The method of obtaining the cutting tool of chemical-heat treatment with the formation of self-assembled wear layers of carbides

 

The invention relates to the field of metallurgy, in particular to integrated chemical-thermal treatment of the grinding tool steels. Method for obtaining cutting tool of chemical-heat treatment with the formation of self-assembled wear layers of carbides, including machining tool in final size, the subsequent chemical plating by deposition of the phosphor layer of Nickel of a thickness of 5-35 μm, heat treatment to melt the coating in the filling of the powder of boron carbide fraction 25-40 μm at a temperature of 960-1050oC for 10-20 min with cooling at a rate of 0.2 to 2.5oWith up to 500-600oWith, then arbitrarily with microwave and subsequent unloading. The technical result of the invention is to improve the wear resistance, strength, uniformity of the produced layers on grinding and cutting tool. 11 C.p. f-crystals, 2 ill., table 1.

The invention relates to the field of metallurgy, in particular to the chemical-thermal treatment of cutting tools, mainly grinding with the formation of wear-resistant carbide layers on less refractory substrate obtained galvano-chemical methods. Proposed is in mechanical engineering and special equipment when more erosion-resistant parts in ion plasma flows.

The objective of the invention is the improvement of wear resistance, strength, uniformity of the produced layers on the disk and the end cutting tool for various purposes.

Closest to the claimed method is a technology for producing wear-resistant coatings on the parts and tools to build self-organizing wear layers ("mechanical engineering", 2000, 3, S. 31-34), including machining tool in final dimensions, chemical plating deposition layer of phosphor-Nickel, heat treatment to melt the coating in the filling of the powder of boron carbide and unloading after cooling from the temperature of melting.

In the proposed method of processing to produce wear-resistant layers machined to the final dimensions of the tool is subjected to chemical plating deposition layer of phosphorous Nickel thickness of 5-35 μm, and heat treatment to melt the coating is carried out in the filling of the abrasive powder of boron carbide fraction 25-40 μm at a temperature of 960-1050oC for 10-20 min with cooling at a rate of 0.2 to 2.5oWith up to 500-600oWith, then arbitrarily with oven.

This will involve the formation of a flange of westeuropa with low critical speed quenching for the manufacture of the tool. While conducting vacuum heat during the melting of the sublayer in the vacuum of 10-10-2PA with the laying tool fixture of heat-resistant boronitrides ceramics and application named ceramics to protect the seats from the carbide coating layer, and the use of boron carbide of various factions to interact with the top and bottom surfaces of the tool when fusing Nickel phosphide. One of the steels with low critical speed quenching selected heat-resistant steel with 3% chromium 4H3VMF and also unloading tool from the vacuum oven at 150-200oAfter finish the martensite transformation.

The selected ratio of the thickness nikeshoesvogue coatings, sizes, fractions of the powder of boron carbide and temperature time intervals vacuum melting allow to obtain a wear-resistant layers with a uniform distribution of carbide particles in a matrix sublayer, with a smooth change in the hardness of the sublayer and transition diffusion zone with a maximum hardness of grains of boron carbide in the outer part of a self-organizing multi-layered structure. Selected intervals of melting temperatures, as well as the dwell time allows not only to increase the thickness of the layers, the oC/C when receiving the highest strength properties of buildings from steels with low critical speeds quenching. At the same time virtually eliminating thermal and structural deformation tool, the ability to save a cool landing size, which leads to minimization of the processes of grinding and finishing tool after high temperature reflow.

The invention is illustrated in the drawings of micro - and macro-structures self-assembled layers on several steels. In Fig.1A, 1B shows a schematic of the formation of the carbide layer on a disk tool, the last coating of Nickel-phosphorus and subsequent melting layer in the filling of the powder of boron carbide, where: 1 the tool body made of carbon steel, cast iron and heat resistant steel, 2 powder of boron carbide predetermined fraction, with the contact of the upper and lower surfaces of the instrument, 3 - snap from the neutral heat-resistant ceramics Bernardino.

In the implementation of manufacturing and processing tool according to the present method for the deposition of Nickel-phosphorus applied coating compositions of the baths in solutions which contained hypophosphite sodium 35-40 g/l, Nickel sulfate 25-30 g/l, thiocarbamide 0.2-0.3 g/l and equal dubawi baths and a two-stage deposition layer thickness in the range claimed. High temperature heating with the reflow of the coating in zasilek from a powder of boron carbide were in the bell-type vacuum electric furnaces GWA-2.4/15-S2 and GWA-2.4/15-I3 when the vacuum 10-1...10-2PA.

Example 1. Grinding disks with a diameter of 120 mm and a thickness of 3 mm made of carbon steel 20 is first subjected to machining by abrasive surfaces and planting holes, then covered with a layer of Nickel-phosphorus with the formation of the layer thickness of 35 μm, and then heated in vacuum at 980oC for 15 min in the filling of the powder of boron carbide fraction of 25 μm and cooled at a rate of 0.2oC/C to 500oWith, next to the oven to 100oWith and discharging into the air.

In Fig.2 shows fractorama from the working surface and the microstructure of the wear-resistant layer with wear uniform abrasive layer of high wear resistance. The table shows the sequence and processing modes, as well as the comparative properties of the grinding disk during processing of amber.

The wear resistance of the disk when high-speed grinding of natural amber at speeds processing 3600-4200 min-1increased 1.5-1.8 times in comparison with the prototype.

Example 2. Grinding attachment circles with a diameter of 140 mm with flange up to 5 mm when Eatery was subjected to application of the coating layer of Nickel-phosphorus with a thickness of 20 μm, followed by melting in a vacuum in the filling of the boron carbide fraction 30-50 μm and regulated by the rate of cooling from a temperature of 1000oWith up to 600oWith, which amounted to 1oC/C, then with oven arbitrarily. Processing is allowed to form a wear-resistant layer, comparable properties with layers of synthetic diamond.

Example 3. Grinding heads with a diameter of 11 mm, a length of 85 mm was secured with the formation of the working part on the proposed method. After turning in the final dimensions of the spent chemical Nickel-phosphating (hemicellulase) forming a layer with a thickness of 30 μm. Subsequent vacuum treatment installation slipheaven working part down in the filling of boron carbide fraction 50 μm in a cellular adaptations of heat-resistant ceramics BGP. After melting of the coating when the temperature of 1020oWith over 12 minutes were cooled at the rate of 2oC/C to 550oWith, then microwave arbitrarily up to 80oWith unloaded from the vacuum chamber into the air.

The treatment allowed to obtain self-organizing layers on the working surface, the thickness of 540-550 μm by changing the hardness of the carbide layers H0.5 H= 2600-3300, hardness transitional zones H0.5 H=1900-2500, the hardness of the enveloping phase H0.5 H=610-780, hardness sublayer N0.5 H=1100-1130, with a smooth transition to the base metal, andgain self-tool with the characteristics of the grinding 1.4-1.5 times higher than known and durability, the cleanliness class of the sanding surfaces of the screens from paroniria boron PPF higher manufactured by known techniques. Selfgrowth were universal and allowed to grind holes in precision alloys 29NK, high-strength steels type NB. At the same time ensured a high corrosion resistance in different cooling environments and emulsions, as well as increased hardness and strength of the mounting portion of the polishing heads.

Claims

1. The method of obtaining the cutting tool of chemical-heat treatment with the formation of self-assembled wear layers of carbides, including machining tool in final size, the subsequent chemical plating by deposition of a layer of phosphor-Nickel, heat treatment to melt the coating in the presence of a powder of boron carbide and unloading, characterized in that in the process of chemical Nickel plating is precipitated by the phosphor layer of Nickel of a thickness of 5-35 μm, and heat treatment to melt the coating is carried out in the filling of the abrasive powder of boron carbide fraction 25-40 μm at a temperature of 960-1050oC for 10-20 min with cooling at a rate of 0.2 to 2.5oWith up to 500-600o

3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that for the manufacture of tool use casting grey cast iron.

4. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the tool is made of chromium steel with 3-4% chromium with a low critical speed hardening.

5. The method according to p. 1, wherein the heat treatment is carried out in the vacuum of 10-10-2PA.

6. The method according to p. 1, wherein the heat treatment is performed on the devices of the heat-resistant boronitrides ceramics.

7. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the heat treatment of a Seating surface of the tool protects the installation of traffic from boronitrides ceramics.

8. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the tool bottom part in contact with the coarse-grained non-wetted abrasive.

9. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the upper tool and the lower part is in contact with the same abrasive different factions.

10. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the tool use strip steel HSPSP.

11. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the unloading of the vacuum furnace is carried out at 150-200oC.

12. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that during thermal processing using a ceramic snap out gently

 

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