The cylinder block is made of light alloy, the manufacturing method and the device for implementing the method
The invention relates to wear-resistant and optimized tribological working surface of the cylinder. In the proposed block made of light alloy, is made of a matrix of an alloy based on aluminum with a fine surface layer containing silicon, according to the invention dispersed surface layer contains uniformly distributed grains of primary silicon round shape with an average diameter of 1-10 μm in the amount of 5-20%, the eutectic AlSi 10-14%, components of the alloy else, with a minimum surface hardness of 160 HV. In the proposed method comprising coating the surface of a cylinder of silicon powder and the surface treatment laser beam, the laser beam and the silicon powder supplied in the form of jets directed parallel to each other, and the laser beam is directed transversely to the feed direction of the surface of the matrix band width of at least 2 mm to ensure heating of the powder to the melting point and its diffusion only at the point of penetration of the laser beam on the surface of the matrix. The proposed device comprises a pipeline supplying the powder, a laser light source, placed parallel to each other in radial and sedge free from defects and oxide inclusions. 4 C. and 14 C.p. f-crystals, 4 Il. The invention relates to a cylinder block made of light alloy with at least one wear-resistant and optimized tribological working surface of the cylinder containing the matrix alloy light metals and containing hard alloy powder material, which is located on the matrix of light metals in the form of finely dispersed surface layer containing a selection of primary silicon.From European application EP 0837152 A1 ("Bayerische Motor Werke AG) is known a method of coating consisting of aluminum alloy part of the engine. When this laser beam reject so that it hits the surface of the coated surface at a first stream of powder. Due to the energy of the laser beam, the powder passes from the solid phase into the liquid, resulting in contact with the surface of the part he deposited it as a layered material in the form of small droplets, which are based on the solidification conditions partially amorphous harden.In the known method is not so then fusing the powder into the surface layer part, and is the phase transformation of the coating material on the way to the surface, and aluminum-cream is Erny silicon, the so-called primary silicon.Depending on the cooling rate should be formed of silicon crystals with a size of about 1-5 microns. The necessary rapid cooling in practice to achieve, however, is impossible, because the energy of the laser beam affects the covered item. The surface of the substrate becomes, thus, a very hot and therefore can not fast enough to dissipate heat entering the silicon melt, so that there are no crystalline phase and the primary crystals, and amorphous phase.According to the exemplary embodiment in the patent firm BMW, when the thickness of the applied layer of 3 mm to achieve a smooth flat surface of the layered material removed about 50% (column 6, lines 10-15). This means high losses during the removal of that as a fault should be attributed unused marginal zone due to high sinuosity drop-applied material.From European application EP-A-0221276 hereinafter known execution aluminum alloy is more durable due to the melting of its boundary layers by laser energy. While on the surface put a layer of binder, powdered silicon, copper and titanium carbide, and then fuse in povety surface.From a tribological point of view, this method due to the extremely high cooling rates in laser melting is achieved, however, high fine grain, however, is not achieved by obtaining a sufficient number of primary silicon. Therefore, the laser melting unsuitable for the manufacture of the working surfaces of cylinders of piston engines of AlSi alloys with bearing sites of primary silicon and shifted back containing grease areas.In the European application EP 0411322 A1 describes a method of manufacturing wear resistant surfaces of parts made of AlSi alloy coming from the above-mentioned publication EP 0221276, with, however, the layer before laser melting add a seed crystal (nucleating agent) for crystals of primary silicon. As a seed or nucleating agent used the following materials: silicon nitride, silicon carbide, titanium carbide, titanium nitride, boron carbide and bored titanium.In the preferred exemplary embodiment, the coating produced by the method of screen printing in the form of a detachable film and applied to the surface of the part. The thickness of the layer may be predominantly 200 μm, and the depth of the mould - 400-600 μm. To implement amnia in the alloyed zone was in example 25% with a share of 8% Nickel (hardness of 250 HV).As already said, in the latest methods of melting or mould requires cooling during deposition of the layer on the matrix alloy in order to achieve the desired fine selections of primary silicon. By adding priming can occur in the reaction with the surface of the aluminum. In addition, the coating methods are not always applicable to curved surfaces.From European application EP 0622476 A1 is known a metal substrate obtained by laser MMS-coating. MMS-layer has a thickness of between 200 μm and 3 mm and contains uniformly distributed particles of SiC, and MMS-layer contains preferably up to 40 wt.% SiC in the form of uniformly distributed particles of SiC. For the manufacture of a powder mixture containing SiC powder and pre-alloyed powder AlSi, heated by a laser beam, and the heat needed to produce a homogeneous alloy of the powder mixture, reach due to falling on the substrate powder. Products with hard alloys, such as SiC, have a very high hardness, the unfavourable nature of the wear of piston rings. In addition, the treatment is very difficult, because to achieve functionally suitable, free from oscillometry is therefore working cylinder made of light alloy with at least one wear-resistant, tribological loading the working surface, which surface layer comprises 5-20% fine primary silicon, which is the transition to the matrix alloy has a small width of the marginal zone and in the transition zone free from defects and oxide inclusions. Used for the manufacture of cylinder block made of light alloy, the method should be a small number of stages, and should completely abandon chemical modification.The problem is solved by using a cylinder made of light alloy with at least one wear-resistant and optimized tribological working surface of the cylinder, made of a matrix of an alloy based on aluminum with a fine surface layer containing silicon. Fine surface layer contains uniformly distributed grains of primary silicon round shape with an average diameter of 1-10 μm in the amount of 5-20%, the eutectic AlSi - 10-14%, components of the alloy - the rest, with a minimum surface hardness of 160 HV.Primary grain silicon is distributed in the surface layer at a distance of 1-5 times the diameter of the primary phases.Primary silicon is located in the matrix alloy in polhode on the working surface of the spiral cylinder and the width of the strips is 2-4 mm, moreover, the number of adjacent zones doping provides the overlap of the bands whose width is 5-10%.The problem is solved, in addition, also using a cylinder made of light alloy with at least one wear-resistant and optimized tribological working surface of the cylinder, made of a matrix of an alloy based on aluminum with a fine surface layer containing silicon, while the surface layer contains a selection of primary silicon and is a diffusion layer containing the alloying zone, rich secretions and poor discharge formed uniformly distributed grains of primary silicon round shape average diameter of 1-10 μm, and the area of alloying contains 10-14% of the eutectic AlSi, 5-20% of primary silicon, the rest components of the alloy, the minimum surface hardness of 160 HV.For the manufacture of the cylinder block made of light alloy with at least one wear-resistant and optimized tribological working surface of the cylinder, made of a matrix of an alloy based on aluminum with a fine surface layer containing silicon, a method comprising coating the surface of qi is built gravitational method, by the method of low-pressure molding under pressure, with the laser beam and the silicon powder supplied in the form of jets directed parallel to each other, and the laser beam is directed transversely to the feed direction of the surface of the matrix of the alloy strip width of at least 2 mm to ensure heating of the powder within a contact time of 0.1-0.5 C up to the melting temperature and its diffusion only at the point of penetration of the laser beam on the surface of the matrix of the alloy based on aluminum.Matrix-based alloy aluminum completely melted at the point of penetration of the laser beam to a depth of at least 350 microns on the surface of the matrix alloy translate it into a plasma state.The powder is melted to provide education diffusion of the alloying zone having a thickness of 500-1000 microns.Powder, shortly before contact with the metal matrix alloy having a granular structure, melt and fuse only in contact with the metal matrix alloy in the zone of contact of the laser beam within a contact time of 0.1-0.5 C.In accordance with the invention control the flow rates of the laser beam and the jet of powder to provide Diffie circular shape with a size less than 10 microns, the distances between which are 1-5 times the diameter of the primary phases and receiving the discharge of solid phases when the hardness of the layer 110-160 HV. When this powder served with a speed of 0.8-4.0 m per minute when the focused area of contact of the laser beam 1-10 mm2and the laser power 3-4 kW.A laser beam with a linear focus spiral rotate on the inner working surface of the hollow cylinder and through the additive of silicon powder form prosobranch zone alloying containing primary silicon. Processing in the area of doping is carried out on the average depth component of 750 μm. Solid phase zone alloying free machining, and eat the top layer is less than 30% of the total layer thickness. Zone alloying directly hangingout without intermediate processing.According to the invention for implementing the method is provided by the device used mainly for the production of a cylinder block made of light alloy with at least one wear-resistant and optimized tribological working surface of the cylinder containing the pipeline supplying the powder, the laser light source and focusing system with deflecting Adelina and axial directions of the hollow cylinder, the focusing system has a linear output beams of a width of 2.0 to 2.5 mm, and the pipeline supplying the powder, and fitted with a metering device through which is provided a flow rate control powder depending on the feeding speed of the laser beam.The focusing system has X-, I - or 8-shaped focus, providing upper and lower marginal zones increased energy output compared to the average area of focus.Below are some examples of execution, and we are talking about the preferred applications of laser doping according to the invention.First of all, describes a device for coating the inner space of the engine block made of aluminum or magnesium alloy, and the cylinder of the engine block down the probe, and at the same time, you can apply pure silicon powder. The probe contains a supply pipe for powder and a laser light source.By located on the probe drive rotation of the nozzle for issuing a powder and a beam of energy is directed to the interior space or working surface of the cylinder block made of light alloy.With the help of this device should occur the surface of the laser beam in parallel with the supplied silicon particles. To ensure that the laser energy is distributed on the surface of the matrix on the wide trail the laser beam has a linear focus with wide track mostly 2-4 mm In comparison with the obtained dot laser surface at the focus is not formed wave-like profile, and a flat strip with fine particles of primary silicon. The band is called the area of doping, and it has only a narrow transition zone (marginal zone) between the alloyed zone and matrix metal (Fig.1).Because the powder in the time shortly before contact with the metal matrix alloy has a granular structure and is melted and sealed only in contact with the metal matrix alloy in the area of the laser beam within a contact time of 0.1-0.5 s, the line focus is achieved a small fraction of the marginal zone of about 10%. Laser trace a spiral lowered into the bore of the cylinder, and, if necessary, you can choose to not overlap, so that the beneficial share almost vzaimozachety. Thus, there is a smooth, perfectly homogeneous surface layer, which must finally be processed only by fine processing to eliminate mild waviness.As an example, clicks Cotonou, tribological optimized the working surface of the cylinder come from the following processing steps: first, the matrix alloy create containing primary silicon area of the doping medium layer thickness 300-750 μm. The exact values of the layer thickness depends on various influencing factors, such as parameters of the method, the accuracy of the positioning device and the tolerances of the dimensions of the casting. So below all data thickness talking about "average" thickness, and field tolerances can be maintained very narrow, as the device may be centered on the details.The original thickness of the layer of 300-750 μm bring then in the next step, to the desired final layer thickness of 150 μm thin machining with removal of material, such as honing. Achieved by the method according to the invention, the final thickness of the layer is in the range 150-650 mm. When it comes to pure diffusion layer, wherein the special, characterized in PP. 1 and 2 structure.By controlling the supply of powder feeding laser beam and the corresponding laser energy can be adjusted, the amount of separation of the solid phase. In terms of allocation of less than 10 μm decreases the depth of the fracture during mechanical final H phases can significantly reduce. (The depth of destruction is determined contained in the top layer, firmly associated solid phases).By then fusing laser beam surface hardening, and achieved values of hardness of the surface layer of at least 160 HV. Due to good quenching laser surface can be subjected to direct honing. Need still more mechanical or chemical operations release of solid phases is also no longer required. Thus, a need still boring coatings cylinder is no longer needed because the waviness of the surface depending on the overlap prosobranch zone doping can be neglected because it is very small.Achieved according to the invention the surface structure on the working surface of the cylinder block of the engine is explained in more detail below with the help of the comparative example.The drawings depict: - Fig. 1: schematic diagram is made according to the invention the device for coating, partially in cross section; - Fig. 2: schematic diagram formed according to the invention the surface layer; - Fig.3: comparative example with a different surface structure; - Phi is istwo the coating consists of a feed line 1 for powder, contains at its end 1A aimed at the working surface 5 of the nozzle 1b.The flow of energy occurs through the source 2 laser radiation, the focusing system 3 and the deflecting mirror 4, which ensures that a laser beam 6 on the surface 7 of the working surface with powder.According to known optical laws, the laser beam 6 is focused linearly, mainly X-, I - or 8-figuratively, and then display on the surface 7 of the working surface, for example by tilting the mirror. Due to the form of display can be controlled by the energy input, making it possible to act on the selected structure in its manifestation at the edges.Due to the rotation of the mirror 4, the laser beam 6 moves along the surface 7 of the working surface, resulting in Prosobranchia tape. If there is a simultaneous movement of the feed in the direction of the axis 8 of the cylinder, the result of the superposition of both movements occur spiral coating surface 7 of the working surface. Rotational and translational motion in the direction of the axis 8 of the cylinder should coordinate among themselves so that the coils of the spiral tightly to each other, thus a closed C the responses, single rich discharge zone 11 and two located on the sides, poor discharge zones 12, 13. In Fig.2 shows the state of the alloying directly after laser deposition, and it is seen that the share of LALpoor discharge area is relatively small relative to the useful length LNLrich secretions zone. Relevant areas related to the marginal zones 15, 16, 17, Fig.3 denoted byAK.In Fig. 3 shows, as a comparative example three zones alloying formed using a conventional circular focus, and the width of the coating in the method with a linear focus and method with circular focus approximately the same. It is seen that the effective length LNKrich discharge patterns in the way with a circular focus is much less than the effective length LNLat the linear focus. In addition, the useful depth of the cured surface layer with a circular focus is much less than in a linear focus, because the circular focus poor discharge structure comes to the deeper zones of the structure of the cylinder block. This is shown in Fig.3 in cross section through the wide edge areas 15, 16, 17.Since when is equal to the penetration depth of field is rite in comparative example worse. Furthermore, you should eatHWKin the comparative example is equal to the depth of treatment is significantly higher than in the example of the invention (HWL), because the circular focus creates a wavy surface layer, which in the area of the working surface has a smaller share useful MK material than the corresponding segment (LNLworking surface in Fig.2.Useful fraction of material in the example of the invention is the LNLwhile MK is the sum of the individual values of LNK1LNK2, LNK3.The cylinder block is made of light alloy according to the invention is therefore more wear resistant working surface of the cylinder, tribological optimized due to the uniform distribution of fine precipitates of primary silicon and produced with considerably less complexity due to the linear focus and coverage with overlap.This is illustrated using makrofotografie patterns in Fig.4. We are talking about micrograph of a thin section with a gain of 200:1, and in the right side And is visible foundry alloy grades AlSi9Cu3and in the left - optimized tribological surface layer with fine selections of primary cu is the primary phases of silicon 13 ám.For nagruzhaemoi new material is of particular importance binding zone In alloying with the structure And the matrix. In the micrograph of thin section it is seen that in the transition zone With no oxides or other defective areas. This is based on the fact that the area of doping was formed almost in the right place" from the structure of the matrix and thus in areas a and b arose single material of different composition.
Claims1. The cylinder block is made of light alloy, with at least one wear-resistant and optimized tribological working surface of the cylinder, made of a matrix of an alloy based on aluminum with a fine surface layer containing silicon, characterized in that the fine surface layer contains uniformly distributed grains of primary silicon round shape with an average diameter of 1-10 μm in the amount of 5-20%, the eutectic AlSi 10-14%, components of the alloy else, with a minimum surface hardness of 160 HV.2. The block under item 1, characterized in that the primary grain silicon is distributed in the surface layer at a distance of 1-5 times the diameter of the primary phases.3. Unit according to any one of paragraphs. 1 and 2, characterized in that the first is the average layer thickness of 150-650 μm, and stripes are on the working surface of the cylinder spiral.4. Unit according to any one of paragraphs. 1-3, characterized in that the width of the bands is 2-4 mm5. Unit according to any one of paragraphs. 1-4, characterized in that the number of adjacent zones doping provides the overlap of the bands whose width is 5-10%.6. The cylinder block is made of light alloy, with at least one wear-resistant and optimized tribological working surface of the cylinder, made of a matrix of an alloy based on aluminum with a fine surface layer containing silicon, characterized in that the surface layer contains a selection of primary silicon and is a diffusion layer containing the alloying zone, rich secretions and poor discharge formed uniformly distributed grains of primary silicon round shape average diameter of 1-10 μm, and the area of alloying contains 10-14% of the eutectic AlSi, 5-20% of primary silicon, the rest components of the alloy, the minimum surface hardness of 160 HV.7. A method of manufacturing a cylinder block made of light alloy, with at least one wear-resistant and optimized tribological working surface of the cylinder, the tions, comprising coating the surface of a cylinder of silicon powder and a surface treatment with a laser beam, characterized in that the used cylinder blocks made of the gravitational method, method of low-pressure molding under pressure, with the laser beam and the silicon powder supplied in the form of jets directed parallel to each other, and the laser beam is directed transversely to the feed direction of the surface of the matrix of the alloy strip width of at least 2 mm, to ensure heating of the powder within a contact time of 0.1-0.5 C up to the melting temperature and its diffusion only at the point of penetration of the laser beam on the surface of the matrix of the alloy based on aluminum.8. The method according to p. 7, characterized in that the matrix-based alloy aluminum completely melted at the point of penetration of the laser beam to a depth of at least 350 microns on the surface of the matrix alloy translate it into a plasma state.9. The method according to p. 7, characterized in that the powder is melted to provide education diffusion of the alloying zone having a thickness of 500-1000 microns.10. The method according to p. 7, characterized in that the powder shortly before contact with the metal matrix alloy area of contact of the laser beam within a contact time of 0.1-0.5 C.11. The method according to p. 7, characterized in that the control flow rates of the laser beam and the jet of powder to ensure the diffusion in the metal matrix alloy penetration depth 350-850 μm, with the formation of primary grains of silicon circular shape with a size less than 10 μm, the distance between which are 1-5 times the diameter of the primary phases, and obtaining a discharge of solid phases when the hardness of the layer 110-160 HV.12. The method according to p. 11, characterized in that the powder served with a speed of 0.8-4.0 m/min when the focused area of contact of the laser beam 1-10 mm2and the laser power 3-4 kW.13. The method according to p. 7, characterized in that a laser beam with a linear focus spiral rotate on the inner working surface of the hollow cylinder and through the additive of silicon powder form prosobranch zone alloying containing primary silicon.14. The method according to p. 7, characterized in that the processing in the area of doping is carried out on the average depth component 750 microns.15. The method according to p. 7, characterized in that the solid phase zone alloying free machining, and eat the top layer is less than 30% of the total thickness of the layer.16. The way the Device for coating the working surface of the hollow cylinder made of light alloy, at least one wear-resistant and optimized tribological working surface of the cylinder containing the pipeline supplying the powder, the laser light source and a focusing system with a deflecting mirror, characterized in that the pipeline supplying the powder, and the laser light source placed parallel to each other in radial and axial directions of the hollow cylinder, the focusing system has a linear output beams of a width of 2.0 to 2.5 mm, and the pipeline supplying the powder, and fitted with a metering device through which is provided a flow rate control powder depending on the feeding speed of the laser beam.18. The device under item 17, characterized in that the focusing system has X-, I - or 8-shaped focus, providing upper and lower marginal zones increased energy output compared to the average area of focus.
FIELD: physics; lasers.
SUBSTANCE: present invention pertains to laser technology, particularly to the method of cutting pyrographite using laser, and can be used in instrument making, and mainly in electronics. Laser radiation with central mode TEM00 is focused on the material. The focus of the beam is directed on the surface of the material, while keeping the density of the incident power within the 106-107 W/cm2 range. The work piece is moved at speed ranging from 1 to 3 mm/s. The cutting process parameters are determined by the expression , where K is the coupling factor of parameters, chosen from the condition 7·10-5≤K≤12·10-5; f is the repetition frequency of the laser radiation, τ is the pulse duration of the laser radiation, d is the diameter of the spot of focused laser radiation, and h is the thickness of the work piece. A laser with yttrium aluminium garnet active element, with controlled distribution of power in the section of the beam is used.
EFFECT: high quality of cutting material with a smaller heat affected zone during optimum process modes.
2 cl, 1 ex
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention may be used for creation of different single crystal processing tools, medical tools, for creation of electric contacts with metal on the surface of semiconductor and other diamonds. Preliminarily surface of diamond single crystal is polished to 5th class of roughness (according to state standard GOST 2789-73) and degreased. Degreased surface of diamond single crystal is coated with intermediate layer with thickness of 0.05÷0.4 mm from mixture of nanodispersed powders of ferric oxides with size of particles of 20÷40 nm and fullerene C60. Ratio of ferrous oxides content to fullerene C60 makes 10-50:90-50 wt %. Then place of contact is exposed to pressure of 2.0÷5.0 GPa and simultaneously to shift effect by rotation at the angle of 100÷1000 degrees.
EFFECT: higher strength and quality of diamond single crystal binding to metal.
3 cl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: method includes fixation of polarised flat piezoceramic plate and cutting with laser beam. Fixation is carried out in cuvette on surface of cooling liquid or on gasket from porous material impregnated with cooling liquid, amount of which is maintained at the level of gasket. Cutting is done by focused interrupting laser beam along circuit of cut item in one or more stages with simultaneous cooling of cutting circuit. Device comprises laser, control system, mechanisms of optical elements moving, technological table with cuvette of soft magnetic material installed on it and partially filled with water, on bottom of which there is a porous material intended to locate cut flat piezoceramic plate, and fixation device of specified plate.
EFFECT: simplified technology of manufacturing of flat piezoceramic items of various configuration and dimensions and improvement of their properties and parametres due to provision of usage of whole surface of piezoelement.
7 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to machine building and may be used in welding different materials by laser radiation. Plane of but joint between said parts is inclined along tangential line to segment of welded seam thermal effect. Laser radiation is focused to material with higher heat resistance at a distance from butt plane. But joint plane inclination angle and focus distance are determined with due allowance for inhibiting evaporation of low-melting metal. Laser radiation is fed onto welded surfaces to heat welding zone to melting temperature to produce, thereafter, a welded seam.
EFFECT: possibility to weld different metals together.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises source 3 to form heat feed zone 11 on part surface 10, device 5 to feed welding filler 13 into said zone 11 and device 15 to displace heat source 3 and filler feed device 5 relative to part surface 10. Control unit 17 with control program controls displacement so that welding power and heat feed zone diameter are set to ensure cooling rate of at least 8000 K per second at material crystallisation. Depth of remelting previous layer is set proceeding from the condition of formation of polycrystalline weld seam.
EFFECT: rules out cracks.
14 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to cutting of fragile nonmetallic materials, for example, quartz glass, etc. Proposed method comprises making a local notch at workpiece edge in cutting line, heating the latter by laser beam and cooling it by coolant at relative displacement of material and laser beam with coolant. For cutting, workpiece is heated by laser beam before making said notch to be made in laser beam zone or immediately there behind. Notch is made at relative displacement of workpiece at the rate v with time delay with respect to beginning t of heating by laser beam defined by equation t=Ask/v where A is half the elliptic beam in direction of displacement or round beam radius, k varies from 1 to 2.5.
EFFECT: expanded possibilities owing to application of LUT cutting method.
1 tbl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: parts are welded at laser beam and arc effects in one molten pool in the medium of inert gas. Laser beam and arc torch are inclined in opposite directions relative to perpendicular to the surface of parts being welded. Laser beam is focused above the surface of said parts, its spot diameter equal to (0.4-0.6) mm ahead the arc discharge point at preset distance therefrom at the threshold power density required for the welding process start while, in the run, said laser beam is inclined forward through 8-9 degrees. Arc torch is located behind the laser beam at the angle of 40-50 degrees. The distance between the laser radiation spot centre and arc discharge point is kept equal to (0.1-0.2) of the electrode diameter.
EFFECT: weld of stable depth with the characteristics approximating to 1, no pores, minimum power input, higher welding rate.
2 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of laser-arc welding of thick-sheet steel structures and can be used in various industries. Hybrid laser-arc head is used. Arc burner is located in front of laser beam in the direction of its movement, grooving is made in X-shap, opening angle of which does not exceed 20° at each side, and nose ranges from 40 to 50% of the blank thickness. Node of X-shaped grooving is welded in one pass on all nose sections, when hybrid laser-arc welding head moves from top to bottom with the laser beam located perpendicular to the section of connection zone surface. Further filling at each side of grooving is made with transverse oscillations of laser-arc head.
EFFECT: high quality of welded joints due to increased strength, absence of lack of fusion and reduction of thermal influence zone size.
1 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: personal demand items.
SUBSTANCE: razor includes a handle (12) and the shaving head (13) adapted to move relative to each other about a pivot axis (16) and/or linear motion along the axis (17). This facilitates movement following the contour of the skin during shaving in order to achieve a close shave. The handle (12) is a laser source emitting a laser beam, and the shaver has an optical system comprising optical elements (23, 25, 26, 37, 40, 42) for directing the laser beam so that it coincides with the axis of rotation (16) and/or parallel to the linear axis of motion (17).
EFFECT: use of the invention can improve the quality of shaving.
19 cl, 8 dwg
SUBSTANCE: irradiation of the surface with a laser pulse of rectangular shape with the required energy density is performed. The initial laser pulse is divided into two pulses of equal power by means of dielectric mirror with reflection factor of 50% and time delay of the second pulse is performed during operation of the first pulse.
EFFECT: increased yield of useful products in the process of laser annealing of non-metallic materials due to reduction of thermo-elastic stresses and area of possible break-out of material.
FIELD: mechanical engineering, restoration of machine parts.
SUBSTANCE: method is realized by applying at least one coating by means of electric spark alloying. Wear resistance coating is applied with use of electrode of boron alloyed intermetallide Ni3Al containing, mass %: Al, 2 - 15; B, 0.02 - 02; Ni, the balance. In variants of invention electrode contains in addition dispersed particles of Si3 N4. Before applying on part layer of wear resistant coating, nickel layer with thickness 20 - 50 micrometers is applied as intermediate adhesion barrier. Coated parts are subjected to mechanical working. Restoration is realized for parts with wear degree up to 100 micrometers or with wear degree 100 - 300 micrometers.
EFFECT: possibility for restoring parts, improving their wear resistance and increasing adhesion strength of applied coating with base material of part.
6 cl, 3 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: processes and equipment for joining by rolling different type liquid and solid metals, possibly manufacture of clad metallic sheets and articles in different branches of industry.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of pouring melt metal onto surface of different solid main metal coated with flux for soldering; rolling metals under pressure for rapid cooling of melt metal, crystallizing it and joining with surface of solid main metal due to metallurgical joining between two or more metals. Plant for performing the method includes mounted according to desired order: machine for uncoiling sheet metal from coil; vessel with soldering flux; unit for drying and heating; casting nozzle; rolls with inner cooling and machine for coiling sheet metal. Ladle for melt metal is arranged over casting nozzle. Main frame of plant is arranged under said ladle.
EFFECT: enhanced strength of different metals joints, low cost of products, improved efficiency, high quality of sheet metal, relatively small cost of plant, decreased power consumption.
14 cl, 6 dwg, 3 ex
FIELD: many branches of industry; methods of fritting and polymerization in the furnace of the powder coatings.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the method of heating and fritting of the polymeric powder coatings applied on articles and may be used in many branches of industry for painting articles of the various configurations. The method includes: charging by batches of the articles in the furnace, heating with realization of polymerization of their powdery coatings and refrigeration. Before the heating operation in the working space of the furnace create rarefaction by means of preliminary switching on the ventilation and circulation system. After the heating up to the preset temperature conduct the periodical switching-on / switching-off of the electric heater of the furnace. At that the blowout of the air from the furnace is conducted. For keeping the preset temperature over the whole operational volume of the furnace through at least one pilot hole in the furnace the portions of the cold air are periodically pumped in. Then conduct refrigeration, at which the electric heater is finally switched off, and the air saturated with the products of polymerization is removed from the furnace, create the rarefaction and feed the new batch of the cold air into the furnace. For realization of the heating they use the electric heater made out of the steel sheets and the square-shaped metallic tubes. The tubes have holes used for arrangement in them of the tubular rods supporting the spirals. The tubular rods supporting the spirals of the electric heater are made out of the mullitesiliceous ceramics. The technical result of the invention is improvement of the quality of the articles treated in the furnace with simultaneous improvement of the process of heating of the furnace, the air ventilation and circulation.
EFFECT: the invention ensures improvement of the quality of the articles treated in the furnace at simultaneous improvement of the process of heating of the furnace, the air ventilation and circulation.
8 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: foundry, centrifugal casting in particular; manufacture of multi-layer vessels, pipe lines, bottles, connecting parts and other articles.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes placing the thermit mixture in cavities of article, followed by rotation, initiating of exothermic reaction, melting of thermit mixture, cooling of external surface of article and crystallization of molten thermit mixture. Thermit mixture contains additionally fluid material. Cooling of external surface of article is continued till temperature of its internal surface gets equal to melting point of metal of article.
EFFECT: reduced thickness of coat; improved control of heat removal.
FIELD: method of application of metal coats on detachable contact connectors.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method is used for stabilization of contact resistance of connectors at level of initial assembly during entire period of operation in parts made from copper, aluminum and their alloys during assembly, operation and repair of electrical plants and plants manufacturing electrical equipment. Proposed method includes cleaning and degreasing the contact surfaces, applying liquid flux on these surfaces, preheating the surfaces and applying the metal coat; preheating is continued to temperature of 40-45C; metal coat is applied by means of local contact fusion and gallium alloy having melting point not above 30C is applied as metal coat at thickness not exceeding 0.1 mm.
EFFECT: reduction of contact resistance.
6 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: electron-beam surfacing of flat and cylindrical surfaces, possibly manufacture of new parts and restoration of worn surfaces of parts operating at condition of intensified abrasive wear in combination with impact loads.
SUBSTANCE: in order to enlarge manufacturing possibilities of method, on surface of welded-on article melting zone by means of electron beam is created. Powder composition material for surfacing is fed to melting zone. Surfaced article is moved and powder material for surfacing is fed normally relative to motion direction of article. As coating is applied unfocused electron beam is used for acting upon surface of said coating without supply of material for surfacing. It provides separation of dispersed particles of strengthener from solid solution and formation of multimodal structure of surfacing along its whole thickness.
EFFECT: enlarged manufacturing possibilities of method.
1 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns method of operating layers receiving on surfaces of hollow barrels and can be used for bimetallic sleeves manufacturing with coating simultaneously on internal and external surfaces or only on external surface, and also for such details recovery. In detail wall there are implemented radial canals, then sintered batch is placed in its chamber. Detail is implemented lengthwise less than matrix length and installed with specified radial clearance into matrix by means of end cover with forming of end air clearances. Assembly is rotated about axis with simultaneous heating till mixture melting temperature. In covers there is implemented at least one hole connecting matrix chamber to atmosphere on radius equal to difference between external detail surface and hole. Heating is ended as only from hole it is start splash of melted metal.
EFFECT: covering refining at the expense of probable air inclusion formation in working layer of weld removal and discard is eliminated.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of coating on steel strip. Steel strip allows following composition, wt % C≤1.6, Mn 6-30, Al≤10, Ni≤10, Cr≤10, Si≤8, Cu≤3, Nb≤0.6, Ti≤0.3, V≤0.3, P≤0.1, B≤0.01, N≤1.0, iron and unavoidable admixtures - the rest. Primarily on steel strip it is applied aluminium layer, then it is implemented annealing, in process of which it is formed interlayer, consisting, mainly, from aluminium and iron, and it is coated molten metal, consisting of Al/Si-alloy, aluminium, zinc or zinc alloy.
EFFECT: obtaining steel strips with metallic coating, allowing high corrosion stability and well welding characteristics.
10 cl, 4 dwg