRAFLEX is made of two different forms attributeselector glass, bonded together into a single thread. In direct contrast to conventional optical fibers MIRAFLEX fibers have a random twisting and advertised which is soft, flexible, silky contact and does not actually cause C the window, and thus, the insulation can be tightly coiled for education compact package that recovers a significant portion of the initial size and height when deployed.

Direct fiber according to the present invention is an essentially direct fiber without significant bending, twist, curl or irregular shape. Preferred direct fiber is a fiber of type "DE" or other direct fit fiberglass. However, insufficient clear that adding direct fiber, it seems, reduces the elasticity of the double optical fibers, thereby reducing volatility or fluffy mixture and making possible the practical textile working speed. Other direct fiber that can be used in this invention are straight fibres of aromatic polyamides, such as preromanesque polyamides, direct fluoropolymer fibers, such as PTFE and PFA fiber, straight polyethylene or polypropylene fiber, direct polyamide fiber, straight, polyester, polyimide or polyphenylensulfide fiber.

The term polymer, as used here, means polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), and polymers in General with whom septocaine (PEP), copolymers of tetrafluoroethylene and perfluoroalkyl vinyl ethers, such as performatively simple ether (PFA) and performatively simple ether, fluorinated olefin terpolymers, including polymers of the above monomers and the other based on tetrafluoroethylene copolymers.

Here the claimed mixture, in which the fluoropolymer fiber is selected from the group consisting of PTFE and polyphthalocyanines fiber.

The term "commercially acceptable rate of screening" means the rate of screening, at least 4 meters per minute.

A critical parameter for successful application of this homogeneous mixture is then that the direct fiber should be present in quantities equal to or greater than double fiberglass. If you add too little direct fiber elasticity dual optical fibers is too high, the mixture will not be processed at the required speeds.

The third fiber being twisted, can be added to a mixture of double glass and direct the fibers to make the functionality or act as a binder for the manufacture of felts, obtained from a mixture. Preferably anaemic under E. I. DuPont trademark TEF-LON Fiber. Other twisted fibers that can be used in the present invention include twisted fibres of aromatic polyamides, such as preromanesque polyamide, twisted polyethylene or polypropylene fiber, twisted polyamide fiber, twisted polyester, polyimide or polyphenylensulfide fiber.

The mixture of fibers according to the present invention, easily are being searched for homogeneous knitted fabrics, of which may be formed of felted fabrics and felts. Felt, according to the present invention, can be sewn felted fabric or felted fabric, sewing-pressed in canvas. The preferred composition of the canvas contains PTFE fiber or filament or staple fiber, stretched or unstretched. Canvas can also contain fiberglass. Preferred canvas is woven canvas, although the canvases can be woven or non-woven.

Felts made according to the present invention can be combined in a layered fabric for use in filtering. Additional components that can be used with felts or felt canvases, according 0147/A the present invention, for the formation of filter fabrics include materials, primeneniye or attached to the felt; PTFE fabric or cloth, or a mixture of different fibers, such as PTFE and other fluoropolymers, glass, carbon or polyimide, is formed in the fabric or canvas, and other materials suitable for the temperature and chemical environment required for the application.

The mixture of fibers according to the present invention, are mixed and processed using the typical of textile machinery for the manufacture of felts. In a typical process of double fiberglass and direct fiber (and optionally a third fiber component) are combined and mixed on razvratnichali. The resulting mixture is then processed through a comb to smooth knitted fabric that overlaps cross to get felted fabric fibers. Cross-blocked felted fabric can be made directly to the felt sewing stamping or may be imposed on the canvas and then sewing stamped in the canvas.

Despite the fact that double fiberglass are more technologically advanced, it is not the experience of the inventors of the present invention. When double fiberglass was used without additives) in a carding machine, the volatility or the fluffy fibers were pricina ushistory fibers prevented the teeth of the carding machine to extract the number of fibers from a mass of fibers, which was large enough for the manufacture of knitted fabric. Add at least an equal number of straight fiber reduced the fluffy fibers and prevent blockage. This allowed the teeth of the carding machine to extract a large amount of fiber and produce knitted fabric. Thus, the term "capable of casting", as used here, defines a fiber mixture, which can processivity, forming a knitted fabric, at a speed of more than 4 meters per minute. Adding a third component of the twisted fibers to the mixture does not significantly affect processing.

It is known that direct the fibers usually do not are being searched or not handled well on the textile equipment, so it is surprising that the treatment of bent or curved fibers could be improved by adding a direct fiber.

The fibers used in the present invention, or oped, or direct, or dual fiber can have a number of lengths of fiber. In General, the lengths of the fibers used in the present invention varies from about 2,54 to 10.2 centimeters, preferably from about to 2.54 to 7.62 centimeters. For twisted fiber component of trehalose the change in the production of filter felt, and it was found that, in particular, applied the mixture is a homogeneous mixture of about 1-30 wt.% dual optical fibers, about 1-60 wt.% direct fiber and about 10-98 wt.% twisted fiber, made of fluorocarbon resin, in which a direct fiber is present in a quantity equal to or greater than twice the fiber. In particular, preferably a direct fiber is a fiber type, "DE" and, in particular, preferably the fluoropolymer fiber is a PTFE fiber (PTFE). This mixture is preferred, because it makes possible the production of fluoropolymer filter felt, containing up to 70 wt.% glass.

It was found that within these intervals weight felts containing from about 20 to 25 wt.% dual fiber, from about 30 to 50 weight. % fiberglass type "DE" and from 25 to 50 wt.% PTFE twisted fiber, in particular, are used. Two specific compositions within the preferred interval are illustrated in the examples below.

For these three-component mixtures, it was found that the practical upper limit for double fiberglass is a little more than about 30 wt.%. Vissi about 30 wt.% double fiberglass in a homogeneous knitted fabric. It was found that the total amount of about 70 wt.% glass is a practical upper limit in the use of, or the creation of a three-component mixture. As mentioned above, when the above about 70 wt.% fiberglass (double plus type "DE" or other type of direct fiberglass) knitted fabric essentially cannot be obtained.

The mixture of these three fibers processed using the typical of textile machinery for the manufacture of felts. In a typical process of double fiberglass, direct fiber type "DE" and PTFE fibers are combined and mixed on razvratnichali. The resulting mixture is then processed through a carding machine to form a fabric that is cross-blocked for making felted fabric of fibers. Cross-blocked felted fabric can then be made directly to the felt sewing stamping or, preferably, may be used on woven or non-woven canvas and then sewing to be stamped into the canvas for education felt canvas. Canvas typically contains PTFE fiber, or a mixture of PTFE and fiberglass. Felt or felt the canvas can then be fixed by heating, as is well known in this area t is nom Cabinet can be used tentering frame. Filter felts with a high content of glass or felt canvases, according to the present invention have equivalent or better filtration characteristics in comparison with felts or felt canvases prior art, having a high content of PTFE fibers.

Felt or felted canvas, such as described above may be laminated to the fluoropolymer, typically PTFE membrane. Membranes known in the art, including porous expanded PTFE membranes are suitable for lamination to the felt, according to the present invention. The production of layered material is usually performed by connection of felt or felted canvas with a membrane of fluorinated polymer adhesive, such as a fluorinated copolymer of propylene and fluorinated ethylene (FEP), a copolymer of tetrafluoroethylene and performability, Duxford of polyvinylidene and similar. The adhesive may be applied as a dispersion of various well-known in the art methods, such as coating or spraying on one side of the felt. Before the membrane is attached, felt or felted canvas is usually dried. The membrane is then placed on the adhesive, and the adhesive cures within sub who ESCA. Describe the process used for the production of expanded PTFE, RTRE layered filter media, can be found in the following U.S. patents: 4983434, 4110392, 3953566 and 4187930.

In the above description and the following examples, reference is made to the glass type "DE", but can be applied to other types of glass in the present invention. The term "DE" as applied to the glass determines the interval diameter, as defined in ASTM D 578. Thus, the glass type "DE" is the interval diameter of 5.84 to 6,85 microns. It can also have a range of finishes and can be accessed from a number of vendors. To create a filter felts usually preferred fiber of the smallest diameter, as these fibers are small diameter are used for the production of more efficient filters. In the General case, the lower limit in the range of the diameter of the glass used in the manufacture of such filter felt, is limited by the diameter, which, as we know, are not hazardous to health. In practice, the production of filter felt, according to the present invention have a value of fiberglass, such as "DE" or "N". But for other applications which can be interested in obtaining fiber mixtures, according to buemoy surface treatment, which will be serviceable and safe for the desired application.

Further, the following examples illustrate the present invention but do not limit the present invention.

Examples Example 1 TEFLON type PTFE fibers having a 3.2 denier and 7.62 cm length, mixed with double glass type MIRAFLEX in the application of razvratnits and air supply equipment. The same equipment and process used for mixing staple fibers of type "DE" and PTFE as a control sample. This control fiber mixture consisted of 75 weight. % PTFE fibers having a 3.2 denier and 7.62 cm length, and 25 wt.% optical fibers of type "DE", cut up to 5.08 cm length of the segment.

Several experimental mixtures dual optical fibers, twisted PTFE fibers and fibers of type "DE" manufactured and processed in the fabric combing fiber mixtures. The percentages represent the weight percent of the total mixture. The mixture of fibers were following.

1. 33%/20%/47% PTFE fiber/dual fiber/fiberglass type "DE".

2. 40%/30%/30% PTFE fiber/dual fiber/fiberglass type "DE".

3. 40%/20%/40% PTFE fiber/dual fiber/fiberglass type "DE".

4. 50%/20%/30% PTFE fiber/dual Steklov Control sample was run on a carding machine, to verify that the card system was functioning properly. Mixture #1 was performed and procesales well without the required regulations of the card. This three-component mixture had a minimum of "failure" in the search, and found that broken glass strands are even less than in the control sample. A few meters felt were produced for testing.

Mixture # 2 was also processed acceptable, but to the limit in this case. It was evident from observation of treatment that mixtures with a higher content of double glass, as a rule, were not processed properly.

Mixture # 3, #4 performed well and were very similar to mixture #1. For the tests were carried out several meters of felt from a mixture of #4.

Two pieces of felt, made from samples #1 and #4, were tested on the felt and filtration properties. Both provided excellent filtering, and both have improved abrasion resistance.

In table viseslava testing methods were used to measure the effectiveness of filter material: leakage of powder was measured according to (Verein Deutscher Ingenieure), the method 3926; abrasion was measured according to DIN Method 53528 when using 500 cycles at anicely example TEFLON type PTFE fibers, with a 3.2 denier and 7.62 cm length, mixed with double glass type MIRAFLEX in the application of razvratnits and air supply equipment. The same equipment and process used for mixing staple fibers of type "DE" and PTFE as a control sample. This control fiber mixture consisted of 75 weight. % PTFE fibers having a 3.2 denier and 7.62 cm length, and 25 wt.% optical fibers of type "DE", cut up to 5.08 cm length. There were three different experimental weight ratio mixtures: 5. 75%/25% PTFE fiber/dual fiber 6. 40%/60% PTFE fiber/dual fiber 7. 25%/75% F fiber/dual fiber
Attempts have been made to comb and to produce felts from all four experimental samples of the mixture. Control sample successfully processivity in the fabric. This test ensured that the installation of the equipment worked properly.

None of these experimental mixtures could not be successfully processivity under practical conditions. A mixture of 5 required a very low rate of screening (less than 1 m/min to form a fabric. A mixture of 6 was very large and provided excessive "damage" dual optical fibers even when manually primenen. It turned out that the double glass broke during combing, pulling the carding machine and accumulate near the equipment. A mixture of 7 is not moved in the carding machine.

An attempt was made to modify the system combing to make a correction for the volume of the mixture 6. Although the power supply system and the speed of the roller was changed, the supply of fibers in the carding machine was still difficult, and the failure of the" double fiberglass was so high that the fabric, which was made, was only 30% to second half of the original weight percent fiber supplied to the mixture of fibers. This is the only observable improvement in the content of double glass PTFE fiberglass fabric compared with the control sample, which formed the fabric and felt, with 25% glass fibers of the type "DE", as it turns out, is useless.


Claims

1. Homogeneous sweeping, the mixture of fibers, including dual fiber and direct the fiber, in which a direct fiber is present in a quantity equal to or greater than the number of double fiberglass.

2. The mixture under item 1, which further includes a third fiber, with a TT fiberglass.

4. The mixture under item 2, in which the third fiber is a fluoropolymer fiber.

5. The mixture according to p. 4, in which the fluoropolymer fiber is selected from the group consisting of PTFE and polyphthalocyanines fiber.

6. The mixture under item 2 or 4, in which the mixture is from about 1-30 wt.% dual fiber, from about 1-60 wt.% direct fiber and from about 10-98 wt.% fluoropolymer fiber.

7. The mixture according to p. 6, in which a direct fiber is a fiber diameter of 5.84 to 6,85 mm.

8. Homogeneous knitted fabric, made of a homogeneous mixture according to any one of paragraphs.1, 2, or 4.

9. Felt is formed from a mixture of fibers according to any one of paragraphs.1, 2, or 4.

10. The method of education felt that contain a double optical fiber, including: a) formation of a homogeneous mixture of fibers containing double fiberglass and direct fiber, with direct fiber is present in a quantity equal to or greater than the double glass; (b) processing the fibers through a carding machine for the formation of a knitted fabric; (c) cross-overlap knitted fabric for the manufacture of cross-blocked felted fabric fibers and (d) sewing the forging of cross-Perlino include third fiber, while the third fiber is a oped fiber.

12. The method according to p. 11, in which the mixture of fibers at the stage (a) includes from about 1-30 wt.% dual fiber, from about 1-60 wt.% direct fiber and from about 10-98 wt.% twisted fluoropolymer fiber.

13. The method according to p. 10 or 12, in which in stage (d) cross-felted fabric sewing punched in the canvas for the manufacture of felted canvas.

14. The method according to p. 13, in which the canvas contains PTFE fiber, or a mixture of PTFE and fiberglass.

15. The method according to any of paragraphs.10 and 13, in which the felt is laminated on a porous or expanded fluoropolymer membrane.

16. Filter felt, including layered felted fabric fibers and canvas, and layered felted fabric fibers includes a homogeneous mixture of from about 1-30 wt.% dual fiber, from about 1-60 wt.% direct fiber and from about 10-98 wt.% twisted fiber, with direct fiber is present in a quantity equal to or greater than twice the fiber.

17. Filter felt under item 16, in which a direct fiber is a glass fiber, and oped the fiber is selected from the group consisting of fibers of aromatic polyamide and puainako fiberglass, 30-50 wt.% direct fiber with diameter of 5.84 to 6,85 μm and 30-50 wt.% twisted PTFE fiber.

19. Filter felt on p. 16 or 18, which is laminated to a porous or expanded fluoropolymer membrane.

 

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