A metal product having a coating forming a thermal barrier and method of coating

 

The invention relates to a coating forming a thermal barrier and applied to the surface of supersplash, for example a turbine blade of a gas turbine engine, and the method of applying this coating. The objective of the invention is the provision of a method of applying a ceramic coating forming a thermal barrier and having a smaller thermal conductivity. The proposed coating contains a binder coating on the metal product, and forming a thermal barrier ceramic coating on the binder surface. Forming a thermal barrier ceramic coating contains many spar granules, which are perpendicular to the surface of metal products. Each spar pellet has many layers. Some layers have subgranule located at an acute angle to the surface of metal products for the formation of voids between adjacent subgranule. Voids are located at an acute angle to the surface of metal products and, thus, reduce thermal conductivity of the ceramic coating forming a thermal barrier. Some of the layers have subgranule, arranged perpendicularly to poverhnosti creation method, you can reduce thermal conductivity of the ceramic coating. 2 C. and 35 C.p. f-crystals, 8 ill.

The invention relates to a coating forming a thermal barrier applied on the surface of supersplash, for example a turbine blade of a gas turbine engine and method of coating forming a thermal barrier. The invention concerns in particular a ceramic coating forming a thermal barrier.

The problem with a constant need for increasing operating temperatures in gas turbine engines, it was initially solved by means of the air cooling of the rotary turbine blades and stationary blades of the turbine and the development of superalloys, which should be turning the turbine blades and the stationary vanes of the turbine, increasing the service life of the turbines. Further increase in temperature required to develop materials, ceramic coatings, with which ensured the isolation of the rotating turbine blades and stationary blades of the turbine from the heat contained in the gases leaving the combustion chambers, which also led to the extension of the service life of rotary blades and stationary turbine blades.

In the previous uranophane on a suitable binder coating, for example, such as a binder coating of MCrAlY alloy deposited on a metal substrate.

It is also known from the prior art application of these materials ceramic coatings by the process of vapor deposition on a suitable binder coating, which has a boundary layer of aluminum oxide, such as a binder coating of MCrAlY alloy, or a binder coating, diffusion elyuminirovanie deposited on a metal substrate.

From prior art it is also known application of these materials ceramic coatings by spraying process in the plasma or vapor deposition on the oxide layer on the metal substrate.

The ceramic coating forming a thermal barrier obtained in the process of applying the deposition from the vapor, have advantages in comparison with ceramic coating forming a thermal barrier applied by sputtering in the plasma. The main advantage is the improved resistance to thermal shock due to both the structure of the ceramic coating forming a thermal barrier, obtained by the process of vapor deposition.

One problem associated with coating forming a thermal barrier, the th same coverage, forming a thermal barrier, made by sputtering in the plasma.

From International patent application WO 9318199A known to produce ceramic having a spar structure, the coating forming a thermal barrier, which contains multiple layers with interfaces between adjacent layers. Each spar pellet is perpendicular to the surface of metal products. Each spar pellet has many layers and adjacent layers have different structures. The interface between adjacent layers reduce thermal conductivity of the ceramic coating, which creates a thermal barrier. These layers are obtained by alternating deposition from the vapor and deposition from the vapor using plasma.

The present invention aims to create a metal product having a ceramic coating spar structure, forming a thermal barrier, in which the ceramic coating forming a thermal barrier, has a reduced thermal conductivity. The present invention is the provision of a method of applying a ceramic coating forming a thermal barrier, by deposition from the vapor to obtain slabs shall propranodol.

Accordingly, the present invention provides a metal article containing a binder coating on the metal product, and ceramic coating forming a thermal barrier on the binder coating and ceramic coating forming a thermal barrier, contains many spar granules located essentially perpendicular to the surface of metal products, each spar pellet has many layers, having subgranule located at an acute angle to the surface of metal products for the formation of voids between adjacent subgranule, and voids are located at an acute angle to the surface of metal products and, thus, reduce thermal conductivity of the ceramic coating forming a thermal barrier.

Preferably, each spar pellet has at least one additional layer having subgranule, arranged perpendicularly to the surface of the product, and at least one layer having subgranule, arranged perpendicularly to the surface of the product, is located farther from the surface than the many layers that have subgranule underneath sharp ugly barrier.

Preferably, there are many layers subgranule located at an acute angle to the surface of metal products for the formation of voids between adjacent subgranule, and the many layers that have subgranule, arranged perpendicularly to the surface of metal products.

Preferably, the layers having subgranule located at an acute angle to the surface of metal products for the formation of voids between adjacent subgranule are alternately with additional layers having subgranule, arranged perpendicularly to the surface of metal products.

Subgranule in adjacent layers with subgranule located at an acute angle to the surface of metal products can be located at various angles. Subgranule in adjacent layers with subgranule located at an acute angle to the surface of metal products, can be located under decreasing in decreasing the progression of acute angles.

Preferably, subgranule in at least one layer having subgranule located at an acute angle to the surface of metal products, located at an angle between 10 and 60omore predpochtitel the e on the metal product contains aluminum and has a surface layer of aluminum oxide, this ceramic coating forming a thermal barrier, located on the aluminium oxide layer.

Containing aluminum binder coating may contain aluminide and received by diffusion or McrAlY alloy.

Preferably, the binder coating of MCrAlY alloy metal product contains enriched platinum layer of MCrAlY alloy, a layer of aluminide platinum enriched platinum layer of the MCrAlY alloy, a layer of aluminide platinum has a surface layer of aluminum oxide, with ceramic coating forming a thermal barrier, located on the aluminium oxide layer.

Alternatively, the metal product has a surface layer of aluminum oxide, with ceramic coating forming a thermal barrier, located on the aluminium oxide layer.

Metal product may contain product from supersplash Nickel or product from supersplash cobalt.

Metal product may contain rotating turbine blade or a fixed blade turbine.

Ceramic coating forming a thermal barrier may contain Zirconia. The Zirconia may be stabilized with yttrium oxide.

The present invention also provides a method of application of the binder coating on the metallic article, the application of ceramic coating forming a thermal barrier, a binder coating by deposition from the vapor so that many spar granules are essentially perpendicular to the surface of a metal product, and the process of vapor deposition includes the first type of deposition that contains a deposition of ceramics in such a way that there are a lot of layers in each spar ceramic granule, with multiple layers has subgranule located at an acute angle to the surface of metal products, for the formation of voids between adjacent subgranule, and voids are arranged at an acute angle to the surface of metal products and, thus, reduce thermal conductivity of the ceramic coating forming a thermal barrier.

Preferably, the process of vapor deposition includes the second type of deposition that contains a deposition of ceramics so that the formed at least one additional layer in each spar ceramic grains, with at least one additional layer has subgranule, arranged perpendicularly to the surface of the product, and at least one additional layer is the products view, than multiple layers having subgranule located at an acute angle to the surface of the product to increase the erosion resistance of the ceramic coating forming a thermal barrier.

Preferably, the method comprises the deposition of multiple layers having subgranule located at an acute angle to the surface of metal products for the formation of voids between adjacent subgranule, and the deposition of layers with subgranule, arranged perpendicularly to the surface of metal products.

Preferably, the method comprises the deposition of multiple layers having subgranule located at an acute angle to the surface of metal products for the formation of voids between adjacent subgranule, alternately with many additional layers having subgranule, arranged perpendicularly to the surface of metal products.

The method may include the deposition of subgranule in adjacent layers with subgranule located at an acute angle to the surface of metal products, located at different angles.

The method may include the deposition of subgranule in adjacent layers with subgranule located at an acute getpattern, subgranule at least one layer having subgranule located at an acute angle to the surface of metal products, located at an angle between 10 and 60omore preferably at an angle between 20 and 45opreferably an angle of 30o.

Preferably, the method includes tilting metal products in such a way that the surface of metal products is located at an acute angle to the flow ceramic vapor to obtain multiple layers having subgranule located at an acute angle to the surface of metal products for the formation of voids between adjacent subgranule.

Preferably, the method contains the location of metal products in such a way that the surface of the metal product perpendicular to the flow ceramic vapor to obtain layers having subgranule, arranged perpendicularly to the surface of metal products.

The method may include coating containing aluminum binder coating on the metallic article and the formation of the aluminum oxide layer containing aluminum binder coating.

Containing aluminum binder coating may contain a MCrAlY alloy, aluminic or aluminide platinum. their enriched platinum layer of MCrAlY alloy on the binder coating of MCrAlY alloy, the formation of a layer of aluminide platinum enriched platinum layer of the MCrAlY alloy, the formation of the surface layer of aluminum oxide on the layer of aluminide platinum.

The method may include the formation of a surface layer of aluminum oxide on the metal product.

Metal product may be formed by the product of supersplash Nickel or product from supersplash cobalt.

Metal product may contain rotating turbine blade or a fixed blade turbine.

Ceramic coating forming a thermal barrier may contain zirconium dioxide, preferably zirconium dioxide stabilized with yttrium oxide.

The present invention will be more fully described by means of examples with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which: Fig. 1 is a schematic representation in cross section of metal articles having a coating forming a thermal barrier according to the prior art; Fig. 2 is a schematic representation in cross section of metal articles having a coating forming a thermal barrier according to the present invention; Fig. 2A is a magnified image of part of the coating forming a thermal other coating, forming a thermal barrier according to the present invention; Fig. 4 is a schematic representation in cross section of a metal product having the following coating forming a thermal barrier according to the present invention; Fig. 5 is a schematic representation in cross section of a metal product with another coating forming a thermal barrier according to the present invention; Fig. 6 is a schematic representation in cross section of a metal product having a different coating forming a thermal barrier according to the present invention; Fig. 7 is a graph showing the intensity of the erosion of the ceramic coating forming a thermal barrier against angle subgranule in both ceramic grains; Fig. 8 is a graph showing thermal conductivity of the ceramic coating forming a thermal barrier against angle subgranule in both ceramic granule.

Referring to Fig. 1, depicting the prior art, shows a portion of the product 10 supersplash provided a multilayer coating forming a thermal barrier, indicated by the digital position 12. It pie 14 on the substrate 10 from supersplash, the oxide layer 16 on the connecting surface 14 and the ceramic coating 18, which forms a thermal barrier, the layer of oxide 16. Binder cover 14 is usually containing aluminum alloy such as MCrAlY alloy, where M is at least one of Ni, Co and Fe, aluminium Nickel, aluminium cobalt or aluminium platinum. The oxide layer typically contains aluminum oxide with other oxides.

Ceramic coating 18, which forms a thermal barrier, contains many spar ceramic granules 20, which are arranged essentially perpendicular to the surface of the substrate 10 supersplash.

It was found that thermal conductivity of the ceramic coating 18 spar structure, forming a thermal barrier of the prior art, exceeds thermal conductivity of the ceramic coating forming a thermal barrier of the prior art obtained by sputtering in the plasma.

Multilayer coating 12, which forms thermal barrier is applied to the product 10 supersplash first deposition binder of the coating 14 of the MCrAlY alloy sputtering plasma, or by deposition from the vapor, or by the formation of a binder cover 14 from aluminide Nickel diffusion aluminio what their platinum. Ceramic coating 18, which forms a thermal barrier, and then applied on the binder cover 14 by deposition from the vapor, usually electron-beam deposition. The oxide layer 16 is formed on the connecting surface 14 when the product 10 supersplash is heated to the working temperature in the chamber of an electron-beam vapor deposition, due to the presence of oxygen. The product 10 out of supersplash rotates in the chamber of an electron-beam vapor deposition in a ceramic pairs for ceramic coating 18, which forms a thermal barrier.

Referring to Fig. 2, depicting the present invention, showing part of the product 30 from supersplash provided a multilayer coating forming a thermal barrier, which is indicated by the digital position 32. It shows just made. The coating 32, which forms a thermal barrier, contains a binder coating 34 on the substrate 30 from supersplash, the oxide layer 36 on the connecting surface 34 and the ceramic coating 38, which forms a thermal barrier, on the oxide layer 36. Binder coating 34 is about substance containing aluminum alloy such as MCrAlY alloy, where M is at least one of Ni, Co and Fe, aluminium Nickel, aluminium cobalt or alumite 38, forming a thermal barrier, contains many spar ceramic grains 40, which are arranged essentially perpendicular to the surface of the substrate 30 from supersplash. In addition, it is seen that each spar ceramic granule contains 40 multiple layers 42 and 44. Subgranule 46 in layers 42 are arranged essentially perpendicular, at an angle alpha 1 to the surface of the substrate 30 from supersplash and subgranule 48 in layers 44 are arranged at an acute angle alpha 2 to the surface of the substrate 30 from supersplash. In addition, between adjacent subgranule 48 in layers 44 are formed voids or pores 50, which are more clearly shown in Fig. 2A, and voids 50 are arranged at the same acute angle alpha 2 to the surface of the substrate from supersplash. The difference between layers 42 and 44 in the structure provides the interface that reduce thermal conductivity of the ceramic coating 38, which forms a thermal barrier. The thickness of the layers is selected to reduce or specific phonon thermal conductivity or specific photon conductivity. In addition, voids 50 between adjacent subgranule 48 in layers 44 reduce specific phonon thermal conductivity of the ceramic coating 18, which forms thermal bar is 44 thickened.

It was found that thermal conductivity forming a thermal barrier ceramic pokrytiya 38 spar structure according to the present invention has a lower thermal conductivity than forming a thermal barrier ceramic coating 18 spar structure of the prior art shown in Fig. 1.

It is believed that the presence of voids 50 between adjacent subgranule reduces the average length of the free passage of phonon and, thus, reduces the specific phonon thermal conductivity of the ceramic coating 38 spar structure, forming a thermal barrier.

Multi-layer, forming a thermal barrier coating 32 is applied to the product 30 from supersplash deposition binder of the coating 34 of the MCrAlY alloy sputtering in the plasma or vapor deposition, or the formation of a binder coating 34 of aluminide Nickel diffusion elyuminirovanie, or education binder coating 34 of aluminide platinum diffusion elyuminirovanie with modification of platinum. Forming a thermal barrier ceramic coating 38 is then applied on the binder coating 34 deposition in pairs, usually electron-beam deposition in pairs. The oxide layer 36, the image of the trip-beam deposition in pairs due to the presence of oxygen.

Article 30 of supersplash rotates in the chamber of an electron-beam deposition in a ceramic pairs to obtain the ceramic coating 38, which forms a thermal barrier. Layers 42 are obtained by deposition of a ceramic material, when the surface 30 of supersplash essentially perpendicular to the flow ceramic vapor from a source of ceramic material. Layers 44 are obtained by deposition of a ceramic material, when the surface 30 of supersplash is at an acute angle to the flow ceramic vapor from a source of ceramic material. Thus, the product 30 from supersplash periodically rotated from one position to another as the rotation in the chamber of an electron-beam vapor deposition. The layers are preferably executed when the surface 30 of supersplash is at an angle in the range from 10 to 60o, more preferably between 20 and 45opreferably 30oto flow ceramic vapor from a source of ceramic material.

Layers 42 may be necessary to provide erosion resistance of the ceramic coating 38 spar structure, forming a thermal barrier, if the angle of inclination alpha 2 is relatively small. When low resistance, as can be seen from Fig. 7, however, at low angles of inclination alpha 2 thermal conductivity is relatively good, as can be seen from Fig. 8. It is possible to simply arrange the layers 44 alternately with different angles of inclination alpha 2 to the surface of the metal substrate 30 and/or with the same angles of inclination alpha 2 to the surface of the metal substrate, but in opposite directions, if the angles alpha 2 is not too low.

With reference to Fig. 3, depicting the following example implementation of the present invention, showing part of the product 60 from supersplash with multi-layer, forming a thermal barrier coating, indicated by the digital position 62. It shows just made. Floor 62, forming a thermal barrier contains a binder coating 64 on the substrate 60 from supersplash, the oxide layer 66 on the connecting surface 64 and ceramic coating 68, forming a thermal barrier on the oxide layer 66. Binder coating 64, essentially, is a containing aluminum alloy, for example, forming a coating 70 MCrAlY alloy, where M is one of Ni, Co and Fe, with a layer 72 of the MCrAlY alloy enriched with platinum, and a layer 74 of aluminide platinum, as described in more detail in European patent application EP A. The oxide layer 66 obiecana with reference to Fig. 2, also contains both ceramic granules 76, which are arranged essentially perpendicular to the surface of the substrate 60 from supersplash. Moreover, it is clear that each spar ceramic pellet 76 contains many layers 78 and 80. Subgranule 82 in layers 78 are essentially perpendicular to the surface of the substrate 60 from supersplash, and subgranule 84 in layers 80 are arranged at an acute angle to the surface of the substrate 60 from supersplash. In addition, between adjacent subgranule 84 in layers 80 are formed voids 86 or pores. The difference between the layers 78 and 80 in the structures provides the interface that reduce thermal conductivity of the ceramic coating 68, forming a thermal barrier. The thickness of the layers is selected to reduce or specific phonon thermal conductivity or specific photon conductivity. In addition, voids 86 between adjacent subgranule 84 in layers 80 reduce specific phonon conductivity forming a thermal barrier ceramic coating 68. The layers 78 and 80 are located alternately to provide good erosion resistance, and the final layer 78 is thickened.

Binder coating 64 is formed by the deposition of the binder of the coating from the CPF is a reference to Fig. 4, illustrating another example implementation of the present invention, showing part of the product 90 from supersplash secured multi-layer, forming a thermal barrier coating, indicated by the digital position 92. It shows just made. Forming a thermal barrier coating 92 contains a binder coating 94 on the substrate 90 from supersplash, the oxide layer 96 on the connecting surface 94 and ceramic, forming a thermal barrier coating 98 on the oxide layer 96. Binder coating 94, essentially, is a gamma-surface enriched in platinum and priming gamma-layer enriched in platinum on superslave, as described in more detail in European patent application EP A. The oxide layer 96 typically includes aluminum oxide.

Ceramic coating 98, forming a thermal barrier similar to that described with reference to Fig. 2, also contains both ceramic granules 100, which are arranged essentially perpendicular to the surface of the substrate 90 from supersplash. In addition, it is seen that each spar ceramic granule contains 100 multiple layers 102 and 104. Subgranule 106 in the layers 102 are essentially perpendicular to the surface of the substrate 90 from superstore, between adjacent subgranule 108 in the layers 104 are formed voids 110 or pores. Differences between the layers 102 and 104 in the structure provide the interface that reduce specific photon conductivity forming a thermal barrier ceramic coating 98, or the difference in the structure between adjacent layers 104 provides the interface that reduce specific phonon thermal conductivity, depending on the thickness of the layers. In addition, voids 110 between adjacent subgranule 108 in the layers 104 to reduce the specific phonon thermal conductivity of the ceramic coating 98, forming a thermal barrier. Layers 104 are alternately with subgranule 108 in alternating layers 104 are located at different acute angles to the surface 90 of supersplash. In this example, subgranule 108 are at the same angle, but the angles are the same in the opposite direction. On top of all layers is provided with a thick layer 102 for erosion resistance.

Binder coating 94 is formed by the deposition of platinum on superpave and heat treatment for diffusion of platinum in superslow.

With reference to Fig. 5, depicting a further example of implementation of the present invention, showing part of the product 120 and what icia 122. It shows just made. Forming a thermal barrier coating 122 contains a binder coating 124 on the substrate 120 from supersplash and forming a thermal barrier ceramic coating 126 on the connecting surface 124. Binder coating 124 has an oxide layer, typically aluminum oxide.

Ceramic coating 126, forming a thermal barrier like coating described with reference to Fig. 2, also contains both ceramic granules 128, which are arranged essentially perpendicular to the surface of the substrate 120 from supersplash. In addition, it is seen that each spar ceramic granule 128 contains many layers 130 and 132. Subgranule 134 in layers 130 are essentially perpendicular to the surface of the substrate 120 from supersplash and subgranule 136 in layers 132 are located at an acute angle to the surface of the substrate 120 from supersplash. Additionally, voids 138 or pores formed between adjacent subgranule 136 in layers 132. Differences in the structure between the layers 130 and 132 provide the interface that reduce thermal conductivity forming a thermal barrier ceramic coating 126. The thickness of the layers is selected to reduce or specific phonon t is Olami 136 in layers 132 reduce the specific phonon conductivity forming a thermal barrier ceramic coating 126. The layers 130 and 132 are located alternately to provide good erosion resistance, and the final layer 130 is thickened.

Binder coating 124 is formed by oxidation of the product 120 from supersplash.

With reference to Fig. 6, illustrating another example implementation of the present invention, showing part of the product 140 from supersplash secured multi-layer, forming a thermal barrier coating, indicated by the digital position 142. It shows just made. Forming a thermal barrier coating 142 contains a binder coating 144 on the substrate 140 from supersplash, the oxide layer 146 on the connecting surface 144 and forms a thermal barrier ceramic coating 148 on the oxide layer 146. Binder coating 144 contains a coating of MCrAlY alloy, where M is at least one of Ni, Co and Fe, and an oxide layer is a layer of aluminum oxide.

Ceramic coating 148, forming a thermal barrier similar to that described with reference to Fig. 2, also contains both ceramic granules 150, which are arranged essentially perpendicular to the surface of the substrate 140 from supersplash. In addition, it is seen that each spar ceramic granule contains 150 multiple layers 152 and , is subgranule 158 in layers 154 are located at an acute angle to the surface of the substrate 140 from supersplash. Additionally, between adjacent subgranule 158 in layers 154 formed voids 160 or pores. Differences in the structure between the layers 152 and 154 provide a surface section, which reduce thermal conductivity of the ceramic coating 148, forming a thermal barrier. The thickness of the layers is selected to reduce or specific phonon thermal conductivity or specific photon conductivity. Additionally, voids 160 between adjacent subgranule 158 in layers 154 reduce specific phonon thermal conductivity of the ceramic coating 148, forming a thermal barrier. Adjacent layers 154 are subgranule 158 located at different acute angles, and it should be noted that these angles are gradually changed from the minimum acute angle to the layer 152, which has subgranule 156 at an angle of 90oand then the corners gradually change subgranular 158 to the minimum acute angle.

With reference to Fig. 7, which depicts the intensity of erosion forming a thermal barrier ceramic coating against angle subgranule in both ceramic granule, it is seen that the intensity arose increases with decreasing acute angle.

Referring to Fig. 8, which shows the specific conductivity forming a thermal barrier ceramic coating against angle subgranule in both ceramic granule, it is seen that thermal conductivity is greatest with perpendicular arrangement of subgranule to the surface of supersplash, and thermal conductivity gradually decreases with decreasing acute angle.

Thus, ideally forming a thermal barrier ceramic coating should have subgranule located at a very small acute angles to the surface of a metal product, in order to minimize thermal conductivity. However, this means that the erosion resistance forming a thermal barrier ceramic coating will be very low. Therefore, in order to obtain the reduction of thermal conductivity without reducing erosion resistance, it is preferable to have layers with subgranule located at a small acute angles to the surface of metal products, and layers with subgranule arranged perpendicular to the surface of metal products.

It is preferable to use layers with subgranule at an angle between 10 and 60omore predpochteni, perpendicular to the surface of metal products. It is possible to have many different types of arrangement of layers with different direction of subgranule to provide erosion resistance and the reduction of thermal conductivity.

Perhaps in cases where erosion is not a problem to have one or more layers with subgranule located at an acute angle to the surface of metal products.

In some experiments forming a thermal barrier coating deposited on the sample substrate of Nickel alloy. Binder coating of MCrAlY alloy was deposited on the sample substrate Nickel alloy brand N75, a layer of aluminum oxide was formed on the connecting surface of the MCrAlY alloy and forming a thermal barrier ceramic coating of stabilized yttria Zirconia was deposited on the layer of aluminum oxide electron-beam deposition from the vapor. The Nickel alloy N75 contains 19.5% of the weight. Cr, 0.4% weight. Ti, 0.1% weight. With the rest of Ni. The MCrAlY alloy contains by 31.0-33.0% of the weight. Ni, 20,0-22,0% weight. SG, 7,0-9,0% weight. Al, 0,35-0,65% weight. Y, and the rest With plus incidental impurities. Ceramic coating forming a thermal barrier, was deposited the two types of deposition on the samples.

EXAMPLE 1.

In the first type of process is tov per minute, when the surface of the substrate from supersplash was located essentially perpendicular to the flow of ceramics. In the second type of process 190 micrometers ceramics besieged during the rotation of the substrate from supersplash with a constant speed of 2.5 rpm, when the surface of the substrate from supersplash constantly moved from a position at an acute angle +25oflow ceramic vapor from a source of ceramic material in position at an acute angle -25oflow ceramic vapor from a source of ceramic material. Thermal conductivity forming a thermal barrier ceramic coating was measured and was 1,53 W/(mIt).

EXAMPLE 2.

In the first type of process 64 micrometer ceramics besieged during the rotation of the substrate from supersplash with a constant speed of 45 revolutions per minute when the substrate from supersplash was essentially perpendicular to the flow of ceramics. In the second type of process 190 micrometers ceramics besieged during the rotation of the substrate from supersplash with a constant speed of 45 revolutions per minute when the substrate from supersplash constantly moved from a position at an acute angle +25othe flow of the chemical vapor from a source of ceramic material. Thermal conductivity forming a thermal barrier ceramic coating was 1.66 W/(mIt).

EXAMPLE 3.

In the first type of process 26 micrometers ceramics besieged during the rotation of the substrate from supersplash with a constant speed of 6 revolutions per minute, when the surface of the substrate from supersplash was essentially perpendicular to the flow of ceramics. In the second type of process 228 micrometers ceramics besieged during the rotation of the substrate from supersplash with a constant speed of 2.5 revolutions per minute when the substrate from supersplash constantly moved from a position at an acute angle +25oflow ceramic vapor from a source of ceramic material in position at an acute angle -25oflow ceramic vapor from a source of ceramic material. Thermal conductivity forming a thermal barrier ceramic coating was measured and was 1,51 W/(mIt).

EXAMPLE 4.

In the first type of process 26 micrometers ceramics besieged during the rotation of the substrate from supersplash with a constant speed of 6 revolutions per minute, when the surface of the substrate from supersplash was essentially perpendicular the lava with a constant speed of 45 revolutions per minute, when the surface of the substrate from supersplash constantly moved from a position at an acute angle +25oflow ceramic vapor from a source of ceramic material in position at an acute angle -25oflow ceramic vapor from a source of ceramic material. Thermal conductivity forming a thermal barrier ceramic coating was measured and was 1.46 W/(mIt).

The total thickness of zirconium dioxide stabilized with yttrium oxide, for the four examples was 254 micrometer. Thus, subgranule in example 1-4 are arranged at an angle between 0 and 25oto the surface of the substrate. The thickness of the layers varies with the rotational speed of the substrate. The corners of subgranule in adjacent layers is changed gradually from the 25oin one direction to 0oand up to 25oin the other direction.

Thermal conductivity 254 microns zirconium dioxide stabilized with yttrium oxide deposited by conventional electron-beam deposition from the vapor is approximately from 1.7 to 1.8 W/(mK). You can see that the coatings in examples 1-4 have a reduced thermal conductivity compared to the conductivity is vapor.

Although in the examples 1-4 ceramics were applied during continuous movement of the substrate from supersplash between the two provisions, which have different acute angles relative to the direction of flow of the ceramic vapor, passing through the third position when the substrate supersplash perpendicular to the direction of flow of the ceramic vapor, it is possible to stop the substrate from supersplash for a certain period of time in either of two positions which have different acute angles relative to the direction of flow of the ceramic vapor. It is also possible to stop the substrate from supersplash at a certain time in the third position. Ceramics may be any suitable ceramic material such as Zirconia stabilized with yttrium oxide, zirconium dioxide, oxides of hafnium, cerium, aluminum and so on

Forming a thermal barrier ceramic coating is preferably deposited by a process of vapor deposition, preferably by electron beam deposition from the vapor or spray, but can be used by chemical deposition from the vapor and chemical precipitation using combustion (oxidation), which is described in International patent application WO A, opublikowany it smoother, especially if the coating should be used on the surfaces of the moving and stationary blades of the turbine. Ceramic coating forming a thermal barrier, preferably polished with vibropriboi using a polishing porcelain environments, commercially available under the trademark CR company Ceratex Engineering Ltd.

Polishing porcelain environment increase the surface forming a thermal barrier ceramic coating without destroying both the ceramic granules.


Claims

1. Metal article containing a binder coating on the metallic article and a ceramic coating forming a thermal barrier, the binder coating and ceramic coating forming a thermal barrier, contains many spar granules located essentially perpendicular to the surface of metal products, each spar pellet has many layers, having subgranule located at an acute angle to the surface of metal products for the formation of voids between adjacent subgranule, and voids are located at an acute angle to the surface of metal products, so obrazmisli product under item 1, characterized in that each spar pellet has at least one additional layer having subgranule, arranged perpendicularly to the surface of the product, and at least one additional layer having subgranule, arranged perpendicularly to the surface of the product, is located farther from the surface than the many layers that have subgranule located at an acute angle to the surface of the product, to increase the erosion resistance of the ceramic coating forming a thermal barrier.

3. The metal work on p. 2, characterized in that there are many layers subgranule located at an acute angle to the surface of metal products, for the formation of voids between adjacent subgranule, and many additional layers having subgranule, arranged perpendicularly to the surface of metal products.

4. The metal work on p. 3, characterized in that the layers having subgranule located at an acute angle to the surface of metal products for the formation of voids between adjacent subgranule are alternately with additional layers having subgranule, arranged perpendicularly to the annuli in adjacent layers with subgranule, located at an acute angle to the surface of metal products, located at different angles.

6. The metal work on p. 5, characterized in that subgranule in adjacent layers with subgranule located at an acute angle to the surface of metal products, located underneath the decreasing in decreasing the progression of acute angles.

7. Metal product according to any one of paragraphs.1-6, characterized in that subgranule in multiple layers, with subgranule located at an acute angle to the surface of metal products, located at an angle between 10 and 60o.

8. Metal product under item 7, characterized in that subgranule in multiple layers, with subgranule located at an acute angle to the surface of metal products, located at an angle between 20 and 45o.

9. Metal product under item 8, characterized in that subgranule in multiple layers, with subgranule located at an acute angle to the surface are angled pillars 30o.

10. Metal product according to any one of paragraphs.1-9, characterized in that the binder coating on the metal product contains aluminum and has a surface layer of aluminum oxide and ceramic is on p. 10, characterized in that the containing aluminum binder coating contains aluminide and received by diffusion or MCrAlY alloy.

12. Metal product according to any one of paragraphs.1-9, characterized in that the binder coating of MCrAlY alloy on the metal product is enriched with platinum alloy layer rAlY, a layer of aluminide platinum enriched platinum alloy layer rAlY, a layer of aluminide platinum has a surface layer of aluminum oxide, with ceramic coating forming a thermal barrier, located on the aluminium oxide layer.

13. Metal product according to any one of paragraphs.1-9, characterized in that the metal product has a surface layer of aluminum oxide, with ceramic coating forming a thermal barrier, located on the aluminium oxide layer.

14. Metal product according to any one of paragraphs.1-13, characterized in that the metal product contains the product of supersplash Nickel or product from supersplash cobalt.

15. Metal product according to any one of paragraphs.1-13, characterized in that the metal product contains a rotating turbine blade or a fixed blade turbine.

16. Metal product according to any one of paragraphs.1-15, characterized in that the ceramic coating, obrotowe the zirconium oxide stabilized with yttrium oxide.

18. The method of applying a ceramic coating forming a thermal barrier on a metal article containing the following stages: formation of the binder coating on the metallic article, the application of ceramic coating forming a thermal barrier, a binder coating by deposition from the vapor so that many spar granules have essentially perpendicular to the surface of a metal product, and the process of vapor deposition includes the first type of deposition that contains a deposition of ceramics such that there are a lot of layers in each spar ceramic granule, with multiple layers has subgranule, located at an acute angle to the surface of metal products for the formation of voids between adjacent subgranule, and emptiness come at an acute angle to the surface of metal products and, thus, reduce thermal conductivity of the ceramic coating forming a thermal barrier.

19. The method according to p. 18, characterized in that the process of vapor deposition includes the second type of deposition that contains a deposition of ceramics so that the formed at least one additional layer in each stolba the ones perpendicular to the surface of the product, moreover, at least one additional layer having subgranule, arranged perpendicularly to the surface of the product is longer from the surface of the product than the many layers that have subgranule located at an acute angle to the surface of the product, to increase the erosion resistance of the ceramic coating forming a thermal barrier.

20. The method according to p. 19, characterized in that it contains the deposition of multiple layers having subgranule located at an acute angle to the surface of metal products for the formation of voids between adjacent subgranule, and the deposition of layers with subgranule, arranged perpendicularly to the surface of metal products.

21. The method according to p. 20, characterized in that it contains the deposition of multiple layers having subgranule located at an acute angle to the surface of metal products for the formation of voids between adjacent subgranule alternately with many additional layers having subgranule, arranged perpendicularly to the surface of metal products.

22. The method according to any of paragraphs.18-20, characterized in that it contains a deposition subgranule in adjacent layers with su the ranks corners.

23. The method according to p. 22, characterized in that it contains a deposition subgranule in adjacent layers with subgranule located at an acute angle to the surface of a metal product, at an acute angle, decreasing at a decreasing rate.

24. The method according to any of paragraphs.18-23, wherein subgranule in multiple layers, with subgranule located at an acute angle to the surface of metal products, located at an angle between 10 and 60o.

25. The method according to p. 24, wherein subgranule in multiple layers, with subgranule located at an acute angle to the surface of metal products, located at an angle between 20 and 45o.

26. The method according to p. 25, wherein subgranule in multiple layers, with subgranule located at an acute angle to the surface of metal products, are angled 30o.

27. The method according to any of paragraphs.18-26, characterized in that it contains the slope metal products in such a way that the surface of metal products is located at an acute angle to the flow ceramic vapor to obtain multiple layers having subgranule located at an acute angle to the surface of metal products for aspolozhena metal products thus the surface of metal products perpendicular to the flow ceramic vapor to obtain layers having subgranule, arranged perpendicularly to the surface of metal products.

29. The method according to any of paragraphs.18-28, characterized in that it contains a coating containing aluminum binder coating on the metallic article and the formation of the aluminum oxide layer containing aluminum binder coating.

30. The method according to p. 29, characterized in that the containing aluminum binder coating contains a MCrAlY alloy, aluminic or aluminide platinum.

31. The method according to any of paragraphs.18-28, characterized in that it contains the application of binder coating of MCrAlY alloy metal products, education enriched platinum layer of MCrAlY alloy on the binder coating of MCrAlY alloy, the formation of a layer of aluminum platinum enriched platinum layer of the MCrAlY alloy, the formation of the surface layer of aluminum oxide on the layer of aluminide platinum.

32. The method according to any of paragraphs.18-28, characterized in that it contains the formation of the surface layer of aluminum oxide on the metal product.

33. The method according to any of paragraphs.18-32, characterized in that the metal product formed from supersplash Nickel or of supersymmetry the battle turning a turbine blade or a fixed blade turbine.

35. The method according to any of paragraphs.18-33, wherein the ceramic coating forming a thermal barrier, contains Zirconia.

36. The method according to p. 35, characterized in that the ceramic coating forming a thermal barrier, contains zirconium dioxide stabilized with yttrium oxide.

37. The method according to any of paragraphs.18-36, characterized in that it contains the physical deposition from the vapor.

 

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The invention relates to metallurgy, in particular to methods metallothermic alloys of transition and rare-earth elements doped and can be used to produce alloys and special alloys

The invention relates to a method for extracting rare earth metals from their fluoride to obtain alloys comprising preparing a mixture of fluorides, aluminum powder, metal calcium and supplements, initiation metallothermic response to receiving the molten metal and slag phases, cooling, unloading and separation of the ingot from slag

The invention relates to the production of master alloys for permanent magnets, metal-based

The invention relates to alloys of gallium
Magnetic alloy // 2119967
The invention relates to the field of magnetic materials, namely, magnetic alloys based on rare earth metals
Magnetic alloy // 2119545
The invention relates to the field of magnetic materials, namely, magnetic alloys based on rare earth metals
The invention relates to a method of producing alloys based on rare-earth metals, scandium and yttrium metallothermic recovery

FIELD: metallurgy; metallohydride alloys for thermal pumps, air-conditioners, cold generators.

SUBSTANCE: proposed metallohydride pair of alloys contains low-temperature and high-temperature alloys; low-temperature alloy has composition mm1-xLaxNi4CO(0.1≤x≤0.999) and high-temperature alloy has composition LaNi5-xAlx (0.001≤x≤0.5).

EFFECT: increased cold generating capacity of thermal pump at pressure in system not below atmospheric.

2 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: non-ferrous metallurgy; methods of production of scandium-containing ligatures.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of non-ferrous metallurgy. The method of production of scandium-containing addition alloys includes a metallothermic restoration in halogenide melts. According to the invention the halogenide melt containing 1.0-1.4 mass % of scandium oxide is added with 1.4-1.7 mass % of zirconium oxide and conduct restoration by an alloy of aluminum with magnesium at the ratio of the halogenide melt to the aluminum-magnesium alloy from 1.2 up to 1.6. The technical result of the invention is production of a synthesized addition alloy containing scandium and zirconium with the maximal strengthening effect, decreased value of the produced addition alloy (by 30-40 %) due to decrease of consumption of the cost intensive scandium oxide by 50 %.

EFFECT: the invention ensures production of a synthesized scandium and zirconium ligature with maximal strength, allows to decrease significantly its production cost and consumption of expensive scandium oxide.

1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: compression refrigeration machines.

SUBSTANCE: regenerative material is defined by the formula R2O2S, where R represents at least one of rare-earth elements such as La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Cd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Ly, and Y. The regenerator provided with nozzle made of regenerative material on the basis of rare-earth metal oxysulfide comprises oxysulfide of rare-earth metal defined by the formula R2O2S.

EFFECT: prolonged service life.

25 cl, 8 dwg, 17 tbl, 28 ex

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: films and coatings made form proposed alloy can be used in the capacity of corrosion-resistant elements of control systems in precision instrument making, in the form of thin resistive films and coatings of circuit elements of resistance, operating at influence of corrosive mediums. Invention is directed to achievement of high corrosion stability in sea-water and increasing of processing characteristics at application of films and coatings. Optimal by achieved effect is alloy at following correlation of components, wt %: chrome 20.0-25.0; zirconium 5.0-9.0; cerium 0.1-0.9; germanium - the rest. Characteristics of proposed alloy: corrosion stability 0.001-0.005 mm/year, adhesion of films 8-12 MPa, cohesion of films 6.5-10.2 MPa. Films correspond nano-structured system with separation of nanoparticles of size from 30 up to 150 nm.

EFFECT: development of precision alloys with particular physicochemical properties, operating in corrosive mediums.

2 cl, 1 tbl

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: method includes treatment of contact surfaces to remove oxide film, heating of contact surfaces and application of metal coating from gallium alloy by local contact melting. Removal of oxide film is made by chemical treatment of contact surfaces with the first etching solution with its subsequent neutralisation and cleaning of contact surfaces from etching results. Then mechanical cleaning of contact surfaces is carried out by polishing, afterwards contact surfaces are heated, metal coating of gallium alloy is applied in the medium of the second etching solution, and subsequent neutralisation of remains of the second etching solution is carried out.

EFFECT: improved loading capacity of knock-down electric contact joint during transfer of electric energy without change in design of contact joint, while the temperature mode of operation is within the permissible limit.

8 cl, 2 ex

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: according to procedure there is used source charge containing sodium fluoride, potassium chloride, scandium oxide or fluoride, aluminium fluoride, hydro-fluoride of potassium and oxy-fluoride of zirconium and/or hafnium. Charge is mixed with metal aluminium to maintain weight ratio of components of charge to aluminium, as 1:0.8-1.1. Produced mixture is loaded into a crucible and is heated to temperature 800-900°C. Further, there is carried out alumino-thermal reduction at melt mixing. Melt is conditioned during 15-30 min and salt melt and liquid metal are poured separately into moulds. Source charge contains components at the following ratio, wt %: oxide or fluoride of scandium 4.3÷12.0, aluminium fluoride 5.0÷8.0, sodium fluoride 14.5÷18, potassium hydro-fluoride 1÷3, zirconium and/or hafnium oxy-fluoride 8÷15.4, potassium chloride - the rest.

EFFECT: improved modifying effect of alloying components, simplified process and reduced rotation of salts.

2 cl, 6 ex, 1 tbl

Flux-free solder // 2498889

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to soldering by gallium-based diffusion-curable solder and can be used for making permanent bonds of different materials, in particular, for low-temperature flux free soldering of metals and ceramics with metals. Solder to this end comprises copper, gallium and tin. Note here that it contains copper with particle size of 25-45 mcm and gallium-tin alloy at definite ratio of components.

EFFECT: low-viscosity high setting rate solder for flux-free soldering.

4 dwg

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: proposed active material contains the alloy of composition formula SixTiyZnz, where each of x, y and z is the mass percent content satisfying the relationship x+y+z=100, 38≤x<100, 0<y<62 and 0<z<62. Negative electrode comprises said active material. Electric device represents a storage battery with active material of negative electrode.

EFFECT: high initial capacity at high cycling characteristics.

10 cl, 10 dwg, 1 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: manufacturing method of rare-earth magnets involves a stage of bringing a compacted item obtained by hot processing in order to create anisotropy in a sintered item having a rare-earth magnetic composition in contact with alloy melt with a low fusion temperature, which contains a rare-earth element.

EFFECT: increasing a coercitive force without any addition of large amount of such rare-earth elements as Dy and Tb.

13 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of a rare-earth magnet. At the first stage a compacted powder part is produced from a powder including the main phase RE-Fe-B, where RE is at least one of either Nd or Pr, and the phase of inter-grain boundary around the main phase in the form of alloy RE-X, where X is a metal. Second stage involves hot deformation treatment of the compacted powder part to obtain magnetic anisotropy with production of a rare-earth magnet. Herewith the hot deformation treatment at the second stage comprises two steps, which represent an extrusion to produce a semi-finished product and settling of the semi-finished product. During the extrusion the compacted powder part is placed in a molding head to apply pressure to the compacted powder part with the help of an extrusion die with provision of reduced thickness of the compacted powder part to produce a semi-finished product shaped as a sheet, and during the setting pressure is applied to the semi-finished product shaped as a sheet in the direction of its thickness to reduce the thickness in order to produce the rare-earth magnet.

EFFECT: provided is production of a rare-earth magnet with high degree of orientation over its entire area and high residual magnetization.

6 cl, 18 dwg, 4 tbl

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