The invention relates to towing devices with hydraulic shock absorber. Trailer hitch has a damping element made in the form of leaf springs, gidroaerotsentr formed by a traction element, which is the case of hydraulic shock absorbers, a reservoir for the working fluid and the rod. On one end of the rod is the piston, the cavity of the reservoir communicated with the cavity of the housing of the hydraulic shock absorbers by means of throttling holes made in the wall, pressed inside hydraulic shock absorbers. The partition and the piston has a valve system. The technical result - the sustainable movement of heavy trailers during their operation with tractors of great power and ability, as well as the reduction of the shock loads on the elements of the trailer hitch. 2 Il. The invention relates to towing devices with hydraulic shock absorbers and is intended to be coupled tractor-trailer.You know trailer hitch, consisting of shafts, housings, side, traction link, stops, springs, push ring having an inner conical surface, the friction elements, Li, cap (see and.with. 1323415, MCI 60 D 1/14, BI N 26, 1987).A disadvantage of the known device is that it does not provide a wide range of work due to the fact that the main design element is a cylindrical spring, the stiffness of which is selected in dependence on the forces acting on the spring, so hitch works effectively only with a certain amount of impact force, otherwise increasing the power leads to the destruction of the spring, with the reduction of impact force on the hitch it will not perform to his appointment - reducing the impact of external forces on the tractor, because the spring will not provide an elastic connection between the tractor and trailer.The closest known technical solutions is a trailer hitch (see and.with. 1463515, CL 60 D 1/14, 1986), containing the shaft, the coupling loop and the traction element having a damping element in the form of a cylinder, the seals which are installed on the edge of the inner filled with the working fluid cavity, skipped rod having a piston with a throttling holes.However, such a design can not meet the smoothing process impact loads because that is the damping elements, and because throttling holes in the piston are of constant cross-section, does not lead to a reduction of resistance of the shock absorber with a sharp increase of the load.An object of the invention is to provide stable movement of heavy trailers during their operation with tractors of great power and ability, as well as the reduction of the shock loads on the elements of the trailer hitch.This object is achieved in towing device containing the shaft, the coupling loop and the traction element having a damping element in the form of a cylinder, the seals which are installed on the edge of the inner filled with the working fluid cavity, skipped rod having a piston with a throttling holes, characterized in that the damping element is designed as leaf springs, which is connected via the trailer drawbar with hitch loop and pivotally connected with hydroaviation, educated traction element, a reservoir for the working fluid and a piston rod, one end of which is located the piston, and the other end pivotally connected with the trailer, while the traction element is a body of hydraulic shock absorbers, and the cavity of the reservoir for the working fluid message is pressovannoe inside hydraulic shock absorbers, when this partition and the piston has a valve system that changes the cross-sectional area throttling holes in their opening and closing.Comparative analysis of the prototype allowed us to conclude that the claimed technical solution has novelty, as opposed to prototype this design has a damping element made in the form of leaf springs that allows the operation of the trailer hitch with the best dynamic characteristics, and also gidroaerotsentr formed by a traction element, which is the case hydrolysate, a reservoir for the working fluid and a piston rod, one end of which is located the piston and the cavity of the reservoir for the working fluid communicated with the cavity of the housing of the hydraulic shock absorbers by means of throttling holes made in the wall, pressed inside hydraulic shock absorbers, and the partition and the piston has a valve system that allows operation over a wide range of variable loads.The technical solution of the problem is illustrated by drawings.In Fig.1 - shows a General view of the trailer hitch.In Fig.2 - depicts gidroaerotsentr.Towing ustroennoe with the shaft 2 by means of overlays and clamps. Both ends of the leaf springs 1 through rubber bushings are attached to the trailer 3, the middle part through a hinge connected to hydroaviation, educated traction element, which is the housing 4 hydraulic shock absorbers on which you are installing the tank 5 to the working fluid. Through the seal housing 4 is missing from the rod 6 with the piston 7 with the throttling holes, partially closed valves 8 and 9, tucked respectively by the springs 10 and 11. The piston 7 divides the inner space of the housing 4 on the rod cavity And Rodless cylinders and the cavity B, which are interconnected through a throttling orifice. The cavity In the reservoir 5 to the working fluid communicated with the cavity B of the housing 4 hydraulic shock absorbers through a throttling holes formed in the partition wall 12, provided with valves 13 and 14 are pressed to contact respectively the springs 15 and 16.The proposed construction of a traction device works in the following way. When starting the tractor means, connected to the tractor, the shaft 2 under the action of the load begins to move in the direction of its movement. In this case the load through the leaf spring 1 and gidroaerotsentr is transferred to the trailer 3. If the terms of the motion of the train is such that the spring is bent forward either holes in the piston 7, they allow fluid to flow from the cavity And into the cavity B. However, the fluid flowing from the cavity And into the cavity B, cannot fill the latter completely, as released under the piston 7 volume greater than the volume displaced from the cavity And fluid. Lack of fluid in the cavity B is compensated by the receipt of it from the cavity In the tank 5. The liquid from tank 5 flows through a series of throttling holes in the partitions 12, partially closed valves 13 and 14.When abrupt starting of the Prime mover the speed of bending of the leaf springs 1 increases, and hence the speed of movement of the housing 4 also increases. This will lead to an increase in fluid pressure in the cavity and increase the hydraulic resistance of the shock absorber. At some value of fluid pressure, is dangerous for the strength of the shock absorber, will overcome the force of the spring 10 and the valve 8 will depart from the seat of the piston 7, thus forming a circular series of holes for the passage of fluid into the cavity B; from this moment, the hydraulic resistance of the shock absorber reduces.When braking heavily increased the pressure of the working fluid in the cavity B presses the valve 14 and the liquid will flow from the cavity B in the cavity In the tank 5. One is lost B through the throttling orifice of the piston in the cavity A.We offer trailer hitch allows you to provide a compact construction, a wide range of variable loads with high efficiency smoothing shock loads, which can reduce fuel consumption, increase productivity, transport trains and to improve the working conditions of the driver.
ClaimsTrailer hitch, containing the shaft, the coupling loop and the traction element having a damping element in the form of a cylinder, the seals which are installed on the edge of the inner filled with the working fluid cavity, skipped rod having a piston with a throttling holes, characterized in that the damping element is designed as leaf springs, which is connected via the trailer drawbar with hitch loop and pivotally connected with hydroaviation, educated traction element, a reservoir for the working fluid and a piston rod, one end of which is located the piston, and the other end pivotally connected with the trailer, when the traction element is a body of hydraulic shock absorbers, and the cavity of the reservoir for the working fluid communicated with the cavity of the housing of the hydraulic shock absorbers by means of throttling holes made in the wall Suprema the cross-sectional area throttling holes in their opening and closing.
FIELD: transport engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to towing devices and it can be used in ball-type couplers of cars. Proposed coupler of car contains crossmember with crossmember-to-car body fasteners, longitudinal beam connected with crossmember and coupling ball installed on longitudinal beam. Crossmember is provided with bracket for connecting with longitudinal beam. Crossmember-to-body fasteners consist of two rigidly interconnected curved parts. Longitudinal beam is detachable, consisting of front and rear parts. Front part is curved and provided with bracket for mounting on car body bottom and with flange. Rear part has flange for detachable connection with flange of front of longitudinal beam. Coupling ball is installed on rear part. Crossmember bracket is designed for mounting flanges of front and rear parts of longitudinal beam and connecting the flanges with crossmember by means of detachable joint.
EFFECT: provision of detachable coupler meeting International Standards, easy to manufacture and install on car.
2 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: transport engineering; group vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: proposed draw-and-coupler gear includes draft pole adapted for connection with towing hook of prime mover by means of coupling loop and equipped with coupling forks for connecting with trailing vehicle. Design peculiarity of device is draft pole made in form of flat truss triangular structure whose load-bearing members are made of tubes with square cross section, and coupling forks are made for displacement along side of draft pole adjoining trailing vehicle with possibility of adjusting space in between. Draft pole is provided with hinge support with support roller arranged in traveling position in horizontal plane of truss and furnished with traveling and operating position stops. Coupline loop of draft pole is furnished with detachable bushing of higher hardness and wear resistance.
EFFECT: improved strength, wear resistance, reliability and safety of device at carrying of special equipment with different distance between coupled units.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: transport engineering; railless vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: proposed trailer-train draft-and-coupler gear consists of hook with latch engaging with trailer pole lunette. Radial through holes are made in lunette which accommodate spring-loaded ball solids of revolution engaging with mouth surfaces of prime-mover hook.
EFFECT: improved reliability of trailer-trains and safety on the road.
FIELD: transport engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used to decrease course drift of trailers of tractor trains. Proposed automatic device to decrease course drift of trailer has operating members in for of hydraulic cylinders mounted on trailer chassis, electromagnetically controlled hydraulic system, hydraulic pump and distributor with bypass valve. Device is furnished with additional independent operation distributors controlled by solenoids arranged on trailer chassis, transistors forming power circuit including solenoids and lamps showing direction of trailer drift arranged in driver's cab and control circuit including contact group which controls operation of operating members and being essentially sealed contacts controlled by permanent magnet and arranged on chassis of trailer between trailer slewing circle and load platform. Placed in control circuit is sealed contact operated by permanent magnet and located on steering column which controls operation of automatic device reducing drift of trailer at cornering.
EFFECT: increased speed of train and capacity, reduced tendency to jack-knifing when negotiating slopes, simplified design.
FIELD: mechanical engineering; ground servicing of aircraft.
SUBSTANCE: proposed transportation facility includes truck tractor and carrier with grip on free end with is engageable with aircraft front undercarriage leg. Facility is provided with automation unit consisting of sensor mounted on carrier which responds to linear changes in sizes and sends signal to control unit amplifier mounted on board aircraft for control of three-position solenoid-operated valve adjusting the working fluid delivery to actuating cylinders and quick-detachable pushers mounted on rear legs of aircraft undercarriage. They are connected with wheel hubs and are used for conversion of potential power accumulated during aircraft landing to torque on wheels of rear legs of undercarriage taking large part of its weight.
EFFECT: improved dampening characteristics of stabilizer.
FIELD: transport engineering; railless vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: proposed trailer-train consists of semi-trailer with support gear and support sheet of frame step in contact with turntable of fifth wheel coupling of prime-mover equipped with grips engaging with pivot of semi-trailer. Turntable of fifth wheel coupling of prime-mover is provided with vertical hole accommodating movably fitted-in pin spring-loaded relative to turntable, one end of pin has flat to engage with support sheet of semi-trailer frame step, and the other has conical section to engage with grips spring-loaded relative to each other by extension spring. Spring-loaded lock is installed for movement in horizontal plane of turntable, engaging at one side with circular recess of said pin, and at other side, carrying curvilinear rod whose radius of curvature is identical to radius of generatrix of end face surface of turntable and which is mated with spring-loaded stop installed for movement in slot made in support sheet of semi-trailer frame step. Said spring-loaded stop engages with one arm of spring-loaded bell-crank hinge-mounted on frame of semi-trailer, other arm of bell crank being coupled by means of flexible tie with frame of semi-trailer engaging with bracket rigidly secured on one of posts of support gear of semi-trailer.
EFFECT: provising of automatic coupling and uncoupling of trailer-train members.
FIELD: transport engineering; trailer-trains.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to trailers of trailer-trains and can be used to increase maneuverability of trailer-train by increasing length of draft pole at considerable angles of jack-knifing. Proposed adjustable-length draw-and-coupler gear has draft pole consisting of separate links hinge-connected to each other, gear rim secured on frame of trailer, gear wheel installed on subframe being in meshing with gear rim, accelerating mechanism made in form of two gear racks in meshing with gear wheels, each being rigidly connected with crank hinge-coupled with one of links of draft pole. Device is furnished additionally with connecting rod, one end of which is hinge-coupled with racks of accelerating mechanism, and the other, with gear wheel installed on subframe.
EFFECT: increased speed of action of accelerating mechanism, improved reliability and simplified design of device.
FIELD: transport engineering; trailing vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to trailing vehicles and it can be used to improve draw and coupled properties of vehicle and to reduce dynamic loads on its running gear and transmission at unsteady running by killing longitudinal resonance oscillations of trailer. Proposed trailer draw-and-coupler gear has draw link with rod passed through hole made in front part of pole. Cross-member is installed on pole, being furnished with lock member in places of connection with pole, and provided with central longitudinal hole. Cross-member is adjustable in length of rod in brackets secured on pole. Device is furnished additionally with spring with outer diameter of coiling changeable in length. Spring is coupled by one end through support plates with front part of pole, and by other end, with cross-member through rubber buffer installed on rod and pressed by two cups, body of one cup being nested in body of other cup. Support plates are made for shifting tight to cups and acting onto rubber buffer through cups to dissipate absorbed energy. Rod consists of two parts, one of which is fitted into the other, being fixed through plate by nut and safety pin with cotter pin.
EFFECT: provision of easy taking off from halt, simplified design of device, increased service life and improved draw-and-coupling characteristics of vehicle, reduced dynamic loads on running gear and transmission at unsteady running by killing longitudinal resonance oscillations of trailer.
FIELD: transport engineering; railless vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to different trailer-trains. Proposed support-and-coupler gear of trailer-train consists of turntable with vertical hole hinge-mounted on frame of prime mover and intercoupled with pivot of semitrailer secured on support sheet of frame step and carrying support posts with their drive mechanism. Hole in turntable is oval, with oval-shaped split elastic bushing fitted in oval hole for angular turning and provided with vertical slot whose size is greater in which than maximum diameter of pivot and furnished with triangular teeth on upper end face. Pivot on support sheet of step of semitrailer frame is installed for rotation relative to longitudinal axis of symmetry. Thrust washer is rigidly secured from one side, on end face surface of which teeth of indicated form are cut and bevel gear is provided at other side engaging with mating spur gear installed on shaft and engaging with gear rack rigidly connected to one of support posts of semitrailer.
EFFECT: automatic coupling and uncoupling of trailer-train member with provision of reliable coupling of prime mover and semitrailer under operating conditions.
FIELD: transport engineering; railway vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: proposed articulated vehicle consists of prime mover with fifth wheel coupled made in from of turnable with hinge mounted grips and lock engaging with pivot of semitrailer furnished with support device mounted on its frame. Vertically arranged and rigidly fastened plates changing into horizontal intersections are mounted on each grip on its end face surface pointed to head to head of prime movable. Half-bushings mounted on said sections form conical hole in joint whose vertical axis coincides with longitudinal axis of symmetry of rod rigidly arranged for movement in hollow pivot. Said rod is hinge-secured on one of arms of spring-loaded bellcrank installed on frame of semitrailer for angular turning. Other arm of bellcrank is in contact with support post of semitrailer support device.
EFFECT: improved labor conditions when operating trailer-train.