A method of burning fuel

 

The proposed method of burning fuel can be used in gas turbines and to find application in the energy, transport and chemical engineering. A method of burning fuel is that the air flow is divided into separate streams and then serves these jets in the axisymmetric bounded (with one closed end) submerged space so that the air velocity in each stream is directed towards the axis of this space, and the fuel is pre-served in the air stream and mixed with the air before the formation of the "poor" homogeneous air-fuel mixture, a jet of air is pre-divided into groups, and the fuel is served in one or more groups of jets of air, with each subsequent group of jets of air-fuel mixture is served in the mentioned space in the end section of the air-fuel mixture burning of the previous group of jets. When the reduction of fuel consumption and the increase of the coefficient of excess air fuel mixture consistently stop fuel flow to the group of air jets, the most remote from the closed end of the said space, while increasing fuel consumption and the reduction of the coefficient of excess air fuel air smithereens allows to expand the range of non-lethal and sustainable modes of combustion, as well as to reduce the unevenness of the temperature field of combustion products. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 1 Il.

The invention relates to energy, transport and chemical engineering and can be used in gas turbines.

A known method of burning fuel, which consists in the fact that the stream of air is pre-divided into separate streams and then serves these jets in the axisymmetric bounded (with one closed end) submerged space so that the air velocity in each stream is directed towards the axis of this space, and jet fuel are served simultaneously with the air in pricebuy area mentioned space (see , for example, A. Lefebvre. The processes in the combustion chambers of the CCD. M.: Mir, 1986, page 13, Fig. 1.1, g).

The disadvantage of this method is the high toxicity of combustion products due to significant emissions of nitrogen oxides. In the method of burning fuel mixing fuel with air and the combustion is carried out at the same time, which inevitably leads to the fact that in some areas the bounded space is the combustion of a stoichiometric air-fuel mixture at a very high temperature in the reaction zone. Postnova method of burning fuel is always accompanied by increased emissions of nitrogen oxides.

A known method of burning fuel, which consists in the fact that the air flow is divided into separate streams and then serves these jets in the axisymmetric bounded (with one closed end) submerged space so that the air velocity in each stream is directed towards the axis of this space, and the fuel is pre-served, at least in part of the jets of air and mix it with air to education "poor" homogeneous air-fuel mixture (see Method of burning fuel. RF patent 2128807 from 10.04.99).

Premixing fuel with air and maintaining the concentration of air-fuel mixture in the specified range ("poor" mix) eliminates the possibility of burning zones with very high temperatures and allows you to control the level of emissions of nitrogen oxides. Range, which must be supported by the concentration of air-fuel mixture, determined in each case calculated or empirically, based on the requirements on emission of harmful substances, temperature and air pressure conditions ensure the stability of the combustion process.

A significant drawback of this method of combustion is relatively narrow range of modes (the range is

Another disadvantage of this method is that almost all the fuel is fed in one section of the bounded space, resulting in thermal load is distributed unevenly along the length of the bounded space and its volume is not used effectively. In addition, with very limited possibilities of the formation of the desired temperature field of combustion products in the bounded space, resulting in increased radial and axial temperature gradients and, ultimately, reduces the reliability and lifetime of the devices that use this method of burning.

The task we address the claimed method of burning fuel, is the reduction of non-uniformity of the temperature field of combustion products and a wider range of lower toxicity and sustainable modes of combustion.

This object is achieved by way of fuel combustion, which is that the air flow is divided into separate streams and then serves these jets in the axisymmetric bounded (with one closed end) submerged space so that the air velocity in each stream is directed towards the axis of this space is orodno air-fuel mixture, jet air is pre-divided into groups, and the fuel is served in one or more groups of jets of air, and each subsequent group of jets of air-fuel mixture is served in the mentioned space in the end section of the air-fuel mixture burning of the previous group of jets.

It is possible to significantly extend the range of non-lethal and sustainable modes of combustion, when decreasing the fuel consumption and the increase of the coefficient of excess air fuel mixture consistently stop fuel flow to the group of air jets, the most remote from the closed end of the said space, while increasing fuel economy and reducing excess air factor of air-fuel mixture consistently serves some fuel in the jets of air coming to the jets air-fuel mixture.

To achieve the desired result of reducing the non-uniformity of the temperature field of combustion products and enhance the stability of the combustion of fuel, a jet of air is pre-divided into groups, each of which is served in a bounded axisymmetric submerged space in the end section of the air-fuel mixture burning of the previous group is Lina mentioned space, more effectively used for burning an air-fuel mixture amount several times reduces the value of the maximum thermal voltage section parameter characterizing the force of combustion chambers of gas turbines.

It is well known that with the reduction of forces increases the stability of fuel combustion, reduces the non-uniformity of the temperature field of the combustion products, which in turn positively affects the life and reliability of fuel devices.

The uniformity of heat dissipation in the bounded flooded space is substantially depends on the proper choice of the distances from the closed end of this space, which serves a group of fuel-air jets.

It is advisable to choose a distance so that the process flow in the bounded flooded the space in the direction of the open end of each successive group of jets of air-fuel mixture fed into the end section of the air-fuel mixture burning of the previous group of jets. The length of the section of the burn depends on the properties of the fuel, air parameters, the concentration of air-fuel mixture, flow patterns in the bounded flooded space and can the military way of fuel combustion can significantly extend the range of non-lethal and sustainable modes of burning fuel at the reduction or increase of fuel consumption, i.e., when the load changes fuel combustion devices using this method.

It is known that the combustion of "poor" (with excess air coefficient>1,61,8) pre-mixed fuel-air mixtures, the flame temperature is sufficiently low so that the reaction of formation of oxides of nitrogen flowed at a low speed and the level of emissions of NOxwas acceptable for modern gas turbines. It is also known that significant depletion" (>2,22,4) air-fuel mixture of the combustion process is terminated. Thus, the range of concentrations that can be sustained non-lethal burning "poor" pre-mixed air-fuel mixture, a very narrow: 1,6 << 2,4, while in real combustion chambers of gas turbines for idling and load ratings this attitude several times.

In the inventive method of burning fuel the expansion of the range of non-lethal and sustainable modes of combustion is achieved by the fact that when changing the fuel appropriately change the number of groups of jets in the sustainable non-lethal burning, while the overall coefficient of excess air in the fuel combusting device may vary within wide limits, depending on the number of groups of air jets.

So, while reducing fuel consumption and improving air excess factor toplivootdachey mixture consistently stop fuel flow to the group of air jets, the most remote from the closed end of the bounded flooded space, while increasing fuel economy and reducing excess air factor of air-fuel mixture consistently serves some fuel in the jets of air coming to the jets air-fuel mixture. Such an algorithm on and off of the work of individual groups of jets provides combustion air-fuel mixture in which a jet of air is always served downstream of the combustion products in the bounded flooded space, directed from its closed end to the open than jet fuel-air mixture. When any number is included in the working groups of the jets in the bounded flooded space in the area adjacent to its closed end, is the process of burning an air-fuel mixture, and lower flow in the area adjacent to open the and all currents of air; in Fig. 2 - fuel supply to the part of the air jets.

Air flow 1 pre-divided into groups of jets 2 and then serves these jets in the axisymmetric bounded (with one closed end 3) submerged space 4 at a distance equal to the length of the air-fuel mixture burning of the previous group of jets (x1x2,..., xifrom the closed end of the space so that the air velocity in each stream is directed towards the axis 5 of this space.

And fuel 6 pre-served at all (see Fig.1) or in part (see Fig. 2) jets of air and mix it with air to education "poor" homogeneous air-fuel mixture.

When the reduction of fuel consumption and the increase of the coefficient of excess air fuel mixture consistently stop fuel flow to the group of air jets (e.g., groups II and III in Fig.2) most remote from the closed end of the bounded flooded space.

With the increase of fuel consumption and reduction of excess air factor of air-fuel mixture are in reverse order, i.e., consistently serves some fuel in the jets of air coming to the jets air-fuel mixture.

Thus, when uminum the termination of the fuel supply first in III , and then in the second group of air jets, and Vice versa, with the increase of fuel consumption consistently serves some fuel first, second, and then in the III group of the jets.

The ability of the proposed method, no doubt, because it can be used widely known device: cylindrical flame tube, vozdukhoplavanie pipes, a mixing device, standard toplivopodayuschie nozzles, nozzles, etc.

Claims

1. A method of burning fuel, which consists in the fact that the air flow is divided into separate streams and then serves these jets in the axisymmetric bounded (with one closed end) submerged space so that the air velocity in each stream is directed towards the axis of this space, and the fuel is pre-served in the air stream and mixed with the air before the formation of the "poor" homogeneous air-fuel mixture, characterized in that the jet of air is pre-divided into groups, and the fuel is served in one or more groups of jets of air, with each subsequent group of jets of air-fuel mixture is served in the mentioned space in the end section of the air-fuel mixture burning preceding the rate of excess air fuel mixture consistently stop fuel flow to the group of air jets, most remote from the closed end of the said space, while increasing fuel economy and reducing excess air factor of air-fuel mixture consistently serves some fuel in the jets of air coming to the jets air-fuel mixture.

 

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FIELD: methods for burning of solid fuel.

SUBSTANCE: the method for salvaging of trinitrotoluene, whose term of safe storage has expired consists in the fact that trinitrotoluene is fed to the combustion chamber in a melted state (at a temperature of 80 to 90 C) and burnt off in the atmosphere of gaseous fuel-methane not containing oxygen in its composition, as a result of burning due to own oxygen of trinitrotoluene, a great amount of own carbon (soot) is extracted, which then finds industrial application. For burning of trinitrotoluene use is made of an installation including a combustion chamber, pressure regulators for delivery of molten trinitrotoluene and gaseous fuel (methane), electric igniter and a filter for catching soot.

EFFECT: provided safe method for salvaging of trinitrotoluene in the combustion chamber in the atmosphere of gaseous fuel (methane).

2 cl, 1 dwg

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