A method of manufacturing a single-crystal metal wire

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the field of metal products for industrial use, namely metal wire. The method is uniform plastic deformation of the wire with a degree higher than 98% by twisting two wires in a spiral with a pitch angle of the spiral turns to its longitudinal axis in 20-58oC at a given speed twisting in time during heat treatment and further purification of the obtained wire from polycrystalline metal residues. In some cases, the deformation of the metal wire is carried out at a temperature (-200)-400oC. All parameters of the processing mode is set experimentally. Monocrystalline wire is confirmed by x-ray phase analysis. The method enables the manufacture of metal wire of refractory metals such as tungsten, molybdenum in the form of thin fibers with a diameter of 0.1-5 μm with nanocrystallinity the entire length of the wire. 2 C.p. f-crystals.

The invention relates to the field of metal products for industrial use, namely, metal wire, and relates to a method of manufacturing a monocrystalline thin metal wire with a diameter of 0.01-5 μm.

mm, b) fine from 0.10 to 0.4 mm, in) thin from 0.4 to 1.6 mm, g) average from 1.6 to 6.0 mm, d) thick from 6.0 to 8.0 mm, (e) a particularly thick above 8.0 mm

The technological process of manufacturing of cold drawn wire mainly consists of the removal from the surface of the rod (metal workpiece after rolling ingot) scale, drawing and heat treatment (if required), galvanizing, tinning, etc. Prepared for drawing wire rod is drawn on the drawing mills to medium size. Depending on the diameter of the finished wire drawing is made on mills single or multiple drawing. Secondary and fine wire drawing is carried out on multiple machines. Drawing of a wire to a diameter of 0.8 mm is conducted through the drawing of steel Board, and more subtle - through diamond dies (portages) (Technical encyclopedia, T. 17, Moscow, ogiz of the RSFSR, 1932).

There are a number of inventions related to improvements in devices for multiple wire drawing.with. The USSR 1759496, IPC 5 In 21 1/14, 17.08.90, RF patent 2116851, IPC 6 In 21 1/02, 06.01.97, RF patent 2144854, IPC 7 21 1/08, 15.06.98 and others) or traction mechanism drawing machine (and.with. THE USSR 1759495, IPC 5 IN 21 1/14, 17.08.90).

Known methods for the harvesting and further drawing of the workpiece, the workpiece is obtained by rolling the tape, the longitudinal cutting of rectangular cross section of the workpiece and rounding their edges. Before rounding edges produce a butt weld multiple pieces.

Ultra-thin wire (microwire) diameter of 0.5 μm provides a significant reduction in weight and size of the elements of the microwire, reduces their mechanical, thermal and electrical inertia. Made microwire casting in glass insulation. Famous works describe getting cast microwire. Provides information about the formation of a capillary, filling it with molten metal, the design of facilities for casting microwire, the individual components of the installation: micropace, feeder glass and metal, the transport mechanism, control system, etc. (Microecology and microtechnology, Leningrad, 1959).

A method of producing cast microwire from alloys of metals in glass insulation. C. the USSR 237941, MKI N 01 IN 13/06, 10.09.64, BI 9, 1969 ) weighted by melting the high-frequency current sample of the charge of metal, is placed in a glass tube using a rotating bobbin pull ready microwire in the form of chilled thin glass and is adjusted by automatically changes the speed of the microwire and the pressure above the metal droplet in micropace. With the aim of improving the quality of the microwire end of the glass tube is formed in the bottom, similar in shape drop hanging metal with subsequent processing of the tube degreasing composition and charge of the metal is subjected to vacuum heat treatment. There is a glass composition depending on the linear resistance of the obtained cast microwire.

Known installation for casting glass-coated microwire.with. THE USSR 240797, MKI N 01 IN 13/06, 31.08.64, B 13, 1969). The system includes a high frequency generator for melting metal, the mechanisms for filing glass, metal charge and receive microwire and broken veins. Conducted studies on the structure of the microwires. So it is established that lived copper microwire diameter less than 14 microns is the cross-section of a single crystal. For large diameters the structure is polycrystalline with large grains (FTT, 1960, vol. 12, S. 3048-49).

Technology for producing single-crystal filaments bismuth cylindrical shape with a diameter from 5 to 1 μm and a length of several hundred meters (Instruments and experimental techniques, 1976, 3, C. 256-257).

The closest method of the prototype is a method of obtaining single-crystal current of wolfgrammemorial polished and electro-polished single crystals subjected to compression at 200o40-70% with the subsequent step of annealing in vacuum or protective atmosphere at 1200, 1500 and 2400oWith in one hour at each temperature.

The disadvantage of all known methods is the production of cast microwire of a low-melting metals and alloys, as determined by temperature melting glass for the manufacture of capillary - shells microwire, and obtaining polycrystalline on the section of wire.

The objective of the invention was to develop a method of manufacturing a metal wire in the form of thin fibers with a diameter of 0.1-5 μm, preserving monocristalline the entire length of the wire and manufacturing wire of refractory metals such as tungsten, molybdenum.

The problem is solved by a uniform plastic deformation of the wire is above 98% by twisting two wires in a spiral with a pitch angle of the spiral turns to its longitudinal axis in 20-58oat a given speed twisting in time during heat treatment and further purification of the obtained wire from polycrystalline metal residues.

The problem is solved also by the fact that the deformation of the metal wire is carried out at a temperature (-200)-400oWith the second tilting coils of the spiral and the longitudinal axis of 0.1-0.5o/min.

Analogues of such a method of obtaining single-crystal metal wire is not found.

The degree of deformation, the angle of the turns of the helix to its longitudinal axis, and the rate of twist for each metal were established experimentally. It was found that the degree of deformation is determined by the speed of the twisting, depending on the speed of the twisting turns or single-crystal wire or wire with a large number of dislocations. Monocrystalline wire throughout the length of the tested x-ray phase analysis.

The industrial applicability of the method is confirmed by the following examples.

Example 1. For the manufacture of tungsten wire with a diameter of 2 μm with a monocrystalline structure using wire with a diameter of 40 μm obtained by drawing through a die. Take the two wires of the same length. On the one hand the ends of the wire clamp on the movable carriage, and on the other side is fixed on a motor shaft with adjustable in a wide range turnovers. Set the speed of the twisting of wires such that the angle of inclination of the spiral turns to the longitudinal axis 0.5o/min. After scrupulously in the section of the polycrystalline phase. From polycrystalline fundamentals wire clear elektrokhimicheskim etching in alkaline solution, and then receive two bundle of metal filaments.

X-ray phase analysis, it was found that metallic thread throughout its length has a monocrystalline structure.

Example 2. To obtain monocrystalline tungsten wire with a larger diameter (5 μm) two tungsten wire with a diameter of 1 mm, each twisted in a double helix in the mode of continuous heating wire to a temperature of 400opassing electric current. Speed twisting asked by modifying the angle of the axis of the wire coils to the longitudinal axis of the helix with 0,1-0,12o/min. and the resulting spiral is cooled and electrochemical etching clear of polycrystalline basis, the result is twisted into a spiral wire, consisting of a set of single-crystal fibers (whiskers), 5 μm in diameter.

Example 3. To obtain monocrystalline molybdenum wire with a diameter of 1.3 μm using molybdenum wire diameter of 50 μm. Two wire twisted into a helix with the rate of change of the angle between the axis of the wire coils to the longitudinal axis of the spiral 0,35-allsouth wire with a diameter of 100 μm. Two wires were fixed to the motor as in example 1. The process of twisting was carried out at a cooling wire to a temperature of -70oWith the rate of change of the angle between the axis of the wire coils to the longitudinal axis of the spiral 0,1o/min. Cleaning and x-ray phase analysis is carried out analogously to examples 1 and 2. The length of the obtained wire was from a few centimeters to tens of meters and can be produced in any length of wire.

It was found that for manufacturing single-crystal filaments of such metals as Nickel, iron, copper, aluminum, indium the twisting process should be carried out under cooling. For example, iron wire cooling is required to (-30)-(-70)oC, for copper wire up to (-70)-(-100)oC, for indium wire - up (-170)-(200)oC.

After translation polycrystalline fundamentals in single-crystal twist the remainder of the polycrystalline phase is 2-10% of the total volume in the wire. This polycrystalline residue can be removed by electrochemical etching in solutions of alkali or metal salts.

There were thus obtained monocrystalline superalloy metallic tungsten filament, molibdenovomu, for the reinforcement of metal products and plastic products.

1. A method of manufacturing a single-crystal metal wires, including uniform plastic deformation during heat treatment, characterized in that the plastic deformation of the wire is carried out with deformation rate above 98% by twisting two wires in a spiral with a pitch angle of the spiral turns to its longitudinal axis 20-58oat a given speed twisting in time during heat treatment and carry out cleaning wire obtained from polycrystalline metal residues.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the deformation of the wire is carried out at a temperature (-200)-400oC.

3. The method according to p. 1 or 2, characterized in that the twisting of the wires lead with speed, providing the angle of inclination of the spiral turns to the longitudinal axis of 0.1-0.5o/min.

 

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