The method of thermal splitting of hydrocarbons, in particular, to obtain olefins, and installation for implementing the method

 

This invention relates to a method of thermal splitting of hydrocarbons, in particular, to obtain olefins. The method of thermal splitting of hydrocarbons, in particular, to obtain olefins are in the oven for cleavage of a mixture of hydrocarbons and water vapor when heated to 750 - 900oWith and formed containing hydrogen cracking gas at the time immediately after heating is cooled in the cooler for the cracking gas to a temperature of approximately 650oSince, in the presence of heavy products through rapid cooling is additionally cooled and then through branch free from heavy oil and gasoline. Of containing the light products of the cracking gas by rapid cooling to remove water vapor, condense using compressor to at least 20 bar, free by drying from the remnants of water, cooled in the installation of deep cooling and sent to separate light products in several distillation columns. If you look in the direction of flow of the technological environment, higher in the course of the stream from the installation of deep cooling, part of the hydrogen is extracted from the cracking of gas through the membrane by diffusion. Described also set the le=" page-break-before:always;">

The invention relates to a method of thermal splitting of hydrocarbons, in particular, to obtain olefins according to the restrictive part of paragraph 1 and to an apparatus for thermal cleavage of hydrocarbons, in particular, to obtain olefins according to the restrictive part of paragraph 7 of the claims.

Ethylene, propylene, butadiene and other olefins to form the basis of the modern organic chemical industry and, thus, are the basis for a number of chemical products such as synthetic materials, pharmaceutical and cosmetic products and so on

Obtaining olefins is carried out, among other things, in a known manner in thermal plants for splitting (steam cracking installation) by thermal cleavage of the gaseous feed materials, such as ethane, propane, LPG, or liquid feed materials, such as oil, gasoil and pre-processed foods from plants for hydrocracking. The process of splitting flows in the coils using the heated bottom wall or tube furnace burners for splitting. The mixture of hydrocarbons and water vapor rapidly heated to a temperature of 750-900ooC. Chilled cracking gas contains, along with the desired olefins other hydrocarbons and a significant proportion of hydrogen. After rapid cooling in the cooler for the cracking of gas with the use of liquid feed materials (they determine the presence of heavy products in the cracking gas should be cooled, for example, by means of the cooler with the injection of the cracking gas in the setting of rapid cooling and subsequent introduction into the distillation column for gasoline and heavy oil, and heavy products are separated from the cracking gas by using the above-mentioned components. Immediately after that, or when using gaseous feed materials the cracking gas is injected into the column for rapid cooling to remove water vapor and then compacted using a compressor, usually up to about 36 bar, free in the desiccant from residual moisture, cooled in the installation of deep cooling and sent to several distillation columns, and the installation of deep cooling of the separated hydrogen and distillation columns are separated individual products, such as, for example, ethylene and propylene. The volume fraction of hydrogen is after cooling, the cracking gas cooler for Kraken is the manual or in this known system for thermal cleavage of hydrocarbons, in particular, for obtaining olefins have been shown, unfortunately, that a high proportion of hydrogen in the cracking gas consumes a significant portion of the capacity of the compressor, and the cooling capacity in the installation of deep cooling, and due to the high volume of expenses column for the abrupt cooling water and, if available, distillation columns for gasoline and heavy oil are loaded.

From the publication WO 99/31201 And became a well-known method of producing olefins, in particular an improved method of separating olefins from containing olefins and hydrogen gases, which uses a combination of membrane separation and adsorption method with changing pressure. Get in the oven for splitting (furnace for cracking cracking-gas or the cracking effluent is served after a number of stages of the method on the membrane separator, from which the enriched hydrogen penetrating the gas flow (permeate) and a poor hydrogen-held gas flow (retentate). Then enriched with hydrogen penetrating the gas flow fed through the necessary in some circumstances, additional compressors in the system adsorption with changing pressure, whereby is created enriched hydrogen neabsorbiruemye flux is Laut hydrogenation, containing hydrocarbon products flow through the compressor is again fed to the membrane separator to separate the additional hydrogen from adsorbed flow and get more enriched hydrocarbon gas stream in the form of withholding material (retentate).

The disadvantage of this method is the fact that to get a poor hydrogen and enriched in olefins withholding stream along with the membrane separator requires additional costly system of adsorption with the change of pressure, and one or more additional compressors, so you can even remove a large part contained in the cracking gas of hydrogen from the cracking gas. With this increase, first, of the investment costs adsorption system with changing pressure and additional compressors and, secondly, the high operating costs for the above systems. On the other hand, if you do not use any compressor between the membrane separator and adsorption with pressure change, the pressure on the side of the penetrating gas membrane separator must be relatively high to be able to work effectively adsorption system with change of pressure. This, in turn, obuslovleno separator, which shall result in less penetration and separation of hydrogen.

The objective of the invention is a method and installation for thermal cleavage of hydrocarbons, in particular, to obtain olefins, or which are devoid of the above disadvantages.

The problem is solved in respect of the method in accordance with the distinctive signs of paragraph 1 of the claims and in respect of the installation in accordance with the hallmarks of paragraph 7 of the claims.

In the case of the method according to this invention, when viewed in the flow direction of the technological environment, upstream from the installation of deep cooling, part of the hydrogen is extracted by using a selective membrane diffusion from the cracking gas, or when installed in accordance with this invention, when viewed in the flow direction of the technological environment, upstream from the installation of deep cooling, placed working on the principle of membrane diffusion massoobmennykh for the selective extraction of hydrogen from the cracking gas. Thanks to this technical solution according to this invention also receive, in cooperation with the seal of the cracking gas using a compressor, and blood and consequently high efficiency extraction of hydrogen through the membrane by diffusion. As a result of this get a higher throughput of the cracking gas. Another advantage of the technical solution according to this invention is that the temperature of condensation of hydrocarbons by extraction of hydrogen is shifted upward, so that the cracking gas should cool in the installation of deep cooling to very low temperatures. It is particularly preferable in that a gas compressor, installation of deep cooling and distillation columns for light products are among the most expensive components with the highest energy consumption of all thermal installation splitting, and through the above technical solutions, the efficiency of these components is significantly increased, and this can be improved the profitability of the entire installation.

By applying part of extracting the hydrogen massoobmennykh and using the full capacity of the compressor may increase the amount of the cracking gas and, consequently, the production of olefins. The same applies to all other devices on the cold side of thermal installation splitting (cracking-installation). DOPOLNITEL obtaining very pure hydrogen, which has a very good market prospects.

Preferably the hydrogen is extracted from the cracking gas, when viewed in the flow direction of the technological environment, inside thermal installation for splitting directly after cooling, the cracking gas cooler the cracking gas. Using this technical solution, the volume of gas downstream from the cooler cracking gas becomes smaller for all components, i.e., these components can be smaller or when the initial value of possible increased throughput of the cracking gas.

Another advantage is that the extraction of hydrogen from the cracking gas, when viewed in the flow direction of the technological environment, occurs upstream from the compressor to improve the efficiency of this component is installed.

In a preferred embodiment of the method according to this invention flushing environment reduces the partial pressure of the extracted hydrogen and outputs it. Particularly preferred may be that as a flushing medium used coolant or cooling medium that simultaneously with the extraction of hydrogen from the cracking of gas causes poiavlenia hydrogen is improved hydrogen diffusion through the membrane wall and the separation efficiency of hydrogen and therefore, the efficiency of the whole installation is increased.

In the installation according to this invention massoobmennykh preferably connected directly after cooler cracking gas. It can be in the following preferred embodiment, when viewed in the flow direction of the technological environment, placed upstream from the compressor.

In a suitable implementation of massoobmennykh installation according to this invention has at least one flow channel and in each case at least one input and output for the cracking of gas, at least one flow channel and in each case at least one inlet and outlet for a flushing medium, one common separating the cracking gas and the washing medium and the flow channels for the cracking of gas and wash environment of the membrane wall, which forms at least part of a wall of a flow channel for the cracking of gas and wash environment at least one section of the membrane wall is made in the form suitable for hydrogen diffusion section. In this membrane or membrane wall (or membrane wall when multiple channels flows for the cracking of gas and/or wash medium) massoobmennykh made before the ceramic material of the membrane or membrane wall is made of macroporous material based on aluminum oxide or other oxide ceramics (base layer) and one microporous layer based on silicon or on a different basis. This microporous layer may be in the form of a catalyst, to be able to influence, through a catalytic process for cracking gas. For example, hydrogenation of the double-olefins (acetylenes) can be influenced by means of palladium.

In a preferred embodiment, the installation according to this invention massoobmennykh working with the coolant or cooling medium as a flushing medium. At the same time there is an indirect heat exchange between the cracking gas and coolant or cooling medium and mass transfer in the form of extraction of hydrogen from the cracking gas. The extracted hydrogen is removed by a coolant or cooling medium and the heat transfer medium or cooling medium may also as a flushing medium to reduce the partial pressure of hydrogen.

Further, it is reasonable to provide massoobmennykh bypass device to be provided in this invention a system for thermal cleavage of hydrocarbons, in particular, to obtain olefins, in certain industrial situations, such as when removing coke, disable massoobmennykh and to separate it from the gas stream.

This invention must be the i.i.d. thermal installation splitting (the cracking unit) according to this invention.

Fig.2 represents the same, but in an alternative implementation.

Fig. 3 represents the mass transfer apparatus in the form of a tubular massoobmennykh.

Fig. 1 shows a schematic and simplified representation sequential olefin production in thermal installation for degradation (cracking). Gaseous downloadable products or substances, such as ethane, propane, LPG, or liquid loaded substances such as oil, gas oil, and pre-processed products from hydrocracking units served in a tubular furnace for cracking 2 thermal cracking-plant 1 and it is thermally broken down. In a tubular furnace for cracking 2 hydrocarbon (downloadable substance) together with primitively water vapor (originating from external or internal education vapor) rapidly heated to a temperature of 750-900oC, and the fission process occurs in the coils heated bottom wall or burner tube furnace for cracking 2. Formed with a cleavage reaction in a tubular furnace for cracking 2 the cracking gas is at high temperature splitting of chemically unstable and quickly cooled in a cooler cracking gas 3 within milliseconds below leinani well as other hydrocarbons and a significant proportion of hydrogen. Depending on the loaded substance volume fraction of hydrogen in the cracking gas is the after cooler cracking gas 4-25%.

Received the cracking gas with its share of hydrogen immediately after its exit from the cooler cracking gas 3 served in the mass transfer apparatus 4. Mass transfer apparatus 4, which is described later, extracts or extracts from the cracking gas of the hydrogen, but it is desirable to be extracted from the cracking gas, at least 30% of the total content of hydrogen. Depending on the location of the mass transfer apparatus 4, or downloaded from the substance, or from properties of the membrane for diffusion of gases from the cracking gas can be extracted amount of hydrogen up to 50% and much higher amounts in the calculation of the total hydrogen content.

After rapid cooling in the cooler cracking gas 3 and the extraction of part of the hydrogen pessoalmente 4 is followed by a cooling in the application of liquid loaded substances (they determine the presence of heavy products in the cracking gas), for example, by means of the cooler with the injection of the cracking gas in the abrupt cooling device 5 and the subsequent introduction into the distillation column for gasoline and heavy oil, and heavy products are separated from the cracking gas pralow the cracking gas is introduced into the column 7 for rapid cooling to remove water vapor and then compacted by means of the compressor 8, typically, up to about 36 bar - it is advisable to at least 20 bar, free in the dehydrator 9 from residual moisture, cooled in the installation of deep cool 10 and sent to several different distillation columns 11, and the installation of deep cool 10 is separated residual hydrogen and in distillation columns 11 are separated individual products, such as, for example, ethylene and propylene.

By extraction of hydrogen from the cracking of gas decreases, the volume of the cracking gas to parts of the installation downstream from massoobmennykh 4, and all components downstream from massoobmennykh 4 may either be smaller, or find now a higher throughput for the cracking of gas. The required power of the compressor sealing 8 decreases significantly advantageous way. Next, the required cooling capacity by extraction of hydrogen condensing temperature of the hydrocarbon is displaced upwards and the cracking gas should not be so deeply to cool in the installation of deep cool 10 is significantly reduced. Thanks to the use of massoobmennykh 4 and using the full capacity of the compressor can be increased, the number of the cracking gas and, therefore, also PR and splitting 1 (cracking-installation). A further advantage of the method according to the invention or the installation according to this invention can be obtaining very pure hydrogen, which has a very good market prospects.

For extraction of hydrogen exchanger substances 4, which if necessary can be identified also massoobmennikov (see "mass exchange"), can be formed from many suitable for hydrogen diffusion membranes (separation wall) or membrane tubes 14 and, for example, can be formed and can be operated according to Fig.3, as a tubular heat exchanger.

Such membranes or membrane tube 14, is suitable for the selective diffusion of hydrogen, known on the market. They allow to separate or extract the hydrogen from the gas mixture on the principle of membrane diffusion (also often known as diffusion through the separation wall, or gas diffusion, or diffusion through the micropores). Hydrogen, which diffuses through the membrane or membrane tube 14 based on the difference of partial pressures, is removed from the environment, which is in the form of a space separated from the cracking of gas through a membrane or membrane tubes 14 environment pessoalmente 4. This environment can be Ave is in the mass 4 with the membrane tubes 14 of the cracking gas may be injected into the membrane tube 14 or the outside of the membrane tube 14 inside massoobmennykh 4.

Fig.3 shows schematically and simplified depicted as an example tubular massoobmennykh with multiple membrane tubes 14, which form the flow channels 15. The cracking gas flows through the inlet 17 and the flow channels 15 to the outlet 18. In this part of the hydrogen diffuses through the membrane tube 14 and is removed with washing medium in the flow channels 16. An alternative can also wash medium introduced through the membrane tube 14, and the cracking gas through the flow channels 16 (items in parentheses).

It is advisable to form a membrane or membrane tube 14 of a ceramic material, since this material has proved particularly suitable for this application, since the ceramic membrane in comparison with the technological environment are insensitive to temperature, insensitive to alkali and acids and chemically stable. Ceramic membranes or membrane tube 14 can be made of macroporous material based on aluminum oxide or based on other oxide ceramics and of the microporous layer, for example based on silicon. The microporous layer can act as a catalyst.

Fig. 2 shows schematically the technical solution according to the managing flow technological environment, located directly upstream from the installation of deep cooling 10. This placement according to this invention finds advantage in that the cracking gas is clean and does not contain water, that through this and through the compressor seal the partial pressure of hydrogen is high, and the throughput for the cracking of gas is higher, or when the same bandwidth massoobmennykh 4 may be smaller in its size.

In contrast to the arrangement according to Fig.2 massoobmennykh 4 may be, for example, is located between column for rapid cooling 7 and the compressor 8. After the separation of water vapor in the rapid cooling 7 hydrogen has a higher partial pressure, and this makes possible a more efficient diffusion of hydrogen through the membrane or membrane tube 14 massoobmennykh 4 or the use of massoobmennykh 4 smaller.

For specific industrial cases, such as, for example, removing coke from thermal installation splitting 1, it can be performed with the surrounding massoobmennykh 4 gas bypass device. Then, for example, you can pokrywanie of massoobmennykh 4 can be performed for example, by means not illustrated in more detail flap or flap.

Removes a hydrogen environment in pessoalmente 4 may be after the capture of hydrogen cleaned and put into circulation, or may be submitted for further destination.

For a list of symbols 1 thermal cleavage (cracking) 2 tube furnace for cracking 3 Cooler cracking gas 4 Massoobmennykh 5 installing the rapid cooling (condensation of heavy products) 6 Distillation columns for separation of heavy oil and gasoline) 7 Column for rapid cooling (removal of hydrogen) 8 Compressor
9 Dehydrator
10 Installing deep freeze
11 of the Distillation column (distillation column)
12 bypass device
14 Membrane tube
15 the flow Channel (for the cracking of gas)
16 Channel flow (flushing medium or coolant or cooling medium)
17 Input (for the cracking of gas)
18 Output (for the cracking of gas)
19 Input (for flushing medium or coolant or cooling medium)
20 Output (for flushing medium or coolant, or coolant)l


Claims

1. The method of thermal degradation of hydrocarbons in cast is sup>oWith cooling immediately after heating the resultant hydrogen cracking gas to a temperature below approximately 650oWith the cooler for the cracking of gas; subsequent, in the presence of heavy products, extra sharp cooling, separation of heavy oil and gasoline; removal of water vapor from the containing light products of the cracking gas through a sharp cooling, compression cracking gas compressor to at least 20 bar, including the dewatering of the cracking gas from residual moisture, cooling it in the installation of deep cooling; the separation of light products in several distillation columns; the extraction of hydrogen from the cracking of gas through a selective membrane diffusion, characterized in that the extraction of hydrogen through a selective membrane diffusion are upstream technological environment from the installation of deep cooling.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the extraction of hydrogen from the cracking gas is carried out directly after cooling in the cooler for the cracking of gas.

3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the extraction of hydrogen through a selective membrane diffusion are upstream technologicallymediated the partial pressure of the extracted hydrogen and removes it.

5. The method according to one of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that as a flushing medium used heating or cooling medium that simultaneously with the extraction of hydrogen from the cracking of gas through heat exchange causes heating or cooling the cracking gas.

6. The method according to one of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that the by-pass device of the cracking gas is sent by a device for the extraction of hydrogen.

7. Installation for thermal cleavage of hydrocarbons, in particular, to obtain olefins, containing in the direction of flow of the technological environment of the furnace for heating the mixture of hydrocarbons and water vapor up to 750-900oWith her cleavage, the cooler the cracking gas to a temperature below approximately 650oWith that setting for the dramatic cooling of the cracking gas, in the presence of heavy products, distillation columns for the separation of heavy oil and gasoline, the column of rapid cooling to remove water vapor and water, a compressor for compressing the cracking gas to at least 20 bar, and contains a desiccant to remove residual moisture, the installation of deep cooling, multiple distillation columns for separating light product gas, characterized in that massamont, working on the principle of membrane diffusion, is located upstream of the technological environment from installation for deep cooling.

8. Installation according to p. 7, characterized in that massoobmennykh connected directly to the coolant cracking gas.

9. Installation according to p. 7, characterized in that massoobmennykh, when viewed in the flow direction of the technological environment, is located upstream from the compressor.

10. Installation according to one of paragraphs. 7-9, characterized in that massoobmennykh contains at least one flow channel and at least one input and output for the cracking of gas, at least one flow channel and at least one input and output for the flushing medium, one separating the cracking gas and wash environment and common flow channels of the membrane wall, which forms at least part of the wall of the flow channel, and at least one section of the membrane wall is constructed in a form capable of hydrogen diffusion section.

11. Installation according to p. 10, characterized in that the membrane or membrane wall massoobmennykh formed from a ceramic material.

12. Installation according to p. 11, characterized in that formed from keramicheskoj the or other oxide ceramics and microporous layer based on silicon or on a different basis.

13. Installation according to p. 12, characterized in that the microporous layer of ceramic material of the membrane or membrane wall is simultaneously executed as a catalyst.

14. Installation according to one of paragraphs. 7 to 13, characterized in that massoobmennykh operated with a heating or cooling medium as a flushing medium.

15. Installation according to one of paragraphs. 7 to 14, characterized in that massoobmennykh made with bypass device on the side of the strip.

 

Same patents:

Way delayed coking // 2201954

The invention relates to systems for cleaning the reaction apparatus used in the processes of thermal cracking and visbreaking of crude oil

The invention relates to the refining industry and can be used in the distillation of petroleum with obtaining distillate fuel fractions destination and VAT residue

The invention relates to the refining industry and can be used in the distillation of petroleum with obtaining distillate fuel fractions destination and VAT residue

The invention relates to the field of oil refining

The invention relates to methods for motor and marine fuels and can find application in petrochemical industry

The invention relates to the processing of residual oil with getting fuel boiler directly on the vacuum distillation

The invention relates to the refining, in particular to the reaction apparatus used in the processes of thermal cracking and visbreaking of crude oil

FIELD: organic chemistry, oil.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to methods of high-viscosity oil treatment in fields before transportation through pipelines, specifically to methods of oil viscosity reduction. Methods of oil viscosity reduction includes cyclic delivery of liquid oil to hydrodynamic treatment zone, where oil is pressured characterized by constant axial shift component and variable cross shift component, post-treatment oil temperature measurement. To provide irreversible viscosity reduction pressure treatment of oil is performed with heat removal to stabilize oil temperature within temperature range, but not lower than temperature rise of which causes insignificant oil viscosity reduction and not higher than oil boiling point. Oil viscosity is measured after pressure treatment. Pressure treatment is finished as oil viscosity stabilizes. Technical result is provision of irreversible oil viscosity reduction.

EFFECT: provision of irreversible oil viscosity reduction.

1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of processing a product stream from an autothermal cracking process, said product stream containing one or more olefins, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and one or more oxygenates, and in which oxygenates are present in the product stream before processing with overall concentration from 100 to 5000 parts per million by weight. Said method involves: (a) contacting the product stream with an aqueous stream containing at least one compound selected from substances which can have the following formulae: (1) H2N-OR1, (2) H2N-NR2R3, in which R1 is selected from H and carbon-containing substitutes; R2 is H; R3 is a ketyl group of formula C(O)NR4R5, in which R4 is H or alkyl and R5 is H, alkyl, or NH2; for selective removal of oxygenates in the presence of carbon dioxide, and (b) subsequently passing the processed stream from step (a) in order to remove oxygenates in a system for removing carbon dioxide based on an amine in order to remove carbon dioxide from the stream. The invention also relates to a method of producing olefins via autothermal cracking of hydrocarbon raw material involving the method described above.

EFFECT: present methods provide an alternative to the current process of removing oxygenates.

5 cl, 5 ex, 5 dwg

FIELD: petroleum processing.

SUBSTANCE: petroleum products are heated in tubular furnace and decomposition products are additionally held in external reaction chamber. Heating of reaction mixture in tubular furnace is accomplished at temperature and pressure corresponding to inhibition parameters of petroleum product decomposition reaction assuring, after dropping pressure at the outlet of furnace, transfer of the reaction mixture into accessible overheating state followed by transferring molecules of the most temperature-resistant petroleum product components into non-associated state during decomposition proceeding in reaction chamber. Cracking installation comprises heating furnace and external reaction chamber communicating over throttle reactor in the form of hydraulic resistance device allowing drop of pressure at the outlet of furnace and feeding cracking process-intensifying homogenous additives into reaction zone of external reaction chamber.

EFFECT: increased yield of desired volatile fractions from heavy petroleum products.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: petrochemical processes.

SUBSTANCE: hydropyrolysis of hydrocarbon feedstock is effected in tubular pyrolysis furnace in presence of steam and hydrogen. Hydrocarbon feedstock is, in particular, a mixture of gasoline and hydrogenated C9+-fraction of liquid pyrolysis products isolated as side-cut distillate from bottom residue obtained in fractionation of C6-C10+-fraction of liquid pyrolysis products to produce benzene-toluene fraction, the two mixture components being taken at weight ratio (70-80):(20-30), respectively. Molar ratios hydrogen/hydrocarbon feed and hydrogen/C9+-fraction are (1-3):1 and (5.3-15.85):1, respectively.

EFFECT: increased yield of benzene-toluene fraction and benzene content in aromatic fraction of liquid pyrolysis products.

1 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: heat supply.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of the heat supply industry and is intended for preparation of fuel, in particular, petroleum for use in the boiler rooms being a source of a heat supply of remote settlements. The installation contains: a heater-evaporator, a heat exchanger for heating up a feed stock, the fuel feed stock pump and containers of the feed stock and collection of the light fractions. At that the installation is supplied with the second feed stock pump and three in series connected to each other heat exchangers of the light fractions condensation, the first and second feed stock pumps are connected by their inlets to a feed stock container. The outlet of the first feed stock pump is connected through the feed stock heating up heat exchanger to the heater-evaporator, which by its vapors outlet is connected to the first out of three in series connected to each other heat exchangers, the last of which is connected to its container of the light fractions condensate collection. The outlet of the second feed stock pump is connected in parallel to the heat exchangers of condensation of the light fractions and through them to the heater-evaporator. Each of heat exchangers in parallel connected to each other is supplied with a thermoregulator to keep in it a constant temperature of condensation of the light fractions vapors. The first and second of in series connected heat exchangers are connected through the placed in the feed stock container coiled pipes each to its container of the light fractions collection. The heater- evaporator through the feed stock heating up heat exchanger is connected to the container for fuel collection. In the result the invention allows to upgrade quality of the fuel preparation for the boiler plants at simultaneous production of several light fractions of the feed stock, mainly petroleum. The invention ensures improvement of the quality of the fuel preparation for the boiler plants at simultaneous separate production of several light fractions of a feed stock, mainly petroleum.

EFFECT: the invention ensures improvement of the quality of the fuel preparation for the boiler plants at simultaneous separate production of several light fractions of the feed stock, mainly petroleum.

1 dwg

FIELD: petroleum processing and petrochemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to low-size apparatuses for production of light and heavy petroleum products from petroleum feedstock. Plant comprises heat-insulated evaporation vessel provided with electroheating ring, heat-exchanger coupled with evaporation vessel, petroleum product storage vessel, and valves, said evaporation vessel is provided with secondary heating ring and said heat-exchanger is constituted by two different-volume vessels, which are connected over coils to petroleum product storage vessel also provided with heating ring. Minor heat-exchange vessel communicates with evaporation vessel space through perforated pipe and major one communicates with evaporation vessel and minor heat-exchange vessel through pumps.

EFFECT: simplified structure and increased output of motor distillates.

1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: petrochemical industry, chemical technology.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for preparing lower olefins with the enhanced content of propylene and aromatic hydrocarbons. Method involves pyrolysis of hydrocarbon raw in tube furnace in the presence of steam at temperature 730-890°C with ethane and/or ethylene and methane as additives. Addition of ethane and/or ethylene and methane in the mass parts of components = (0-0.2):(0.1-0.9):(0.05-0.66) is used in the amount up to 55 wt.-%. Method provides increasing yield of propylene without significant change in the yield of the total yield of lower olefins and benzene-toluene-xylene fraction as compared with pyrolysis of raw under the same conditions but without additives of abovementioned hydrocarbons.

EFFECT: improved preparing method.

1 tbl, 18 ex

FIELD: thermal pyrolysis of hydrocarbon raw material; chemical and petrochemical industries; production of lower olefins in tubular furnaces.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in preliminary thermal pyrolysis of directly-distilled gasoline fraction in tubular furnace at temperature of 825-835°C continued for 24-320 h, contact time of 0.4-0.5 s and ratio of water steam=1.0:0.4-0.5 followed by thermal pyrolysis of light hydrocarbon raw materials, for example alkanes C2-C4 in the same coils of tubular furnace at temperature 835-845°C, contact time of 0.4-0.5 and mass ratio of water steam= 1.0:0.3-0.4. Proposed method makes it possible to increase inter-regeneration time of furnace, thus increasing yield of ethylene and propylene due to deposition of amorphous isotropic coke on inner walls of coils.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

2 cl, 1 tbl, 7 ex

FIELD: methods of thermal pyrolysis of hydrocarbon raw materials in tubular furnaces; chemical and petrochemical industries.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes preliminary thermal pyrolysis of liquid hydrocarbon raw material at 820-835°C continued for 48-120 h at contact time of 0.4-0.6 s and mass ratio of water steam=1:0.40-0.65. Subsequent joint thermal pyrolysis of gaseous hydrocarbons and liquid hydrocarbon raw material is performed at content of 5-15 mass-%, temperature of 830-840°C, contact time of 0.4-0.5 s and mass ratio of water steam=1:0.60-0.65. Used as gaseous hydrocarbons is mixture of hydrocarbons C2-C4 of the following composition, mass-%: methane, 0.01-0.20; ethane, 0.85-1.25; propane, 60.00-97.00; sum of C4-1.50-30.00; used as liquid hydrocarbon raw material is directly-distilled gasoline fraction at boiling limits of 28-160°C. Proposed method ensures increased yield of lower olefins C2-C3 due to increased degree of conversion of light hydrocarbon alkanes C2-C4.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of thermal pyrolysis process.

2 cl, 1 tbl, 8 ex

FIELD: petroleum processing.

SUBSTANCE: process comprises heating heavy petroleum residue to visbreaking temperature, ageing visbreaking products in adiabatic tubular reaction (with length-to-diameter ratio above 200) to produce gas, gasoline fractions, and visbreaking residue. To control extent of the process and degree of viscosity fall for visbreaking residue, carrying gas, in particular water steam or inert gas, is introduced into reactor. Process allows production of fuel oil from black oil.

EFFECT: reduced rapidity of coke formation in reactor, simplified cleaning or reactor walls, and enabled visbreaking extent control.

3 cl, 1 tbl, 6 ex

FIELD: processes for pyrolysis of light raw materials.

SUBSTANCE: method is realized in pyrolysis furnace designed for heavy raw material. Method comprises steps heating raw material in convection zone; then heating product of convection zone in cracking zone where raw material is converted to products with lower boiling points; cooling product in cracking zone; separating cooled product to several final products. Light raw material is fed through charging opening in convection zone; remaining light raw material is fed to convection zone together with rarefying gas.

EFFECT: possibility for processing different type of raw materials if necessary in the same furnace.

8 cl, 1 dwg

Up!